Skip to main content

Full text of "The British empire in America, : containing the history of the discovery, settlement, progress and present state of all the British colonies, on the continent and islands of America. In two volumes. Being an account of the country, soil, climate, product and trade of them, viz. Vol. I. Newfoundland, New-Scotland, New-England, New-York, New-Jersey, Pensylvania, Maryland, Virginia, Carolina and Hudson's-Bay. Vol. II. Barbados, St. Lucia, St. Vincents, Dominico, Antego, Montserrat, Nevis, St. Christophers, Barbuda, Anguilla, Jamaica, the Bahama and Bermudas Islands. With curious maps of the several places done from the newest surveys."

See other formats








The Britifli Empire 



The HISTORY of the Difcovery, Settle- 
ment, Progrqfs and prefent State of all the 

&}itity Colonies, 

O N T H E 

Continent and Iflands of America. 


Bging an Account of the Country, Soil, Cli- 
mate, Produd and Trade of them, Viz. 

I Vol. I. Carcjirg 
Tewfoundlandy ;< 

^New-Scotland, Hudfons-Bay. 
New- England, Vol.IL 

New-Tor^ Barbados, 

New-Jerfey, St. Lucia, 

Fenfyl'vania, St. Vincents, 

Maryland, Dominico, 

Virginia, Antego, 

With curious Maps of the feveral Places., done from 
the neweft Surveys. By Herman Moll, Geographer. 


St. Chriflophers 
The Bahama 
and \ 


LONDON, Printed for John Niclwifon at the King's Arms in 
Little Britain, Benjamin Tooke at the Middle-Temfte-Gate, 
Fleetpeet, and Richard Parker and Ralph Smith under the 
Piazza of the Royal Exchange. 1708. 





1 N 

Cambridge/hire, Efq; 

NOthing had been more prepofterous, 
than to have addrefs'd the Hiftory 
of the Britifli Weft-Indies to a Gentle- 
man who has no Intereft there. Such 
a one would have look'd upon this Defign with 
that Contempt or Negled: which is ever the 
Effe&of Ignorance and Prejudice. 

But you, Sir, who are fo confiderable a Pro- 
prietor > both in England and Barbados, are 
the beft Judge how far this Treatife may bs 
A z ufe- 





.ufeful and entertaining to the Englifi Reader 
in this Mland and that. Your Authority will be 
fufficient to proted it, as well in America as in 
Europe. For none in England will imagine 
I durft offer Falfities for Fad to you, who from 
your own Knowledge could eafily deted them ; 
and none in the Plantations will be fevere in 
their Cenfures upon a Work which comes forth 
under the Patronage of one of their greateft 
Names. Whatever Hardfhips our American Co- 
lonies, efpecially the Elands, have met with 
at home, nothing has ever been able to make 
their Loyalty to the Crown of England, or their 
Affedion for the People. They have ever been 
zealous for the Service of the Prince, and as 
hearty for that of the Publick. 

*Tis thefe Principles that procured you the 
general Voice of the County where you refide, 
to reprefent them in the Parliament of Great- 
Britain. 'Tis thefe Principles that will always 
render you ufeful to the Common-wealth, the 
Glory of your Native Country, and the De- 
light of ours. 

Among the Scandal which the Enemies of 
the Plantations malicioufly throw upon them, 
one is, The vulgar Defcent of the Inhabitants, 
which is as ridiculous as unjuft ; for if by their 
Prudence and Induftry rtiey have rais'd 
Fortunes, that might ennobl^ them, if they 
have Senfe to acquire Eftates, and Souls to en- 
joy them ,• is not that really true Nobility, 
and that which is deriv'd from a long Roll of 
jincejlry, and enjoy'd without any other Rea- 
fon and Merit, falfe and chimerical ? I fay this 
with the more Freedom to you, Sir, for that 
with the Advantages of Fortune you have the 
Happinefs to be defcended from one of the 
molt ancient and honourable Families in Eng- 
land, which has furnifh'd the Law with fo 




many Ornaments, the Courts with fo many 
Judges, the Chancery with a Lord-Keeper, 
which lately reprefented two Counties in 
Parliament ; and was always full of He-, 
roes, and Patriots. It cannot therefore be 
thought, that I have vindicated the Characters 
of the Gentlemen of the Wefi-rlndies, to make 
my Court to you ; but to do Juftice to that 
Uorth, which is always noble in the Eyes of 
Men of Reafon and Modefty : And tho there is 
no Herald-Office, no Court of Arms in Bar- 
bados, it may be faid, without Flattery or Var 
nity, there is no Trading County in England 
of that Extent, where there are fo many Gen- 
tlemen of fo good Eftates, and fo good Fami- 

What other Prejudices have been rais'd by the 
Enemies of the Plantations againft their Interefl 
and Reputation, will,'tis hop'd, in the Opinion 
of the Impartial, be remov'd by the Introdutti- 
on ; but the Hiftorian would not here trou- 
ble you with fuch an unreafonable Controverfy, 
which rather deferves your Contempp than 


The Parliament, of which you were a Mem T 
ber,have lately done feveral things for theirEafb 
and Advantage ; and if there were more Gen- 
tlemen, concern'd to promote their Welfare, 
who would, with the fame publick Spirit, main- 
tain it in that Affembly^ there's no doubt, but 
fo juit a Body would foon redreis all their Grie- 
vances, and they would again flourifh as before 
they were opprefs'd by the late Impofitions, 
which have redue'd them to their prefent lowE- 

Addreffes of this Nature have fo long lain 

under the Reproach of Infincerity and Adula- 

A % tior^ 

= ! 

tion, that the Charter of a. Man of Worth 
and Honour fuffers by appearing in this Man- 
ner but there are certain Qualities fo confpi- 
cuousin tnemfelves, fo univerfally known and 
ojSXm and vet fo rarely to be met with, that 
wtn they abound, 'tis aZlnjuftice to Mankind 
m mf 'em by in Silence: For it the felfifli Spi- 
Stft p^nls in Court, City, and Country 
wer° without Exception, , the Race of Men 
S* the moft fordid and wortMefs of the 
Creation. The rare and amiable Qualities 
' we are "peaking of, are fuch as your Love for 
vour Country, your Affeaion for your Friends, 
Ind you " Humanity to all ; your free ufe of the 
CoXof Fortune, whichis worthyof the Gtefc- 
\ , ous Stock from whence you fprung ; and what- 

ever might be added to fuch a Charter as this, 
would meet with Credit for the fake of fuch 
Goodnefs ; but tho there may be much fcd 
] of Yours without offending the Truth of Hi- 

ftory, yet I forbear, knowing it might be fuf- 
pefted in this Place. I therefore conclude with 
denrine vour Proteaion for the following; Hi- 
ftofy' g and Permiffion to fubfcribe my felf with 



Tour moft Humble, and 
moft Obedient Servant, 

J. Oldmixpn. 



THE Author is apprehenfive that this Un- 
dertaking will meet with many Cm-* 
funs, rats' d by the Frejudice of fonts 
Readers, and the Ignorance of others : 
The Candid and Impartial will, 'tis hop d, find juf- 
fcient Memoirs to entertain them with Pleajure -and, 
fuch Faults as may haw been committed through Mis- 
information, they will excufe, when they confider what 
J difficult Task the Hifiory of the Bntifh Weft- 
Indies mufi be to an Hifiorian, that never was tn 

IvhaUver particular Account has been, or might be 
riven of any one of our Colonies, tis impojfibk, un- 
lefs Men of Intereft and Capacity would write tt 
en the Spot, for an exaB Hifiory of all the Brmih 
Empire .in ^Weft-Indies to be fram d by one Man 
in America or Europe, but he mufi inevitably be 
witty of Errors, which will find Matter enough for 
the Criticks to exercife their HI Nature upon It will 
therefore be {aid, fuch a Defign as this jhould be un- 
dertaken in the Plantations ; and fince it is Jo rea- 
dable and fo ufeful, why has it not been done? 
There's none can tell better than the Pinter of thn 
Hifiory, who mufi injufihe to him fdf own that 
tbi he believes aU who look over his Work ^d know 
any thing of the Subjetl of it will rather wonder 
they meet with fo much, than fo hide wit ; ya he 
has found his Indufiry to inform hmjelf fully ofag 

The P R E F A C E. 

tatls relating to the Colonies more unfuccefsful than 
ite expected : People -were jhy, and either did not think 
•what they knew was worth telling, or would not be 
at the Trouble to tell it. Enough will take this Charge 
to themfelves, who will prefently remember how much 
they were follicited by the Author for Memoirs_, and 
how negligent they were in furnijliing him, not to give 
their Negligence a harder Name,which it woud very 
well bear. 

In collecting thefe Materials, when he fometimes 
met with Perfons of a communicative Temper, he 
durft not depend entirely on their Sincerity, for Inte* 
reft always prevails over it. Every Province was 
the beft, the mo ft advantagiom, the mo ft inviting * 
and if he did not give that -Account of it, the Hiftory 
would be worth nothing. All thefe Perfons feemd to 
take no Notice of the Hiftorical Events ; thofe they 
ran over as fiightly, as if they had been of lefs Mo- 
went than they are. Some would have had them 
quite left out, and a Political Account only given of 
our Plantations. Others, who were for keeping in a 
few, ftill enlargd on the Advantages of their refpe-* 
Bive Settlements to England., the Fruit fulnefs and 
Charms of the Country they liv'd in, the Riches to be 
gotten there, and the Preference that ought to be given 
to each over the other ; and this the Author declares 
he met with in almoft all his Informations. What 
then had he to do ? Could it be expected that he jhould 
pleafe every one ? Would not the impartial Reader have 
been furprizjd to have found Hudfon'/ Bay prefer d 
to Carol ina., and Providence to Barbados ? For 
the Comparifons are alike unequal. ^Tjs true, 
when the Climate and the Soil would net bear a Pa- 
rallel, they turnd the Advantage on the fide of Com- 
merce, and always took Care to make their own the 
mo ft profitable. One who had known nothing of the 
Weft-India Trade., would have been imposed on by 
fuch Partiality -, but tho the Writer of this Hifto- 
ry never was out of Britain, yet there's no part of 



that Trade, with which he has not heen acquainted 
above twenty Tears ,• and he by that means knew if 
any thing was reprefented to him too favourably • and 
when he was ever fo little in the dark 3 he took all 
the Care he could to be enlightned. 

Some-Gentlemen he had the Happinefs to know, 
who were free and impartial $ and if they had had 
any Expectation offuch an, Hifiory, would have made 
Vrovifions for it when they were in America. The 
Historian mufi beg the Liberty of paying his public k 
Acknowledgments to fome of them, that the World 
may fee he does not publijh any thing which is not 
warranted by good Authority. 

To begin therefore with the Hifiory of Newfound- 
land. All the Account of its Trade and prefent State, 
was communicated to him by Mr. Newman, lately 
a Servant to his Grace the Duke of Somerfet, who- 
dwelt there as a Merchant feveral Tears. 

New-Scotland has fo little to be faid of it, that 
he was not at much Trouble about it ; There has hap- 
pened nothing memorable concerning it, which u not 
related here ; and the Hifiory of New-England, 
publijh'd by Mr. Cot. Mather, furnijh'd him with 
what Events he has mention d relating to that Colony. 

That Author being an Inhabitant of New-Eng- 
land, very particular and voluminous, one would 
have thought his Hifiory might have fupplfd ano- 
ther with Memoirs for as many Sheets, as all this 
Work contains ; yet there's no confiderable Action con- 
cerning the Governours or Government, which is in 
Mr. Mather'/, but this Hifiorian has included in 
his Hifiory, leaving his Puns, Anagrams, Aero - 
flicks, Miracles, Prodigies, Witches, Speeches, 
Epiftles, and other Incumber antes, to the Original 
Author, and his Admirers $ among whom, as an 
Hifiorian, this Writer is not fo happy as to be 

When he wrote of New- York, he corrected the 
Mifiakes ^hich others had led him into, by better 





Information from Capt. Congreve,, who has had a 

Command in the Regular Forces there fever al Tears. 

Mr. Dockwra and Dr. Cox were both fo kind 
as to inform him fully of the Jerfeys,, and M/. Pen 
did him the fame Favour for Penfylvania ; thofe 
three Gentlemen doing him the Honour to admit him 
into their Friendjhip. 

It will be fun in the Hiftory of Maryland, that 
he had not the fame Help for that Province • but hie 
Authorities are good, as far as they go. 

The Hiftory of Virginia is written with a great 
deal of Spirit and Judgment by a Gentleman of the 
Province, to whom this Hiftorian confeffes he is ve- 
ry much indebted -, but in fome Places he was fore a 
to leave him, to follow other Guides ; and whoever 
compares the one Hiftory with the other, will fee 
enough Difference to give that which is now publijh'd 
the Title of New. Several old Writers and modern 
Papers fell into this Author s Hands, which that 
Gentleman never faw : However he had fien and 
knew fo much, that by his AJJiftance, the Account of 
Virginia is one of the mo ft perfect of thefi Hiftories 
of our Plantations. 

For Carolina,, Mr. Archdale and Mr. Boone, 
of whom Mention is made in the Hiftory of that Co- 
lony, obliged him fo far, as to communicate feveral 
important Facts to him, and let him into the Rife 
and Caufes of the Differences among the People of that 
Province : They have alfo printed fome Tracts on the 
fame Subject, which were very ufeful to him: 

The Hiftory of Hudfon'* Bay may be depended 
upon, for the Author took it from Original Papers, 
he having in his Voffejfton the Journal of a Secre- 
tary of "the Factory, the Commiffions and Inftructions 
of fome of the Governours, and other Memoirs, out 
of all which he could gather no more, and does not 
believe that even by the Company's Books much more 
is to be gather d. The Reader will perceive he is not 
about looking into a fpurious Performance, nor that 



he will venture much in giving Credit to what he 
reads, fince there is no Difpute to be made of the 
Goodnefs of fuch Information ; from which the Hi- 
fiorian has deviated as feldom as was confiftent with 

Thus with much Tains and Care he went over the 
Britifh Empire on the Continent, which is 14 or 
if 00 Miles in Length, from 'the Northern Bounds 
of New-Scotland, to the Southern of Carolina^ 
befides the Traff known by the Name of Hudfon'* 
Bay, and another bordering on the River Miffifippi^ 
to which the Kings of England pretend, but there 
is no Notice taken of it in this Work, becaufe there 
never was any Settlement there, tho it has been at- 

This Country lies in Florida, Southward of Ca- 
rolina, and vj as granted by King Charles I. to the 
E. of Arundel, which Grant fome Years ago was af- 
fignd to Dr. Daniel Cox, and he is the Proprieta- 
ry. He gave it the Name <?/Carolana ; and in King 
William'* Reign fent two Ships thither, with 200 
"People, to make a Settlement, intending to profecute 
that Enterprise, by difpatching away more Ships with 
more People, over whom Sir William Waller was 
to have been Governour ; but the French dlfvurbing 
the firfi Adventurers, hinder d their fettling there y 
and this Part of the Engliih Territories in America 
is negleHed ; tho by the Situation it muft be very 
pleafant, and by the Defcription that the Author had 
given of it, "'tis one of the mofi amiable Places in 
the World. 

This Account was too little to be incerted particu- 
larly in the Hifiory, and befides the Writer heard of 
it too late ; as he did alfo of the Governments of 
Conne&icut and Rhode IJland, the latter of which 
it fecms is fill feparatt from that of New-England; 

About the Tear 1630, King Charles I. made a 
Grant to Robert Earl of Warwick, of that Part 
©/New-England, which lies and extends it felf 



xii The PREFACE. 

from a Riyer there, call'd Narragantfet, for the 
fpace of 40 Leagues, upon a ftrait Line near 
the Sea-fhore, towards the South- Weft, and 
by South or Weft, as the Coaft lies towards 
Virginia, accounting three Englijh Miles to the 
League ; and alfo all and fingular the Lands 
and Hereditaments lying and being within the 
Lands aforefaid, North and South, in Latitude 
and Breadth, and in Length and Longitude of, 
and within all the Breadth aforefaid, through- 
out the Main Lands there, from the Weftern 
Ocean to the South-fea, and all Lands, &c. 
Which Grant the Earl of Warwick made over to 
William Vifcount Say and Seale, Robert Lord 
Brooks, Robert Lord Rich, Charles Fiennes > 
Efq; Sir Nathaniel Rich, Sir Richard Salton- 
ftal, Richard Knightly, Efy; John Pym, Efy; 
John Hampden, EJy; John Humphry, Efy; and 
Herbert Pelham, Efy; As appears by a Copy of 
thePattent 3 bearing Date, Anno 16 31, which was 
[hewn the Hifiorian fince this Hiftory of New-Eng- 
land was printed • and he deftres the Reader to add 
it to that ^'Connecticut Colony in particular. He 
mentions it here the rather 9 becaufe it confirms what 
has been reported by federal Hifiorians, that Mr. 
Pym^ Mr. Hampden, Mr. Pelham, and other 
great Men in the long Parliament, were about tat. 
remove to New-England before the Alterations thai; 
happen d at home kept them here. This Colony of 
Connecticut furrenderd their Charter in i68§. and 
have holden no Courts fince. 

That of Rhode Ifland, where ftands the Town of 
Warwick^ is a Proprietary or feparate Government 
to this Day. To the Hiftory of New-England may 
be further added, that Mr. Bradftreet mention d 
in the following Pages, claim d the Country of Nar~ 
ragantfet, call'd the King's Province. But Wil- 
liam Stoughton, Efcn and Peter Bulkley, Efy; 
Agents for ^Maflachuiets^ difUimd it. The Sa- 


ehem of that Country formally furrender'd it in 1644. 
and afterwards in 1664. to King Charles IL which 
tntitVd the Crown of England to the Propriety. Ma- 
jor Atherfton is faid to have pure has 'd it, but that 
Pur chafe was declared 'void. The Magifirates of 
Rhode IJland were Jufiices of the Peace in Narra* 
gantfet, and there was a Settlement belonging to it 9 
caWd Providence Plantation. For a Letter was 
jhewn the Hiftorian/ra» K. Charles, directed, To the 
Governour of Rhode Ifland and Providence Planta- 

Mount Hope_, which is often mention* d in the 
Article of New-England^ was begged by Mr. 
John Cro^n_, who is famous for two excellent Co- 
medics written by him, call'd Sir Courtly Nice and 
the City Politicks. When his Petition was pre- 
fented to King Charles II. his Majefiy knew no- 
thing of the Country's being taken from the Sachem, 
Philip^ as he declares in the Letter, and wonders 
he Jhould have no better Information. This Mr. 
Crown'i Father was a Proprietary of Part t^.New- 
Scotlandj and he begg'd Mount Hope as a Satisfa- 
ction for his Lofs there, but he had never any Recom- 
pence for it, and indeed 'tis no hard Matter to cal- 
culate what a Country jhould be valud at that was 
never thought worth keeping or planting. 

This Digrefion is to render the Account of thofe 
Northern Parts of our American Continent as com- 
fleatas could be, and if the Gentlemen of the fever al 
Provinces will befoju[t to themfelves and this Dejign, 
as to communicate any farther Memoirs to the Author ± 
theyjhallbe inferted in their due Place, if this Treatije 
is printed again, and all the Errrors the Hiftorian 
has committed, be corrected. He hopes there will not 
he many material Ones, and recommends to the Ame- 
rican Readers, not to condemn him prefenth^ if they 
meet 'with things out of their Knowledge, but to 
fufpeel their own Judgment and Information, as well 
as his • for he treats of the Plantations hifiorically^ 





and was therefore to relate. Things paft as mil as 
frcfent, and 'twill be unjuft for any one to conclude^ 
they never were, becaufe they never heard of them, 
as too many will incline to do. 

His Author for that part of the Hifiory which 
may be calVd the Antiquities., was Mr. Delaet, 
whofe Character for Judgment and Care is allow d 
by the Learned and Experiencd. 'Tis true, the Affi- 
tiance he had from him was not very confiderable ; 
nor was what he found in Hackluit, Purchafe, or 
other CcUetlions of Voyages, much more to the Fur- 
pfe. Smith of Virginia and New-England gives 
abetter Account of that Fart of the Continent than 
am older Writer $ and thofe of foreign Countries knew 
fi little of our Colonies, that there are hot hiftorical 
Events in them relating to thofe Farts of America 
fufficient to fill a Sheet, unlefs he enter d into 
the Indian Stories, among which is much Fable and 
much Impertinence. 

There are fever al Famphlets in our Tongue in the 
Temple Library which he looKd over $ as alfo o- 
thers which he procurd elfewhere, and feveral Ac- 
counts tranfmitted to the Royal Society,, that fur- 
mjh'd him with better Materials than any of the 
Voyagers have publijh'd ; for in Hackluit'* Time 
little was known of our Frovinces. What is in his 
ColleBion is in this, and the whole has been perfeBed 
by Inquiries of Ferfons who have been on the Spot. 
Some of them have been namd, and the reft, tho they 
were not Ferfons of the fame \ Note, were of as 
good Credit. 

The Author declares once for all, that there is no 
part of this Hiftory which has not been Jhewn to 
Ferfons who have livd in thofe Farts of the World, 
and been approvd of by them, yet he is not fo vain 
as to imagine there are not feveral Faults, for it was 
impojjible to perform fuch a Work without it: All be 
hopes, is, there are fewer than will be expetted, to' 
getherwith much more Matter* 


Jis to our Iflands : Barbados, the chief of them, 
make* the chief Part of his Hiftory, and the Inhabi- 
tants of that fruitful and pleafant Ifland may take his 
cwn Word in mo ft Cafes, he having been for above 10 
Tea's converfant with their Affairs, andhptacon- 
ft ant Correfpondence with them. They will fee that he 
/peaks things of his own Knowledge ? And as to the 
Memoirs of Events which happen d before his Time % 
he had recourfe to the Papers of an eminent Merchant, 
Sir John Biwdon, his Vncle, with whom he liv'd, 
and might have made it much larger, if it would not 
have run out the Hiftory of Barbados to a Size very 
difproportionable to that of the other Hiflories. Li- 
gon is old, and his Geographical, and even Natural 
Account of the Ifl nd y differs very much from the 
prefent. His Description of Ingenious, of working 
Sugar, of chthing Ne & r>>es, and fever al other Things, 
fesms ftrange to an Inhabitant of the prefent Barba- 
dos ; neither does his Account of their way of Li~ 
ving, of the Vroduft of the Ifland, as the Trees, 
Plants, 8zc. agree better with the modern ones. AU 
the FaB in his Hi/lory will be found in this, and every 
thing which remains in the fame State as it was when 
he wrote. AU the reft is new, and taken from Origi- 
nal Manuferipts. The Hiftorian has been particular- 
ly diligent in his CoUtdhns and Inquiries concerning 
this Ifland, for he tahs it to be the moft benefici- 
al of any of our Colonies to England, Jamaica per- 
haps not exctpted. He has consulted fever al Per fons 
who have livd there, and communicated what he has 
done to them, that the Gentlemen of Barbados, fome 
of whom have done him the favour to place him in the 
Number of their Friends, may meet with nothing here 
which may in any wife injure his Reputation with them. 
All may not be pleased-, but if he has always been a 
fever e Obferver of Truth, let his free f peaking be ex- 
cused \ for fometimes he could not befo without it. He 
has not deftgnedly run into an Error, nor told a Fal- 
fity, to gain the good Will of any Man. Such a 





View ttoud have been as vain as it was bafe ; for 
where there are fo many tobe difpleas'd for the flea- 
Cm? of one, the Man muft have but a fmaU Portion of 
Senfe, as well as Integrity, that would famfice the 
CkaratJer of a faithful Biflorian to that of a wretched 
Batterer. He had many Opportunities to have J 'hewn 
avitious Complacency to other Mens lnterefis asbas 
been already hinted, if he could have been guilty of fo 
much Bafenefs -, an Jnftance of whehhe wttl relate to 
vvve the World an Idea of Mens Difpofittons m this 
Affair When he was once m Convention with a 
Gentleman, a Proprietary ^America, on the Sub- 
ieti of his Country there, he fumm d up all he had 
to tell him in this Rapture : Our Seas flow with 
JmUtgnafe j our Risers are almoft choak'd with 
Gold : and the worft Mineral we have, which we 
do not think worth takingup > Copper; for tis fo 
mar the Surface, that we may almoft b ftoop and 
have it This he introduced with a moft romantick Ac- 
count of the Situation of his Country the Groves ofO* 
rangcs y Forrefts of Cedar, the Fields of Spces,thefpat^ 
cus Plains, noble Harbours, and jo many other Advan- 
tages, that one could hardly believe he Me true 
Jm the Writer asUhim, how many Inhabitant 
There were, and he anfwefd, None ? Sme Gentle; 
\nen have not only recommended the Praife of their 
Province, butevenoftheirpartofit which was gene* 
rally done with fomuch Warmth, that they were im- 
mediately fufpcLd, and nothing of that Nature re- 
prtei Uicfwas not confirmed by Perfons of Inge* 
fiuity and Difinterefl. . _ 

As for the Leward Wands and Jamaica the Hi* 
dorian is not altogether unacquainted with thetr Con- 
cerns and h >s had fever al Manuscript Papers to refer 
to Bermudas he has faid little of; but as much of 
Providence as the Subjett would bear, having been 
very much affifted in it by Col. Trot, who was once 
Governour there,, 



To thefe Authorities he may add, Pere du 
Tertre'* Hiflory of the Charibbee - IJlands, Da- 
vis'* of Kidwelly, &c. but there was little to 
his Purpofe, except their Description of the Ani- 

The Maps are newly engraved ; and tho fome ef 
the Surveys are older than the Defcription given by 
the Hiftorian, yet there has been due Care taken 
in that Performance, and the neweft Surveys that 
. could be procur'd were made ufe of. Some Coun- 
ties and Parifhes may have been added in feveral 
Places, which are not mentioned in the Maps r 
though they are in the Book, which was occafiorid 
by the Nicenefs of the Engraver, not to add any 
thing by a verbal Defcription, for which he had 
not a regular Survey to authorize his Correclions. 
'Twas for this Reafon the Six New Counties in 
Virginia are omitted *, for though 'tis known 
where about they lye, yet unlefs they were furvefd^ 
to have incerted them, would have made the reft 
of the Map imperfecJ. As the Hiftorian defires 
the Gentlemen of the Welt-Indies to do for the 
Memoirs, the Geographer does the fame for the 
Maps j and if they will tranfmit any Obfcr- 
vations. Amendments, or Additions to be made 
to them, and will let him under (land how he 
may fafely do it, he wiU be careful to give them 

The Author having thus far given the Reader a 
View of his Work, recommends it to his Candour^ 
and defires him to weigh well the Difficulties of this 
Undertakings before he gives his Judgment. There 
is no Hiflofy of any Part of the Welt-Indies 
in any Language fo fuU and fo particular ; and 
there's no Mifiake, which he knows to be fuch, and 
has not already provided againft it, either in the 
Body of the Book, or the Preface, 

a Before 




Before he enters upon theHiftoryJoe thinks himfelf ob- 
ligd to remove fome general Objections to our Colonics $ 
for while they are left of any Weight in the Minds of 
"Men the "Author cannot expeft that this Work 
will he receivd with the Favour he might hope for^ 
after the Fains he hm tdhn to inform and pleafe hh 
Readers. "' 


1 .' 

. ! 

. " l 1 




'-.:'. ' ' 






■ . ■ ' 

'-, atsa^, ' 







The common Arguments again ft our Plan- 
tations in America, anjiver'd ; and the 
Advantages of them to England, afi 

TH E main Objection made by the E~ 
nemies of our Colonies againit them, 
is, That by draining England of her 
People, they weaken us at Home, 
and confequently are more hurtful than benefi- 
cial to the Kingdom. On this Argument are 
founded all their Reafbns to excufe the ill Ufage 
the Plantations have met with ; of which parti- 
cular Mention is made in the particular Hifto- 
ries of the Provinces ; we fhall therefore in this 
Place keep to the General Intereft, and fee how 
far the Obje&ion will hold good. 

'Tis laid, People are the Wealth of a Nati- 
on, and to take away their People is to impo- 
verifh them > thofe that fay it, mean only labo- 
rious and induftrious- People, and not iuch as 
have no Employ, or, which is worfe, are em- 
a a ploy'd 




ploy'd only in difturbing and robbing fuch as 
have any. If this is granted, as it always has 
been in this Controverfy, thofe who improve 
their Tallents to moll Advantage, are of moll 
Value to a Nation. A Man, whole Skill a- 
mounts to no more than to earn 3 d. a Day by 
his continual Labour, cannot add to the Wealth 
of fuch a Kingdom as England , becaufe it will 
not jiippiy his neceflary Gonfumption : How- 
ever even fuch a one is lefs a Burthen to it, 
than one totally idle. He who earns 6 d. a Day, 
and confumes juft fo much, is neither burthen- 
fome nor advantagious : But he who by his In- 
duftry and Labour, not only maintains himfelf 
and Family, but enriches them, is, to the Pro- 
portion of his Wealth, fo much Addition to the 
National Stock of the Kingdom. On the con- 
trary, he who labours not at all, orfo much as 
not to encreafe the National Stock of his Coun- 
try, is, to nfe an eminent Merchant's own 
Sir Dalby Words, juft good for nothing : He adds, To 
Thomas* l eaw this Truth 'plain beyond Difpute 3 I beg 

^/.{l d;c the Doubter but to confider. that if all the laborious 
of the fiije ■ r , - J ■> J 

f5 Growth >*copl>e of the Kingdom left workings and were to live 
of the W. cfi the Natural Produce of it } to be diftributed by 
India Co- %$fo in equal Proportions^ by ivaty of Charity^ as 
Parijh-Poor and Beggars are now Jupported } how 
hng it would be before the Nation became necejfitous, 
naked and fdrhjmgy and confe^uently the Land and 
Houfes worth nothing, 

"Many Reaforis may be urg'd to prove, that 
thelncreafe of People, wilfully or accidentally 
idle, is fo far from being National Riches, that 
it ! is the furefbahd fpeediell way to inevitable 
F<werty, and mult decay the Value of the Real 
iand Imaginary' Wealth of a Nation, proporti- 
onably to the Decay of Xnduitry : But this will 
Itefo readily co'nfented to, it would be im~ 




pertinent to enlarge upon it here. Who then 
will deny, That thofe Men who add moft, by 
their Labour, to tfcie intrinfick Wealth of the 
Nation, either Real or Imaginary, and con- 
fume leaft, are bed employ'd ? On the contra- 
ry, that thofe who confume moil, and add leaft, 
are the worft employ'd ? 5 Tis true, all who are 
not mifchievoufly employ'd,or totally idle,are of 
fome Benefit to the Common Wealth, and mould 
find due Encouragement ,• and thofe ought to 
be moll prote&ed, and leaft diicourag'd by the 
Laws, who are moft ufefuliy bufy'd for the in- 
creafing the Value -of the Real and Imaginary 
Wealth of the Nation. By Real Wealth is ge- 
nerally underftood Money, Lands, Houfes, &c 
by Imaginary, the Art and Labour of the 

Now as we in England are Inhabitants of an 
Ifland, we have no ways of conveying our Pro- 
dud: and Manufactures abroad, but by Naviga- 
tion, the beft and eaiieft of all ways ; we have 
no ways of making our felves confiderable in 
the World, but by our Fleets ,• and of fupport- 
ing them, but by our Trade, which breeds Sea- 
men, and brings in Wealth to maintain them ; 
fuch Hands therefore as are employ'd for any 
of thefe ufeful Ends, whether it be the Mer- 
chant, the Mariner or the Planter, are moil to 
be encourag'd j for on them depends our 
Strength, and on that our Safety. If we had 
none, or but little foreign Traffick, could we 
long equip thofe mighty Fleets, that render the 
Englijh Name formidable to the utmoft Bounds 
of the Earth ? Would one Man's coniuming 
what another rais'd, and handing Commodities 
from one to t' other, do our Bufinefs, without 
the Addition of foreign Wealth ? No Commo- 
dity is truiy an Increafe of the National Stock, 
a •% bur 



i i 

xxii IXTR DISC T 1 X 

but that which is exported, and all other Trades 
receive their Vigour and Life from the Mer- 
chant, Commodities riling in Eileen .:: Value 
as they are rightly diftributed from Place to 
Place, Ey him the Mariner is fubfifted, the 
Planter fapplv'd, and they all mutually afift 
each other, in promoting the Advantage of all 
other Tradefmen in particular, and of Trade 
in general. By Planter in die ?rif -Indies, we 
mean the Country Gentleman, who minds 
wholly thecokivating :he Growths cf the Place, 
and exporting them to E>ipr.ns , from whence 
he yearly draws fo many Manufactures, as main- 
cam lever a! Families in'that Kingdom.' Tisnoc 
eaiy to decide how much more fuch a Man is 
ufeful than an Evf.:': meer Country Gentle- 
man i when a Labourer in our Ayr.-A :;.•>-> Colo- 
nies is by the before-cited Author laid to be of 

"■-"••-" -y- ' ; ---'": r: England, :'■:: ::',: r ;':. ■'. ; :-', 

i\z ^ ret '.:ki hi -n i:. His Explanation 

of this AlTenion refers in the nril Place to the 
Sur.-.- Plantations ; and :ne Reader (hall have it 
abitracted r::~ nim, to judge cf it as he thinks 


i. The greateft Confumption of 1- 
w is made by the rich and opulent Ptafte of 
( [ the Nation. 2. The Quantity yearly pro- 
" due'd is r. : : lei's than _r: :: Tuns, ;. The 
[\ Moiety :: tris i. confum . and 

\\ am:un: : :: ,.'::_: ;::;:;/- Jne 

'/_ other Moiety is =::;: ::::, and after it hasera- 
ploy'd Seamen, is fold for as much, and con- 
~ aer.rly btfflgs bads to me Nation in Mo- 
ney, or ;:V."_1 Goods, St>oooo /. Add to 
Thai before Sugars were produced 
* c in cur Colonies, it bore ft u tuns tne Price 
i: it does r ■ . the fame C laram 

^ at 


" at the fame Price, except we made it our 
« felves, we fhould be forc'd to give in Money 
" or Mony's worth, as Native Commodities 
" and Labour, 2400000 /. for the Sugar we 
tfC fpend. 

•Tis certain we bought as much Sugar of fan 
tugal as amounted to 400000 /. yearly, which 
is fav'd by our making it. To continue Sir 
Dalb/s Explanation : 

" We mult confider too the Spirits arifing from 
cc Melaffes, which is fent from the Sugar Colonies 
<c to the other Colonies,and to England ; which if 
cc all were fold inE»g/*W,and turn'd into Spirits, 
tc it would amount annually to above ? 00000 /. 
cc at half the Price the like Quantity of Brandy 
<c from France would coil. The Indigo coming 
cc from thence amounts to joooo /. yearly. 
ec Logwood, for which we formerly paid the 
" Spaniards 100 L a Tun, now comes un- 
" der 1? /. and amounts to 1000 Tuns a Year, 
cc Ginger amounts to 400 Tuns a Year, and is 
ff not the 6th part of the Price of whatthe 
<6 Nation paid formerly for that Commodity ,• 
cc not to fpeak of Drugs, Woods, Cocoa, Pie- 
iC mento, Spices, Gold and Silver from the Spa- 
(C nift mft-Indies, for our Negroes and Manu- 
factures : By all which the Nation faves and 
gains by the People employ'd in thofe Colo- 
nies 4000000 /. per Ann. Now if it be confi- 
der'd again, that in all thofe Sugar Colonies 
there is not 60000 White Men, Women, 
and Children, it necefFarily muft follow tnat 
< c one with another, above what they contume, 
« each of them earns for the Publick abore 60 /. 
" per Annum. The Rents of Houfes and Lands 
< e in England, by Sir William ?ett/$ Compu*a- 
a 4 JL m $> 



<c tion, amount to iooooooo /. the Confump- 
" tion toyooooooo/. then by reducing Labour 
ce and Confumption to a proper Ballance with 
cc the Produce of Rents,, and fuppofing the 
u imaginary Wealth of the whole Kingdom 
cc to increafe in time of Peace the tenth part 
"annually., that^will be but four Millions^ 
Cf which does not amount to 12 s. a Head clear 
* ; Increafe of Wealth., one with another, above 
Cf neceflary and conftant Expences ; from which 
ec it follows, beyond Controverfy, that Hands 
fC employ'd in the Sugar Plantations are,, one 
u with another, of i;o times more Value 
u to the Common Wealth than thofe that ftay 
cc at home. To this fome may object, That 
(c thofe there confume nothing of Native Com- 
[ c modifies, which if they did, asthefedo who 
u ftay at home, their Confumption would a- 
6Z mount to 3 ? 0000 /. annually ,at 6 1. 10s. aHead, 
" the Allowance made by Sir Will. Vetty, and 
* others; and would consequently encreafe the 
" Rents' at, leaft a fourth Part of that. But, as 
cc has been laid, whatever is confum'd by idle 
<c Men, can never encreafe either the Real or 
cc Imaginary Wealth of the Nation, and no- 
cc thing but the Overplus can be reckon'd ad- 
<c ditional, which, according to a reasonable 
cc Computation, cannot be above 2 s a Head ; 
9C fo that if we would grant, that thofe in the 
(C Colonies did confume nothing of our home 
a Produce, the Lofs by the want of them here 
cc could amount only to 1200000 s. annually, 
■ cc or 60000 /, 


Thus far we have taken from the Knight, 
and have only to object againft his Number of 
Souls in the Sugar Colonies, which, at the time 
he wrote that Tra^ was as many more as he 



mentions, there being then 40, or ?oooo Whites y 
Men, Women, and Children at. Barbados on- 
ly. However, fuppofing that we fhould con- 
fume not above 800000 /. in Sugar, did we 
make none, a third Part of what he propofes, 
and that there was not above 2^00000 /. gain'd 
and fav'dby 120000 Men, Women, and Chil- 
dren, double the Number he makes it, every 
Soul then earns for the Publick near 20 /. and 
consequently every Hand employ'd in the Su- 
gar Plantations isfourty times as good as one 
that ftays at home, which is all the Alteration 
thatfeems neceffary in his Argument, 

As to what he fays, may be obje&ed, That 
they confume nothing of Native Commodities: 
That Objection is beft anfwer'd by the Bills of 
Entry at the Cuftom-houfe. A Man muft be 
fo ignorant of Trade, that one may defpair of 
convincing him, who does not know that the 
Planters in our Sugar-Iflands have for them- 
felves, Servants and Slaves, all manner of Ne- 
ceffaries, for the Houfe or the Field, ■ for Cloath- 
ing or Food, from England. Sir Dalby allows 
five Blacks at leafi for one White in the Sugar Co- 
lonies, but we cannot agree with him ; for 
when there were ^oooo Whites, Men, Wo- 
men and Children, in Barbados, as there were 
when he wrote, can any onefuppofe there were 
2 f 0000 Blacks ? There might be then 80000, 
and nevermore, which with -yoboQ Whites, made 
1 ;oooo Souls in all ; and allowing but as 
many more for the other Iflands, who can ima- 
gine that 260000 Souls can fubfift there, where 
nothing is to be had but Sugar, Cotton, Ginger, 
and the Commodities before-mention'd, with- 
out confuming prodigious Quantities of all forts 
of Goods from England, befides the Provifions 
they have from the" Northern Colonies,. 



f ~ 


In treating of the Trade of each Colony, 
this Matter will be more particularly handled, 
with Reference to their particular Exports and 
Imports ; but Barbados being the Chief of our 
Sugar Wands, comes firft naturally to be men- 
tion'd on all Occafions. If the Plantations take 
away one Man to maintain about three at home : 
If they take up almoft half of our foreign Com- 
merce, and are a perpetual Nurfery of able 
Seamen : If they yearly encreafe the National 
Stock 800000 /. only, as by the following Hi- 
ftory will appear, they are of as much Advan- 
tage to this Nation in Trade, as near half of all 
their People elfewhere; for the annual Encreafe 
of the National Stock, according to Dr. Dave- 
naut 3 is not above 2000000 /. 

How they encreafe it, is by our Exports ; 
and leaft the Reader may not have a clear Idea 
of it, let him fee what Judge Littleton of Bar- 
bados wrote on this Head : 

Gwn% of " There' is one main Advantage by the Plan- 
ts Plan- cc tations, which has not been fufficiently ex- 
tiiims. « plain'd, and that is, that the Englijh have now 
ce feveral good Commodities of their own, 
Cc which before they had not, which does very 
ce much conduce to the enriching them ,• for 
f* it is agreed by all who pretend to underftand 
■ c Trade, that a Country does then grow rich, 
a and then only, when the Commodities ex- 
ff ported out of it are of more Value than thofe 
cc that are imported into it. This Proportion 
€C between the Importation and Exportation, is 
?■ call'd the Ballance of Trade ; and there is no 
iC way in the World for a Country to grow rich 
cc by Trade, but by fetcing this Ballance right, 
cc and in fending out more than it takes in. 
cc Some other Tricks and Shifts there are, which 

? make 


make a mew of doing great Matters, but they 
prove idle and frivolous, and fignify nothing. 
A Country is, in this Refpetf:, in the fame 
Condition with a private Man, that lives 
upon his Land : If this Man fells more than 
he buys, he lays up Money ; if he buys more 
than he fells, he muft run in Debt, or at 
leaft fpend out of the quick Stock ; and 
where the Bought and the Sold are e- 
qual, he has barely brought both Ends toge- 

This Gentleman was a Man of excellent 
Senfe, and this Treatife of his hits the Cafe of 
the Plantations better than any. He reprefents 
their Grievances in the moft lively Colours, 
fpeaks like a Man, who felt what he wrote, 
and who complain'd with no duTembled Sor- 

After he has touch'd on our Argument of the 
Increafe of the National Stock by Barbados, and 
it will hold for the other Sugar Iflands, he goes 

fC Why mould England grudge at the Profpe- 
<c rity and Wealth of the Plantations, fince all 
cc that is ours (he may account her own, not 
fc only becaufe we are a part of England, (what- 
cc ever we may be accounted) as it is taken 
c * largely, but alfo becaufe all comes to this 
" Kingdom of England, properly fo call'd, 
ec thefe two and fifty Shires. By a kind of 
cc Magnetick Force, England draws to it all 
<c that is good in the Plantations. It is the 
" Centre, to which all things tend : Nothing 
cc but England can we relifh or fancy : Our 
" Hearts are here where-ever our Bodies be : 
* f If we get a little Money, we remit it to 

xxviii INTRO DVC T10N. 

€C England. They that are able, breed up their 
" Children in England. When we are a little 
eafy, i we defire to live and fpend what we 
have in England, and all that we can rap 
and rend is brought to England. 

It may be pretended, that the other Colo- 
nies, where there is no fuch Confumption of 
Engli(h Commodities, as there is not in the Pro- 
vinces on the Continent , have not that Pretence 
to be an Advantage to England. But fure this 
will not be faid of Virginia and Maryland, of 
which Colonies, their Trade and Profit to 
England, we have fpoken in the Hiftories of 
thofe Provinces. To which we fhall add what 
Sir Dalby Thomas wrote on thisSubjed, in the 
before-mention'd Treatife. 

ec The Price of every Pound Weight of To- 
cc bacco imported into the Nation before we 
cc planted it, was from about 4*. to 16 s. a 
cc Pound ; and now the beft Virginia is not a- 
cc bove 17 d. to the Merchant, of which the 
cc King has 9 d. Two Thirds of the Tobacco 
cc brought from thefe Colonies, is expor- 
iC ted to foreign Markets ; which at about 
cc 3, pound a Ilogmead (the leaft the Nation 
€€ gets by it) amounts to above 200000 Pound, 
e€ befides the great Quantity of Shipping it 
fC employs. It isliot fo little as a Million 
<€ the Kingdom faves yearly by our planting 
cc Tobacco ; fo that reckoning the White Peo- 
tc pie in our Tobacco Colonies to be 100000 
(C Men, Women, and Children, they, one with 
: [ another, are each of them 12 /. a Year Profit 
f f to the Nation. There ?re in thofe Colo- 
fC nies, by a probable Computation, 600000 
<fi Negroes and Indians, Men, Worries and 

(f Chil- 

INTRO DVC T 10 N. xxix 

" Children, and would be more, could they 
cc readily get Negroes from Guinea, every one 
" of which confumes yearly two Hilling-Hoes, 
iC two Weeding-Hoes, two GrubbinerHoc 
cc befides 'Axes, Saws, Wimbles, Nails, aH 
" other Iron-Tools and Materials, confum'a 
<f in Building and other Ufes, to the Value of 
- xc at leaft 120000 /. in only Iron-Work. The 
* <c Clothes, Guns, Cordage, Anchors, Sails* 
X( and Materials for Shipping, befides Beds and 
cc other Houfhold-Goods, confum'd and us'd 
cc by them, are infinite : Nor is the Benefit of 
ce them to the Kingdom fufficiently to be ex- 
Cf plain'd, therefore let it fuffice, in one Word* 
ec to fay, that the Produce and Confumption, 
£c with the Shipping they give Employment 
cc to, is of an infinite deal more Benefit to the 
cc Wealth, Honour, and Strength of the Nation, 
cc than four times the fame, Number of Hands, 
cc the belt em ploy 'd at home that can be. 

To this we can only objed, That .die Num- 
ber of Indians and Negroes, Men, Women, and 
Children, is not above one half as many as he 
makes them,- but that of the Whites exadr, 
which Miftake does not prejudice the Argu- 
ment much, for the Indians' make the lean: 
Confumption of our Goods, and there lies 
moft his Error. 

As for the other Colonies, ?'enj)lva?ua is now 
falling into the Tobacco-Trade, Carolina into the 
Silk and Rice, New-England into that of Naval- 
Stores : And indeed fince we can fo eafily, fo 
cheaply, and fo fafely be furnifrYd with thefe 
Commodities from thence, it is a Refle&ion on 
our Politicks, that we will be obiig'd to the 
Northern Nations, and fend for our Stores to 
the BalticL New-York has the fame Advantages 


I I ' 



of 'Naval Stores., and fohave all the other Colo-^ 
nies in a lefs degree. But if New-England, New 
Torky the Jerfeys, Venfylvania and Carolina, fur- 
nifh the Sugar Iflands with Provifions and Cat- 
tle, and they could not fubfift without them, 
as they can tell by woful Experience, 'tis e- 
nough that they are of fuch Advantage to Eng- 
land; for not to fay any thing of the great Ex- 
portation of our Commodities to thofe Provin- 
ces, allowing that there are in all % yoooo Whites, 
Men, Women and Children, in our American 
Colonies, which is the largeft Computation, 
and they encreafe annually, the National 
Stock 800000/. and the whole Encreafeis but 
2000000 /.yearly, there is but 1200000 Encreafe^ 
for the reft of the Subjects of the Britijb Empire, 
computed at 8000000, which is little more than 
half of the whole Encreafe. Thus it appears, 
that one Hand in the Plantations is as good as 
twenty employ'd at home, as has been prov'd 
already, by another way of working it. 

Let us further confider the many Mouths that 
are fed at home by this Trade, the many Fami- 
lies that are enrich'd, the vaft Sums it brings 
into the Exchequer, to which Barbados only 
pays 5-0000/. yearly, tho not twice as big as 
Rutland, and is after the rate of 10 s. for every 
cultivated Acre in the Ifland. 

Thus we fee that the Colonies are far from 
being a Difadvantage to us by the Men who 
live there. But then 'tis faid, they are certain- 
ly foby the Men who die, that they have been 
Graves for feveral Years, and kill more Sea- 
men than they breed : Were this true in Fad, 
as it is falfe, it fhould never be objected to theni 
by an European. 

From whence did that fatal Sicknefs come 
which infeded Barbados and the other Iflands ? 




Was it not from Europe, brought by the Soldi- 
ers fent in an ill time for their Defence* being 
under the leading of Captains that not only be- 
tray'd thofe they brought with them, but thofe 
who join'd them- We may fee how it was 
with them before the unhappy Arrival ef thofe 
fickly Soldiers and Seamen. 

<c We employ (fays Judge Littleton) feven or 
" eight hundred Ships in a fafe and healthy 
" Navigation. They find lefs Danger in a 
1 Voyage to our Parts, than in a Voyage to 
J Newcafile ; and as the Ships come fafe, fo the 
* Men come found. Whereas of thofe that go 
*' to the Eafi Indies, half the Ships Company 
K (take one Ship with another) periih in the 
v Voyage. 

Befides the great Increafe of Wealth by our 
Colonies, added to the National Stock, theTrea- 
fure fav'd has been prov'd to be of almoft as great 
Advantage. Nations enough would immedi- 
ately fall into the Sugar and Tobacco Trades, and 
fuppiy us at their own Rates for our Money. 
We fhould foon mifs our Plantations if we had 
none, and their Enemies then would have their 
Obje&ionsanfwer'd in a Stile which they might 
tremble to hear, for Envy has made them too 
free of their Reflections, efpecialiy confider- 
ing they have fo little Appearance of Reafon on 
their fide. 

, Is not the Situation of the Iflands for annoy- 
ing the Spaniards or French in America, a fuffici- 
ent Argument for us to be as careful of their 
Defence, as if they were our Frontiers I And 
this relates more particularly to Barbados. 
Should we in England be fo negligent of our 
leives and them, as to expofe them to a French 





Conqueft, of which they have been in Danger 
more than once, What would be the Confe- 
quence ? All the Leeward Iflands muft inevitably 
follow i nor could Jamaica hold out long. The 
French being to Windward, can fend their Men 
down to Petit Guanjes with a fmall Charge, and 
would force the Inhabitants of Jamaica to fur- 
render in a few Months. The Lofs of the Su- 
frar Iflands would foon arTed the Northern Co- 
lonies, who are of great Ufe to England, for 
their Tobacco, Mails, Timber, breeding of 
Seamen, and Navigation. All which, except 
Virginia and Maryland, have their chiet Depen- 
dance on the Leeward Iflands and Jamaica, for 
their Lumber and Fifhery. The Colonies of 
New-England, New-Tork, the Jerfeys.Penfyha^ 
ma, and Carolina, have very little Ufe for any 
Navigation directly for England, but have a 
great Trade with the Sugar-Iflands, which is 
very much for the Intereft of England; and if 
thefe Trades were loft, one third at leaftof the 
Navigation of this Kingdom would follow it. 
What Effea this would have on the Merchants, 
Manufacturers, Mechanicks and Mariners, let 
every reafonable Man judge. # 

Tis certain our American Plantations take 
off more of the Manufactures of England than 
any other foreignTrade whatfoever ^ and is not 
this Confideration enough to filence all the 
Clamours of the unthinking ^afantrj; for turn 
no Man who has conversed in the World, ^and 
been tolerably educated, cangive into fuch an 
Error or imagine 'tis not well worth our while 
to fpare Hands for the Culture of our Land in 

^Thtid we negled ^f^S 
wou'd be left us to enter the Spamjh IVefl Indies? 
What Damage might we not do the Frenchmd 


Spaniards from Jamaica ? Is not that Ifland a 
Key that lets us into Hifpaniola and the Continent* 
'Twill foon be anfwer'd, What have we got by 
it in this War ? Which Queftion let others re- 
ply to ; I take the Liberty to afTert, that there 
is nothing fo plainly to be made out, as that we 
might have got, and Hill may get by it. Per- 
haps too, whether it has turn'd much to our 
immediate Profit or not, the French and Spani- 
ards could give a very good Account for us of 
their LoiTes by it, and the Expence it has put 
them to. As little as we have made of the 
Advantage of its Situation, had we had no Ports 
£b fituated, the Plate-Fleets from Spain would not 
have come home withfo much Uncertainty and 
fo many Delays. Jamaica is an Awe upon 
them, and has had a Share of their Silver. 
Why it was not greater, let the Concern'd tell 
us ; for it might have been, we all know. The 
French have not quite fo much Reafon as we, 
to be zealous for the promoting Navigation; 
yet they know their Intereft fo well, that 'tis a 
long while ago that they began to put in for a 
Share of the American Continent and Iflands ; and 
whatever they have got, they are careful to de- 
fend. They have always a great regular Force 
at Canada, for the Prefervation of that cold, 
barren Province, and their Care for the Defence 
of their richer Plantations is anfwerable. The 
French King fets fuch a Value upon his Plantat- 
ions, and is fo far from thinking his People loft 
who go to them, that he pays a good part of 
the Freight of all fuch as go thither to fettle, 
and gives them other Encouragements : There's 
no Man will doubt his underftanding his Inte- 
reft. And if thofe People weaken'd or impove- 
rifh'd him by tranfporting themfelves to Ameri- 
ca, he would fooner fend them to the Gallies. 
b The 



The Dutch, we know., have Colonies in the 
Baft-Indies, do thefe exhauft and depopulate 
■Holland $ or are they, at leaft, a Burthen and In- 
convenience ? The Hollanders are fo far from 
thinking fo, that they juftly efteem them the 
chief Foundation of their Wealth and Traffick : 
Their Eaft-India Trade depends on their Eaft- 
India Colonies, and the Greatnefs and Glory 
of their State depend on their Eaft-India Trade. 
Tho their Colonies drain and deifroy their Men 
as fail as ours; as their Trade and Wealth- en- 
creafe, their People encreafe alfo ; and 'tis or 
'twill be the fame with us, when the Planta- 
tions are fo far eas'd of their Burthens, that 
they may flourifh, and pour in Treafure upon 
us, which in fuch Cafe they would again do as 
they have formerly done. As to the Dutch Weft- 
India Colonies ; how do they cherifh Surinam, 
tho one of the bafeft Countries in the World ? 
Are they not as follicitous for the Prefervation 
of Curujfo, (as 'tis commonly pronouncd,) and 
the Settlement of Tobago ? Did they not fpare 
their Admiral De Ruyter with a Fleet, in their 
War with France above 50 Years ago, to fall upon 
the French Sugar Iflands ; and would they have 
done it, had' they not thought them highly va- 
luable I - r a - 

What a Figure have the Portugueje made in 
Europe fince the Dutch drove them in a great 
Meafure out of their Eaft-India Trade, in com- 
parifonto their Strength and Riches, while they 
were in Poffeffion of it ? The T mum ft have To 
true a Notion of the Advantage of fuch Colo- 
nies, that to encourage them, they admit the 
Citizens of Goa to fend Deputies to fit in the 
Affembly of the Cortez, 1 And if it were ask d, 
Why our Colonies have not their Reprelenta- 
tives ? who could prefentiy give a fatisfadory 



Anfwer ? There are fome Perfons who pretend 
the Spaniards have ruin'd themfelves, by fcx- 
haufting their Country, for the fake of their 
American Acquifitions. To which may be an- 
fwerU, their baniming the Convert-Moors, 
the Jews, and the fetting up of the Inquifition, 
with the Tyranny of their Government, have 
more exhaufted Spain than all their Settlements 
in the Weft-Indies. Had moderate Counfels 
prevail'd, there would have been no Scarcity of 
Men in that Kingdom, and their Pride and 
Sloth have impoverim'd them much more than 
their Want of Hands. Befides, grant that eve- 
ry Nation beft underftand their true Intereit, 
do not the Spaniards Politicks even now juftify 
our Affertion, That the Weft-India Colonies 
are highly advantagious to their Mother Coun- 
tries I What do they fight for at this time ? 
Why do they fuffer themfelves to be torn to 
Pieces on all fides ? What is this Diipute for ? 
Would thev give up the Weft Indies to the ngnt; 
Owner, K. Charles III. Matters would loon be 
accommodated ; and without doing it, this War 
can never be well ended. . 

We hope the Reader is by this time iatisry d, 
that our American Plantations are an Advantage, 
and a very great one, to this kingdom; and 
the Arguments brought from Antiquity will be 
of no ufe to the Enemies of Colonies. 

'Tis faid, Arifiotle fpeaking of the Won- 
ders of the World, writes, cc That certain 
« Carthaginian Pilots having difcover d a valt 
cf liland, very fruitful, beyond Hercules Pillars: 
[Which mult be America for Britain was 
known to them, fo were Africa and the 'Eafij 
< c feveral Families of that Republick lett 
cc their Country, to tranfport themfelves thy 
ther, and fettle there; but the Magiftr^s 

b 2 Ot 



xxxvi INT R 0DVCT10N. 

cc of Carthage forbad any, on fevere Penalties^ 
(C to make that Voyage. 

By which means 'twas fo negle&ed, that the 
Country became, unknown again, till 'twas dif- 
cover'd by Columbus 1700 Years] afterwards. 
This is told us by fome Inquirers into the Hi- 
Itory of America ; of which more will be faid, 
when this Author treats of thofe Parts of it that 
belong to the Spaniards, Tortuguefe, Dutch, Danes 
and French, as he intends to do, according as 
this Treatife is encourag'd. Tho the Cartha- 
ginians might have had fuch an ill Opinion of 
Colonies^ that is no Argument of their being 
hurtful 1 for the Judgment of greater Nations, 
and the Succefs of it make againft them. Did 
the Athenians and other Greeks lofe by the Co- 
lonies they fent into Afia \ Or rather, was not 
Ionia the Barrier of Greece, which defended it 
againft the Perfian Ufurpation ? Did thefe Co- 
lonies difpeople Greece ? Is there any Com- 
plaint of it in all the Greek Story ? No cer- 
tainly ! On the contrary, the Grecian States 
thriv'd after it* their Navigation encreas'd, 
and by their Navigation they became Mafters 
of Afia ; for had they not deftroy'd the Naval 
Power of the Perfians, they could not have 
injur 'd their Dominion by Land. But after 
they were entirely Mafters at Sea, they never 
ceas'd till they were fo at Land alfo. Was it 
ever pretended that the Roman Colonies dif- 
peoplM Mdp& ? Whenever that - wife and re- 
nown'd State thought it convenient to fend 
forth k Colony, Thoufands of People were 
fent away at a time, at the publick Charge, and 
that as far as the Tygris on the one hand, and 
the Tweed on the other. Thefe Colonies were 
the Security of their Conquefts ; and tbu 
greateft Politicians have been of Opinion, 

- That 


€c That as the Roman Empire was the greateft 
Cf that ever the World fa w, fo it chiefly ow'd 
€e its Grandeur to its free Emiifion of Colo- 
€C nies. 

It would not be very difficult to prove, that 
in the prefent Circumftances of Affairs, the 
Britijh Colonies are, or may be much more 
advantagious to the Britaim than the Roman 
Colonies, of which they were fo free, were 
to : the Romans 3 by how much more the Safety 
of a Nation is of greater Gonfequence than its 
Extent of Empire ; but that would draw this 
Trad: out to too great a Length. If we have 
not been too tedious already, 'tis well ; and 
We fhall leave the Decifion of this Argument 
now to the Reader, having faid as much for 
it as we could, and as we believe isneceffary to 
convince the Impartial and Bifinterened, 
That our Colonies in America are fo far from 
being a Lofs to us, that "there are no Hands 
in the Britijh Empire more ufefully employ'd 
for the Profit and Glory of the Common- 

. Of all our American Commerce that of Sugar 
is moft valuable, becaufe moll neceffary. Sir 
Jofiah Child, in his Difcourfe of Trade, fpeak- 
ingofthis, fays, 

cc It is in his Majefty's Power, and the Parlia- 
" ment's, if they pleafe, by taking off all Char- 
€( ges from Sugar, to make it more entirely 
*' an Englifh Commodity, than White Herrings 
tC are a Dutch Commodity • and to draw more. 
u Profit to the Kingdom thereby, than the 
" Dutch do by that. And that in Confequence 
cc thereof all Plantations of other Nations, 
J* muft in a few Years fink to little or nothing. 




This Authority will confirm all that has been 
faid before, and it might be made out, which 
way fo great Good may be done to the Pubiick ,* 
but that would be to enter into the detail of 
the Hardfhips the Colonies have lain under for 
many Years, the Means of eafing them, and 
other Articles, fomeof which are treated of in 
the particular Hiftories of the Plantations j and 
others that remain, we muft forbear mention- 
ing till a more convenient Time and Place of- 
fer ; for we have already kept the Reader too 
long from the Story . 

- : li . . r: 

b n on. s .3 h 



ALL Gentlemen, Merchants, or others, v?Bo 
live in our American Colonies, and will 
communicate any thing to the Author, to be added or 
amended in the next Edition of this Hifiory, are de~ 
fird to direct it to either of the Bookfelkrs whofi 
Names are in the Title-? age of this Book 9 and Care 
jhallbe taken to have it inferted. 




There are fome few ER R ATA's of the 
PRESS ; as, 

VOL. I. Page 403. 1. 6. del. to, read Raddijon. p. 
544. 1. 1. read 0) the King. p. 349. 1. 19- del. Go- 
vernour of Providence. Vol. z. p. no. Baronets created tU 
fame Day fhould be only Sir John Colliton and Sir James 
Modiford. p. in. for 150000, read 130000, in the Num- 
ber of Souls. The reft are moftly Litterals, and the Rea- 
der will eafily coneft them, 


lanck o£ 

UTe^wfb t**id 

j*+\ j*/[ J**\ j*7\ 

(1 ) 


O F 



^0 Account of its Difcovery, 
Settlement, Encreafe, Pre- 
fent State, Inhabitants, Cli- 
mate, Soil, Produft, Trade, 

THIS large Ifland wasdifcover'd by Sebafiian a. D. 
Cabot y who was fent to the Weft-Indies I+i>7 . 
by Henry VII, in the Year 14*7. to make ^*\~*j 
Difcoveries. 'Tis of a Triangular Figure, The Figure 
as big as Ireland, about 3 00 Leagues in Circumfe- of the /» 
rence-, feparated from North Canada on the Conti'/M. 
nent to the North, and ^lew-Scotland to the South j 
about as far as the neareft part of England is from 
France : Tis no more than 500 Leagues diftant from 
the Lands End } and the Great Bank is hardly half 
way to Virginia : It lies between 45 and 53 Degrees /« Lat ^ 
of North Lat. and has many commodious Bayes along tude. 
the Coaft , fome of thenl running into the Land to : 
ward sone another more than 20 Leagues, 




2 The Hiftory of Newfoundland. 

But before we enter upon a further Defcription of 
the Country, we fhall proceed with the Hiftory of it 
.from its Difcovery to its Settlement by the Englifi. 
Difcovery. In the Reign of Henry VIII, Mr. Thorn and Mr. 
Elliot, two Englifh Adventurers, made a Voyage 
thither •, and one Mr. Bore, another Adventurer of 
our Nation, attempted a Settlement, but was reduc'd 
to fuch Streights, that many of his Company were 
kill'd and eaten by their Fellows: Thofe who 
furviv'd, were fo chang'd, that Sir William Butts, a 
Norfolk Knight, did not know his Son at his Return, 
and cou'd not be convinc'd 'twas the fame Perfon, till 
he fhew'd him a Mark in his Body which his Father 
remembred. The Englifh after this neglefting the 
Place, the French and Portuguefe reforted to it, and 
carry'd on a very profitable Trade in Fifh and other 

*J7*. Commodities. In the year i$j 9 . Captain Richard 
Whitburn of Exmouth in Devon/hire, was employ'd by 
Mr. Gotten, a Merchant of Southampton, to fifh at the 
Great Bank ; but his Companions not being able to 
endure the Cold, he put into Irinity-Hwbour, where 
they kill'd ftore of Filh, Deer, Bears, Beavers, Seals, 
Otters, Sea-Fowl, &c. and having made a tollerable 

1583. Voyage, return'd to England. In 1583. Mr. Crook, 
a Merchant of the fame Port, fitted him out for the 
fame Voyage ; and while he was at Newfoundland, 
Sir Humphry Gilbert, a Devonffnre Knight, and a fa- 
mous Adventurer, related to Sir Walter Rawleigh, 
came thither with two flout Ships and a Pinnace, and 
brought with him a Commifiion from Queen Eliza- 
beth to take pofTeffion of the Place in her Name, 
which he did in St. John's Harbour, Mr. Whitburn 
my Author being prefent. Sir Humphry failing thence 
towards Virginia, loft his biggeft Ship ', and he him- 
felf going aboard the Pinnace, was caft away in his 
Return to England : His other Ship, Captain Hays 
Commander, arriv'dand brought the News of that 
worthy Gentleman's hard Fortune. 

1 j 8 j. Two Years afterwards. Sir Bernard Drake of De- 
von, was fent thither with a Squadron of Men of 
War, and took feveral Portuguefe Ships laden with 
Fifh and Oil, which he brought into England as Pri- 
zes: For tho the French and Portuguefe went thither 
to fifh, the Englifh look'd on themfelves as the true 


The Hifiory of Newfoundland. $ 

Lords and Proprietors of the Country, as appears by Ha?c Infu- 
feveral Grants from the Crown before the French la ab An- 
feated themfelves there, and the Confeflion of Fo- g hs > utl 
reigners themfelves: tho 'tis pretended John ^Jgjg 
razzjm, a Florentine, fent by Francis I. the French f nventa 
King, pofTefs'd himfelf of the Ifland in the Name of Delm . 
that Prince, calling it Jerre Neuve, or Newfound- 
land, yet that does not lefTen the Right of the Englifh 
to this Country ; for it was done feveral years after Se- 
lafiian Cabot had been there a fecond time •, and brought 
thence 3 of the Natives, whom he prefented to Henry 
VIII. as a Token of his having taken poffeflion of the 
Place in his Name : And Sir Humphry Gilbert when he 
was there, forbad all other Nations to fifti on the Coaft. 
Tis true, the Englifh were not for a longtime 
very fond of fettling on fuch an unfriendly Shoar, 
where there were few or no Conveniencies for Life, 
but Intereft at laft prevail'd', and in the Year i5o<?. 
Mr. John Guy a Merchant, and afterwards Mayor 
of Brifiol, who wrote a Treatife to encourage Per- 
rons to undertake a Settlement, by writing and 
folliciting the Bufmefs fucceeded fo well, that in the 
following Year King James made a Grant, dated 
April the 10th, 1610. of all that part of the Ifland The Firft 
from Cape Bonavifi in the North, to Cape St. Mary's in New- 
the South, to the Earl of Northampton Lord Keeper, foundland 
Sir Lawrence Tanfield Lord Chief Baron, Sir John Company. 
Dodderidge King's Sergeant, Sir Francis Bacon Soli- 
citor General, Sir Daniel Bonn, Sir Walter Cope, Sir 
Piercival Willoughby, Sir John Confiable, John Weld 
Efquire, Mr. Ellis Crifp, Mr. Richard Bowdler, tylr. 
jnthony Haviland, Mr. William Lewis, Mr. Humphry 
Hook, Mr. John Guy, Mr. Phillip Guy, Mr. William 
Meredith, Mr. John Doughtie and others •, who fent 
over a Colony thither under the Direction of Mr. 
John Guy. This Gentleman arriv'd there in 20 days, 1610. 
landed at Conception-Hzxhom ; and he and his Com- 
panions built Houfes, or rather Hutts, for their Ha- 
bitations, during their (lay. Mr. Guy behav'd himfelf 
fo courteoufly to the Natives, that he entirely gam'd 
their Friendihip, and the Englifh were not at all di- 
fturb'd by them in carrying on their Settlement, as 
they were in other Places. In the next Year i5n. l6lu 
Captain Whitburn went thither again, and the Arch 
B 2 Pirate 

4 The Hiftory of Newfoundland. 

Pirate Peter Eafhon came here with i o Sail of flout rich 
Ships \ he defir'd Mr. Whitburn to procure a Pardon 
for him, and would have return'd to England'. In 
expectation of it, he waited on the Coaft ofBarbary j 
but the Court tiring out his patience, he enter'd the 
Str eights with his Treafures, and the Duke of Savoy 
took him into his Service. There was very little 
Froft this Year in Newfoundland all Winter long, 

i6i2. which, if true, is next to a Miracle. In the Year en- 
fuing, the Englifh found fome of the Indian Habita- 
tions, which were Hutts made of Poles fet round, and 
meeting on the lop, about io Foot broad, cover'd 
with Deer Skins, and the Fire in the middle. In the 

1 6i 3. next Year, 54 Men, 6 Women, and 2 Children win- 
ter'd there, and the Seafon prov'd moderate. The 
Englifh fow'd Wheat and Rie, and planted Turnips 
and Coleworts, which 'tis faid grew as well as in En- 
gland ^ and this is the more rare, becaufe Wheat and 
other Grain cannot now be brought to thrive there. 
The new Planters got plenty of Fowl and Fifh for 
Food •, and Bears and Otters for Skins : But we have 
reafon to believe that things did not anfwer their Ex- 
pectation, for 'tis certain that Mr. Guy and his Colony 
return'd to England. The Difeafe that troubled them 
mofr, was the Scurvy, which they cur'd with their 

1*14. Turnips. In the Year 1 6.x 4. Sir Henry Manwarlng was 
lent thither with a Squadron of 5 Men of War to fecure 
the Fifhery. /And in the following Year Captain Whit- 
burn made another Voyage, carrying with him a Com- 

1515. million from the Admiralty, to Impannel furies, and 
make Inquiry upon Oath, of divers Abufes and Diforders 
committed amongji Fiffjer men yearly on that Coaft:. 

Dr. W. Vaughan of Cat mar then jhire, purchas'd a 
Grant from the Pattentees for part of the Country, 
to make a Settlement, which however he never 

16 ic. effected. In \6i6. Captain Whitburn was taken 
in his way from Newfoundland to Lisbon with a 

1 6 1 8. Cargo of Fifh •, and in the Year 1 51 s. he went thither 
as Dr. Faughan's Deputy ; tho whom he was to go- 
vern, we don't find any where mentioned by him (elf 
or other Writers, or that there was any Settlement of 
Englifh till 2 or 3 years afterwards, when Sir George 
Calvert, Principal Secretary of State to King fames, 
got a Grant of the beft part of the Ifland. This Gen- 





The Hiftory of Newfoundland, 
tleman being of the Romiffi Religion, was uneafy at 
home, and had the fame Reafon to leave the King- 
dom, as thofe Gentlemen had who went to New-Eng- 
land, to enjoy the Liberty of his Confcience : He 
therefore refolv'd to retire to America, and finding 
the Newfoundland Company made no ufe of their 
Grant, he thought of this Place for his Retreat j to 
which end he procur'd a Patent for that part of the 
Ifland that lies between the Bay of Bulls in the Eaft, 
and Cape St. Mary's in the South, which was erefted 
into a Province, and cali'd Avalon, the Name it goes 
by to this Day. 

How this Grant cou'd be made without the Con-i^Bai- 
fent of the former Proprietors, we cannot compre- timore'* 
hend ; for he feated himfelf within the Limits of Settlement} 
their Territories : And he either agreed with them 
for it, or King James invaded the Company's Proper-, 
ty. Sir George, afterwards Lord Baltimore, fent over 
Perfons to plant and prepare things for his Reception ', 
and in i<?2i. Capt. Edward Wynn went thither with 
a fmall Colony at Sir George's Charge, who feated 
himfelf at Ferryland, built Houfes, planted a little 
Garden, and fet up a Salt- Work in 1*22. and the ^22. 
fame Year, Himfelf, Capt. Vowel, 21 Men, 7 Wo- 
men, and 2 Boys Winter'd there. In the follow- 
ing Year the Lord Faulkland, Deputy of Ireland, 
fent a Colony thither under Sir France Tanfil, who 
return'd without making a Settlement. 

When Capt. Wynn had giv'n Sir George a fatisfa&o- 
ry Account of his Proceedings, he remov'd thither 
with his Family, built a Fine Houfe and ftrong Fort 
at Ferryland, Northward of Cape de Raz., and dwelt 
there fome time ; but having a better Settlement 
in view in Virginia, he return'd to England to 
get the Grant of the Country which is fince 
cali'd Maryland: However he frill retain'd the Pro- 
priety of Avalon in Newfoundland, and govern'd the 
little Colony at Ferryland by Deputies till his Death, 
His Son Caeilius Lord Baltimore did the fame, till the 
dillvz&ions'm England during the Civil War,render'd 
his PoiTeflion precarious ; and about the Year 1^54- 
Sir David Kirk, a Gentleman whofe Fortune oblig'd Sir David 
him to change the Climate more than his Conftitu-K^k sSei- 
t\Qix, went thither, and by Warrant of the Govern- "^ 




B 3 


6 The Hifiory of Newfoundland. 

mentthen in being, poJTefs'd himfelf of the Lord Bal- 
timore's Plantation, which he afterwards treated 
with that Lord to purchafe ; but the Family of Cal- 
vert, wou'd never formally give up their Pretences, 
notwithftanding which Sir David liv'd there all his 
time, gave his Name to a Sound on the Weftern Shoarj 
and his Children and Grand Children dwelt there 
after him, the latter being reduc'd to the mean Con- 
dition of the Ordinary Inhabitants. Sir David un- 
dertook an Expedition againft the French at Canada, 
and deftroy'd their Settlements, which the French 
not only recover'd in the Reign of Charles II. but 
they were fuffer'd in his time firft to fettle on the 
Southern Shoar of Newfoundland, to fortify themfelves 
at Placentia, St. Peter's, and other Places. Thus they 
who are Intruders,by their Induftry, and the Conveni- 
ence of their Neighbourhood with Canada, the Glo- 
ry, fuch as it is, of the French Dominions in Ame- 
rica, have got the better Part of this Ifland, and 
have a more numerous Colony and better Fortifica- 
tions than the Englifh, who have all along contented 
themfelves with fome fcatter'd Settlements on the 
Coafts, which they do not call by the Name oH Towns, 
but by that of Harbours. Before we go on further 
with our Hiftory of the Country, we fhall give an Ac- 
count of the Places where the Englifh have fettled, the 
number of Families, by the lateft Surveys taken from 
a Merchant who liv'd fome time in the Ifland, in 
what way they live, for their Conftitution does not 
deferve to be call'd a Government, Of the Indians, 
the Climate, the Soil, Animals, Trade, and other 
things worthy the Reader's Knowledge. 
Ue Iflss. Under the Name of Newfoundland thofe Ifles are 
comprehended which lie on the Weft Side of it in the 
Gulph of St. Lawrence, and the River of Canada or 
New France to the North and Weft. Thefe Ifles are 1 $ 
in number, of which the moft confiderable are, the 
Ifles of the Sand or Bank of Cape Breton, St. John's 
Ifle about 30 Leagues long, 1 6 over, and po in Cir- 
cuit', 'tis properly nothing elfe but a great Fo- 
reftof Fir-trees, and is fur rounded with fteep Rocks. 
Kobbe. Cape Breton Ifle in the South of the Gulph of St. Law- 
**&& fence, is 60 Leagues long, 1 o or 12 broad, and 1 40 
in Circuit ', 'tisalmoft cut intwo Parts by that Gulph. 


The Hiftory of Newfoundland. 7 

The Ifle of Affumption is alfo cali'd Anticoftl, 'tis a- 
bout the bignefs of Cape Breton Wand, fituated at 
the Mouth of the Great River of Canada •, Bears 
fort is the beft Haven in it. Between Anticofti and the 
flatlfland, the old Writers tell us was the beft Cod 
Fiftiing, and that 'twas common to take ioo in an 
Hour there. Tis certain fo many have been caught 
in an hour \ but 'tis as far from being a common 
thing, as that Place from being the beft on the Coaft 
for Fifhing, neither the Englifh nor French ever fifh- 
ing between thofe Iflands. 

The Englifh had Settlements formerly as far as Cape Enghjb 
St.Mdry's on the Southern Shoar •, but now they begin Sittli " 
ztFerryland Head, and are fcatter'd along the Coaft at mntit 
8 or i o Miles diftance from one Harbour to another, as 
far as Greenpond : And palling Cape de Raz., the raoft 
Eafterly Point of Land in the Ifland, we come to 

Ferryland, where are about 

30 Houfes and Families, 

Cape Broil, * * 

. * 


Bay of Bulls, • • 



Brigas Bay, • ' 



Bell Inn, • • * 


Toads Cove, ' ' 



Mummables Bay, 

• . , 


Petty Harbour, 

• • 


St. John's Town, . 

• • 


The latter is cali'd a Town, and is fituated within st. John's 
the Neck of the Harbour in the Bay, form'd by a Town, 
River that falls into the Sea there 5 the Mouth of that 
Harbour is about half a Mile over : On the North Side 
of it at the Entrance is a Battery, and another on the 
South-Eaft, where there's a cover'd Fortification, and 
3 or 10 Guns, which with the oppofite Battery com- 
mand the Harbour, and render it almoft impoffible 
for an Enemy to come at St. John's Town, there being 
befides this a Chain of 1 5 Tunn weight, which they 
can let down a-crofs it from one Fortification to ano- 
ther. There was a Church before the late Invafion of 
the French. The Houfes were built on the Northern 
Shoar, and every Family had a fort of a Wharfe 
before their Houfes to dry their Fifh on. The Church 
then flood about the Middle of the Town, but fines 
B 4 fq 



The Hifiory of Newfoundland. 

for the better Security of the Settlement, the Eng- 
lifh have remov'd their Dwellings. The Fort there 
is mounted with about 50 Guns, including the Out- 
works added by Col. Richards, when he commanded 
there, A Garifon confiding of an independant Company 
of Foot, whofe Captain at prefent is Major TJw- 
mas Lloyd, always do Duty there, and in the late 
Troubles were of great Service to the Country. 
Within the Fort on the Right Hand and on the Left 
are Barracks for the Soldiers, and oppofite to the 
Gate the Captain's Houfe, built a la Modern, with 
Safh Windows, and is a very fair Edifice. Next to 
St. John's Town is, 

Kittavitty, • » 10 Houfes and Families. 

lorbay, • • • 4. Families. 

Holyrood, • • "1 

Salmon Cove, * • >i2 Families. 

Havre de Grace, j 

Carboneer, ■ * ' 30 Families, 

BayVirds, • ' 10 Families, 

Old Parlikin, ' * 6 Families, 

New Parlikin deferted. 

Silly Cove. 

Trinity Harbour, 1 2 Families. 

Sonavifi, * • * 25 Families. 

GreenpondlQmd, 3 Families, 

In all 167 Families, fome of which are very large '-, 
and all together, before the French deftroy'd the 
Settlements from Cape de Raz, to St. John's Town, con- 
tain'd 4000 Englilh Inhabitants, Men, Women and 
Children^ tho in the year 169%, there were but 
1500 Souls, the Number encreafing after the rate 
of about 500 every Year, till they came to be up- 
wards of 4000. Molt of the People fled to St. John's 
Town ,and were fafe there ; but fuch ascou'd not crowd 
into the Fort were abandon'd to the Mercy of the 
Enemy, who burnt all the Houfes in the Weft 
End of the Town ; and the few they left, were, 
as they faid, only fpar'd that they might be a Recep- 
tacle for themielves when they came there again, 
which they threatned to do, but have not yet been 
M good as their Wards* - They ftaid in the Town 

% Weeks ? 

The Hiftory of Newfoundland. 9 

j Weeks, and continually harraft the Soldiers in the 
Fort by Falfe Allarms : At laft, they were tir'd with 
attacking, before the Engliih were with defending 
the place, and left it, carrying away with them fome 
hundreds of the Inhabitants. 

The Englifh had no Settlement for many Years far- 
ther than Bonaviji ', but 10 Years ago they fat down at 
Greenpond Illand, and thus take up theN.E. and E. Part 
of the Country, as the French do the S. and S. W. the 
Natives living in the North. There are feveral fine 
Bays within the limits of the Englifh Territory, as, 
Bonavift, Trinity, Conception, which ftretch them- 
felves towards the South Weft , Torbay and Capeliti 
Bay, St. John's Harbour, the Bay of Bulls, Frejh Wa- 
ter Bay, and others : For there's no Shore in the World 
fo well accommodated with Excellent Harbours. On 
the French fide are the Bays Trepafey, St. Mary's, Bor- 
rell and Flacentia, which extend their Arms towards 
the North. The Great Bay of St, Peter lies on the 
South Weft fide of the Illand 20 Leagues diftant from 
the River of Canada. The Bottom of all the Bays meet 
within the Compafs of a fmall Circuit, by which 
means the Communication from Bay to Bay is eafy. 
There are abundance of other Bays round about the 
Weftern Shore, as far as the Great Bay, and many 
more between that and Trinity Bay, which lies in 
about \9 Deg. N. L. and is very commodioufly fitu- 
ated to receive Shipping in bad Weather. It has 
3 Arms or Rivers, long and large enough for many 
hundred Sail of Ships to moar fall at Anchor, above a 
Mile from the Harbours Mouth. The Bay of Flow- 
ers near Greenpond is Dangerous for fhelves. The 
Bay of Trepafey, which is the prefent Bounds of the 
Englifh, Southward, lies in about \6 Deg. N. L. is a 
bold and fafe Coaft, and convenient for Ships in di- 
ftrefs to touch at, palling to or from Virginia, New 
England or the Bermudas Ifles. 

The Climate is very hot in Summer and Cold in Win- Tm ClU 
ter } the Snow lies on the Ground 4 or y Months •, and mats, 
the Englifh in the Northern Parts are forc'd to remove 
from the Harbours into the Woods, during that Seafon, 
for the convenience of Firing. There they build them- 
felves Cabbins, and burn up all that Part of the Woods Way of Lt~ 
where they fit down. The nextWinter they do the fame if& 



The Soil 

La Hon- 


fponte fua 
non viodo 
tna gra- 
viina fed 
& varias 
ret. De- 
P- 47- 

The Hifiory of Newfoundland. 

by another, and fo clear 'em as they go. The Peo- 
ple at St. John'&Town who do not remove, are put to 
great Streights for want of Firing. Wood, 'tis true, 
is very plentiful, but the Difficulty is to come at it, 
the Accefs to the Forefts for Rocks and Snow being 
very troublefome, and fometimes impalpable -, and 
'tis no fmall part of the Profits of the Under-Offi- 
cers of the Garifon to let out their Men to fetch 
Wood. There's hardly any ftirring out of the Houfe 
for 5 Months in the Year. The Inhabitants have no 
Corn nor any other fort of Provifion or Neceflaries, 
(except Wild Fowl, Fifh, and Venifon) but what is 
fent them from Europe. The Ifland is full of Moun- 
tains and impracticable Forefts ', its Meadows are like 
Heaths, and are cover'd with a fort of Mofs inftead 
of Grafs. The Soil is good for nothing, being a 
Mixture of Gravel, Sand and Stones. Thus fays the 
Baron La Hontan, and feverai Gentlemen, whom I 
have confulted upon the matter, particularly Capt. 
Francis, a Man of Worth and Honour, who com- 
manded there in the Year 1702. And yet Mr. Guy, 
Capt. Whitburn *, and from them Mr. Delaet fet it 
out as a Paradife, as fruitful as the Banks of the Nile. 
Without the Labour of Mens Hands, fays Capt Whit- 
burn, the Earth produces great Plenty of Green Peafe, 
Fitches and Haumes^ and great Store of Hay may be 
made with little Labour. Strawberries, Rafpberries, 
Bilberries, Pears, Cherries, Filberds, &c. are there 
in abundance ', as alfo Flowers : And for Corn, the 
Ground is as apt to bear as the Englijh Soil. I thought 
it might not be improper to fhew the difference 
that there is in the account of the Soil giv'n by dif- 
ferent Perfons. Mr. Guy and Capt. Whitburn were, as 
one may perceive, willing the Ifland fhould be in- 
habited by the fair Defcription they gave of it, where- 
as 'tis in truth one of the moft uncomfortable Places 
in the Univerfe for 6 Months in the Year, and not 
one of the moft delightful for the other 6. We may 
fee by this, that even Men of the beft Judgment, 
as Delaet is thought to be, may err when they treat 
of things which they muft take upon truft, and that 
we fhou'd be cautious how we give Credit to thofe 
Authors who write of Plantations wherein they are 
themfelves cqncern'd. As this Place is fcarce tolerable 

The Hifiory of Newfoundland. n 

to the Engtifti for the Seafons, fo 'tis no lefs wretched 
in its Government, which is altogether as barbarous as 
that of their Fellow-Inhabitants the Indians. 

They have no fettled Governour : But in time of the Go- 
Peace the firft Mafter of a Ship that arrives there, vernmm. 
tho he commands a Bark but of 30 or 40 Tuns, is 
Chief Governour for that Fiming Seafon, by the Stile 
of, Lord of the Harbour. In time of War the Go- 
vernment is more noble, for then 'tis lodg'd in the 
Commadore, or Commander of the Squadron who is 
fent thither to defend the Fifhery. If there come 
but two or three Men of War, the eldeft Captain is 
Governour of the Country as well as Admiral at Sea \ 
if but a fingle Ship, the Commander has that honoura* 
ble Office, and in the Abfence of the Captains of the 
Men of War, and the Lord of the Harbour, the 
Captain of the Land Forces in the Fort of St. John's 
Town, is Governour by his Place j and both the one 
and the other are Lord Chancellors, and decide ar- 
bitrarily in all Cafes. There's no need of much Law, 
for the Inhabitants have not much Land, and no Mo- 
ney. They truck with one another for what they 
want and have -, and Breaches of the Peace, or 
taking away a Man's Goods without giving 
Truck, dealing of Nets or Fifhing-Tackle, are the 
main Caufes that come before the Governour for the 
time being, who fummons the Criminal before him, 
and his Sentence is definitive. If 'tis the Land-Officer, 
he keeps 'em in awe by threatning 'em with a File 
of Musketeers •, and as much as they are without Law 
and Lawyers, the want of them, for what I can hear, 
is one of their leaft Inconveniencies. If a Man com- 
mits murder, he is fent in Chains to England, and un- 
lefs Witnefles are fent with him, which is expenfive 
and not always poffible, he takes his Trial at the 
Old Baily, is acquitted, and goes home again } as was 
the Cafe of a Perfon who was accus'd of Sodomy 
3 or 4 years ago. As fevere as the Climate is, it a- 
grees very well with Englifh Conftitutions, and our 
Countrymen have generally been healthy there,except 
when they brought Difeafes with them. 

As for the Produft of the Country, Fir and Spruce Trees. 
Trees are the moft remarkable, being reckon'd as fit for 
Mafts, as thofe of Norway* Pine and Birch-Trees are a** 
~ bi 6 




12 The Hiftory of Newfoundland. 

big there as any where, and almoft all forts of Tim- 
ber-Trees abound in the Ifland. As for Quadrupedes, 
Dear, Hares, Foxes, Squirrels, Wolves, Bears, Bea- 
vors and Otters, afford them Plenty of Food, Plea- 
fure and Traffick •, and may we believe Capt. Whit- 

Beajls. hurn^ the wild Beafts as well as the Natives, were fo 
civil to the firft Difcoverers, that they never gave 
'em the leaft moleftation, or put 'em to much trou- 
ble to catch 'em. 

But fuch Stories as thefe, are of equal Credit with 
that of the Mermaid he pretended to fee *, and we fliall 
not endeavour to impofe either of 'em as Truth on 
our Readers: What's certain, is, That the Sea on 
this Coaft is almoft full of Fifh } as Cod, the ftaple 

JFijh. Commodity of the Country, Salmon, Herrings, 
Mackerel, Flounders, and an infinite Number of 
Trouts in the Rivers, which are not very broad or 
long, but there's plenty of them, and of Springs of 
good Water : Fowl for Food, and Game is to be met 
with every where of all forts, and is the greateft 
Convenience in the Country^ the Trade of which 
confifts in the Fifhery, one of the moft beneficial in 
the World, and yet it has been miferably negle&ed. 
Does it not look fomething like a Paradox, that we 
who are Mafters of the Sea, mould not be Mailers of 

Trade*. Trade, and especially of that Trade which is by 
Right our own *, and that the French, the meaneft 
Nation in the World with refpett to Commerce, con- 
fidering their Advantages, ftiou'd rival us in fo confi- 
derable a Branch of our Traffick? 'Tis pity, we 
who have driv'n 'em out of the Britijb and the Me- 
diterranean Seas, mould not clear the Atlantick of 
'em, and be entirely Mafters of our own Fifhery, 
which wou'd be fo advantagious to the Publick in ge- 
neral, and private Men in particular : For befides the 
Encouragement it gives to Navigation, the Seamen 
that it breeds, and the Trades that itmaintains, it en- 
creafes the National Stock wonderfully •, for let a Ship 
of 150 Tuns, Mann'd with 20 Hands make the Voy- 
age with nothing but Victuals and Fifbing-Tackle, 
fhe fhall bring 3000 /. worth of Fifh to Market in a 
good Year :, and that's a certain Gain to the King- 
dom, as well as to private Men. The Englifh and 
French feldom load lefs tha,n. 500 Ships a year, to 


The Hifiory of Newfoundland. t j 

frame, Portugal, Spain and Italy, with Cod and Poor* The Fifherj 
"John : And if the former did rightly confiderthe vaft 
Advantages of this Trade, they would fpare no Coft 
to eftablifh it on fo firm a Foundation, that all the Na- 
tions oi Europe cou'd not hurt them in it. They would 
think no Expenfe too great in building Forts, and 
fortifying the Harbours, fo that they may command 
the Fifhery in them : They would gladly be at the 
charge of a Squadron of Men of War to protect our 
own Fifhers, and hinder others from fiftiing •, and if 
they always lay there, we might eafily in a tew years 
engrofs the Trade to our felves, drive the French out 
of the Ifland, and the Neighbouring Continent', 
which, tho it may feem to be more eafily projected 
than 'tis to be effected, is a very feafible Defign, and 
what I doubt not the Wifdom of the Nation will take 
into Confideration. Whenever this is brought to 
pafs, the Banks of Newfoundland will be more valua- 
ble to the Englifh, than the Mines of Mexico and Peru 
to the Spaniards. Tho our Fifhers feldom fifh on the 
Banks, but off their Harbours in Sloops, yet the 
Great Bank and the others are fo much talk'd of, 
that 'twill be expected we mould fay fomething of 'em. 

All thefe Banks are vaft Heaps or Shoals of Sand,7fc Bwksl 
that lie along in the Ocean at feveral diftances from 
the Shore : The Great Bank is about 20 Leagues from 
Cape de Raz,, the neareft Point of Land to it ', 'tis 300 
Miles long, and 75 broad , the Sea that runs over it is, 
when 'tis Flood, feveral Fathom deep, and the largeft 
Ships may venture upon it without fear of ftriking, ex- 
cept at a place call'd the Virgins, where 'tis thought 
feveral Ships have been caft away, and the Men all 
perifh'd ; for many palling that way have never been 
heard or. The next Bank is ^n-Bank, about 80 
Miles long, and 40 over where 'tis broadeft : Then 
Banguero-Bmk lying in the fhape of a Shoe, about 
the bignefs of the other •, then the Shoals of Sand- 
Ifland, Whalebank ; the Shoals of Acadia, Miz^ana^ 
Bank, and the Bank of the Iflands in St. Peter's Bay : 
Off thefe Banks, now almoft wholly frequented by 
the French, and on the Coafts, there have been 6 or 
700 Sail of Ships fifhing at a time. Round the Great 
Bank, which is cover'd when the Sea is high, and dry 
in fome places at Ebb, there are 200 Fathom Wa- 


Vol. III. 
P- 592- 

14 The Hiftory of Newfoundland. 

ter on all fides of it \ and about it lie feveral final! 
Iflands call'd Los Buchaloos, or the Ifles of Cod-fifti, 
from the prodigious quantity of Cod there. The 
Fifhing-feafon is from Spring to September : The 20th of 
Auguft fome years ago us'd to be the laft day of the Sea- 
fon, and kept as a Holiday ; but lately the Fifhers ftay 
longer •, and whereas they us'd to fail before for Portu- 
gal and the Streights in September, they now feldom fail 
till Ottober •, they fifti always in the day-time, the 
Cod not biting by Night : Train Oil is drawn off 
the Livers of the Fifh, which are thrown up in Heaps 
when the Cod is cur'd, and thence there drains off 
the Oil which comes from Newfoundland. The Sea 
off thefe Banks are fometimes render'd unfafe by 
floating Iflands of Ice, which have been often met 
with hereabouts by Voyagers, particularly in May^ 
16% 6. a Gentleman homeward bound from Virginia to 
England, wrote, that he faw off of the Banks of New- 
foundland, feveral prodigious floating Iflands of Ice \ 
the Mafter of the Ship, at the Gentleman's Requeft, 
fail'd as near one of 'em as he durft fecurely, and 'twas 
judg'd to be a full League in length, higher above 
Water than the Main-maft Top, and the Snow drove 
to and fro upon it, as on a large Plain •, a great Flock 
of fmall black Divers, about the bignefs of a Feldyfare, 
came about the Ship a little before, but all of 'em left 
it, and betook themfelves to the Ifland •, this Gentle- 
man perceiv'd about 30 of thefe Iflands of Ice -, and to 
the Northward they are larger and more numerous. 
The tfidi- The Natives of this Ifland don't correfpond much 
dt! j. with the Englifh, but the French have had fome Deal- 
ings with them from Canada. They fay they are a tra- 
ctable People •, and the Englifh who have dealt with 
them fay the fame : They paint themfelves, and are 
cloath'd with Stags-skins, all their Cloathing being 
an Apron of it round their Waftes -, they are of fmall 
Stature, broad Face and breafted, without Beards, 
their Joints well knit, and their Limbs ftrong *, they 
are crafty, great Pilferers, dextrous at making Ket- 
tles and Canoes ', they believe in a God, which they 
fay created all things, and Men and Women, by ta- 
king a number of Arrows and flicking them in the 
Ground, from whence they fprung up. One of their 
Segamores being askt what he thought of our Religion 


The Hifioryof Newfoundland. 15 

and the Trinity, anfwer'd, there was one God, one 
Son, one Mother, and the Sun, which were four, 
yet God was above all. Some of 'emconverfe vifibly 
with the Devil* if we may give credit to the Super- 
ftition and Credulity of our Voyagers, and from the 
Devil receive Advice concerning their Wars and other 
Matters. Their young Women at Fifteen lie with as 
many Lovers as they pleafe for y or 6 years, then 
each of 'em choofes one for her Husband, and is after- 
wards very conftant to him. They fet their Dead in 
the Ground upright, with their Goods and Provifions 
as for a long Journey. They are great Dancers and 
Singers, and in their Dances the Women often throw 
away the little Covering they have, and frisk about 
(lark naked. We might enlarge our Difcourfe on the 
Indians of Newfoundland, but they differ fo little from 
thofe of the Continent, whom' we fhall frequently 
fpeak of, that 'tis needlefs to fay more of 'em here ^ 
befides, by converfing with Merchants and others 
who have dwelt on the foot, and confulting them a- 
bout the Character of the Natives given by fuch as 
have Written before us, we find there is little to be 
depended on in their Relations concerning them •, the 
Indians are either quite different now from what 
they were, when the firft Difcoverers came thi- 
ther, or thofe Adventurers impos'd upon the belief 
of their Readers in the Defcription they gave of 

We left the Englifh in PofTeflion of the Eaftern War be- 
Shore of Newfoundland, and carrying on their Trade ttoeen the 
of Fifhery peacefully and profitably, which continu'd Englijband 
all King Charles and King James's Reigns, but the F mcb ° 
French all that while grew upon them -, and when the 
War broke out between England and France on the 
Revolution, the Englifh and French in Newfoundland 
began to commit Afts of Hoftility againft one ano- 
ther : Both Nations were difturb'd in their Fifhing, 
and their Settlements alternatively deftroy'd, but the 
French were more careful of preferving their own 
than the Englifh, who were the greateft Sufferers, as 
will be feen in the following Pages. As to other E- 
vents in this Place from Sir David Kirk's coming 
thither, to the Late War, there were none worth 
remembring j and what can we expert of that nature 



16 The Hiftory of Newfoundland: 

in the Hiftory of a Place fo poor, and fo void of Go* 
vernment ? 

After the Revolution, and the breaking out of the 
War, the Englifh and French fell upon each other, 
as often as they had any opportunity of doing it with 
advantage. The Englifh began firft, and with 5 Men 
of War, the St. Albans a Third Rate Frigat, carry* 
ing 66 Guns, being Commadore, attack'd P/dcwta*, 
but were oblig'd to retreat, the French having made 
better Preparations for their Reception than they ex- 
pected ; but the latter were more fuccefsful in their 
i6$G. Attempts on the Englifh, for in September, 1696. 
they came down upon our Harbours with 6 Men of 
War ', the Telican, Diamond^ taken from the Englifh, 
Count de Tholoufe, Harcourt, Philip, Vendunge, and 
fome Fire-fhips and Galleys : Off Cape Spear, they 
came up with the Saphire -Friggat, Captain Cleasby 
Commander, to whom they gave Chafe, but he got 
into the Bay of Bulls, where he did all he could to 
fortify the Place in the little time he had to do it j 
the Englifh who liv'd in that Harbour came to his 
Affiftance, but on the approach of the French they all 
ran away. On the nth of September, the whole 
French Squadron came down upon the Saphire, and 
fir'd with the utmoft Fury *, Captain Cleasby made a 
brave Defence for 2 hours, and hall'd moft of the 
Ship's Guns on her fide next the Enemy ', the French 
at the fame time made a Defcent, and having driven 
the Men that were afhore into the Woods, attack'd 
the Saphire on all fides *, the Captain finding 'twas 
impoffible to maintain the Ship any longer, fet her on 
fire, and retir'd with his Officers and 3 5 Men to the 
Woods. When the Saphire was on fire, 40 French 
Men came aboard, endeavouring to extinguifh it, 
but they were all blown up into the Air afloon as the 
Fire reach'd the Powder Room j 100 more of the Sa- 
phire's Crew getting afhore, made the beft of their 
way towards Ferry land, but were intercepted and 
taken by the Enemy ; Captain Cleasby and his Compa- 
ny reach'd that Harbour, where he did his utmoft to 
defend the Settlement againft. the French, who came 
and attack'd it. The 2 ift of the fame Month they lan- 
ded <roo Men, who approach'd within Musket-fhot very 
refolutely, and the Englifh firing upon them with e- 


The Hiftory of Newfoundland. i ? 

jual Refolution oblig'd them to halt •, the French re- 
^urn'd their Fire, and fent a Trumpet to fummpn 
them to furrender. Captain Cleasby feeing 'twas 1m- 
poffiblefor him to repel fo many Men with lo few, 
Sine to a Treaty, and deliver'd up the Place, which 
was not tenable: Himfelf, his Lieutenant, and his 3 S 
Men, were made Prifoners of War, and fent to 
France •- from whence they return'd to England by 
Exchange ', and the French deftroy'd that and all the 
other Englifh Settlements, except St. John\Bonavf? 
and Carboneer Harbours. King Wilham being m- 
form'd what Damage they had done to thQ Engiiin 
a-fhore, and how they interrupted their Fifnery upon 
theCoaft, order'd a Squadron of Men of War to be ^ 
Equip'd and Commanded by Admiral .Nevil, and Nevii ^ 
1500 Men were put aboard under the Command or . s >j ohn 
Sir JohnGibfon, at prefent Deputy Governour ot Gibfon 
Portsmouth. Admiral Nevil fail'd in the following tberem - 
Year, and arriving at Newfoundland, the French im- 
mediately abandon'd all the Places they had taken 
from the Englifti, on the South fide of the Ifland. 
Monfieur Pointy was at the fame time on the Coait 
with a Squadron of French Men of War, and Admi- 
ral Nevil fell in with Him, but loft him in a 
F02. After this Sit John Gib fon held a Council of 
War, and the Sea-Officers aflifting at it, 'twas de- 
bated whitherthey fhou'dperfue Pointy: The latter 
were for it', but the Land-Officers againft ^Jointy 
having more Ships thm Nevil; and if the Englilh 
fhou'd have had the worft of it, it had endanger d the 
lofs of their Part of the Ifland. The Marquefs de 
Nefmond and Monfieur Pointy appear'd oft St. Johns 
Harbour with 1 5 Men of War, a few days afterwards, 
and Admiral Nevil had but 12 Ships of lefs Force in 
the Bay. He immediately fent notice to C^t.Vrake, 
Commander of the Sea-Horfe, ™ &abereen H*x- 
bour, that the French were on the Coaits, and bad 
him be upon his Guard ; but the Enemy did not thinK 
fit to attack ev'n that fingle Frigot, for fear of daring 
the Englifh to a Combat. Sir John Gibfon* Men be- 
ing very fickly, hinder'd his doing any thing conti- xtfp3# 
derable by Land. He built a regular Fort at St.Jolms Co]l HaiF 
Harbour, which he call'd Fort William, and left dafide Go „ 
Col. Handafide, the prefent Governour ot Jamaica vsrmur , 



i$ The Hiftory of Newfoundland. 

Commander there, with 80 Men} after which he 
return'd to England. 
1 69 <?. In the following year, Captain Norris arriv'd at 
St. John's Harbour with a Squadron of Men of War } 
and had a Commiffion to be Governour at land alfo. 
Colonel Handafide going for England foon after, Cap- 
tain William Lilburn fucceeded him in the Command 
of the Garrifon in Fort William *, but there being Peace 
with France, few Events worthy the Cufiofity of the 
Reader happen'd in this Country \ where the Fifhery 
not being diflurb'd, new Inhabitants came every year } 
infomuch that the People doubled in 3 years time. 

1 700. In the following year, Sir Andrew Lake arriv'd with 
a Squadron of Men •, King William, notwithftanding 
it was a peaceable time, thinking the Newfoundland 
Trade of fo much Importance, that 'twas worth 

Captain t ^ ie while to be at the yearly charge of a Squadron to 
Humphry defend it. This year Captain Lilburn refign'd his 
Haven Command of the Garrifon of Fort William to Captain 
Governor. Humphry Haven , who did not enjoy it long } for in 

1 701. the enfuing year, Captain John Vowel was made Go- 
vernor of the Fort : He was fucceeded the next year 
by Colonel Michael Richards. This Gentleman being 
an excellent Ingineer, made feveral Improvements at 
the Fort, added other Works, and fo ftrengthen'd it, 
that 'tis a very regular Fortification, and one of the 
ftrongeft in America. 

And now the Englifh and French began to commit 
new Acts of Hoftility on each other. Sir John Lake 
arriving with a Squadron of Men of War, deftroy'd 
Laptam 3 French Men of War, and 30 Merchant-men, in the 
Th. Lloyd Bay of St. Peter, where the Englifh landed, attack'd, 
Governor, took, and raz'd the Fort. Colonel Richards returning to 
1704. England, Captain Thomas Lloyd was made Governour 
Captain f p Grt William in the following year : and Captain 
Joh. Moo- j^ 2\4 00 dy had the fame command in the next} 
dy Gover- Captain, now Major Lloyd, being then in England. 
In the enfuing year he return'd to Newfoundland } and 
his Government there : A fatal year was this to the 
Englifh } the French invaded and deftroy'd all their 
Settlements, burnt St. John's Town, and befieg^d the 
Fort with a 1000 Men} but the Garrifon defended 
themfelves with the utmoft bravery for 5 Weeks to- 
gether •, during which time, the French held them in 








The Hlfiory of Newfoundland. 1 9 

continual play night and day, with Attacks and A- 
larms, and at laft weary'd out with the vigorous 
Refiftance they made, retir'd, carrying off half 
of the Englifh Prifoners with them, the reft raving 
themfelves, and the beft of their Effects in the Fort : 
The French wanted Stores themfelves \ raid if the 
Sloop they exp^&ed with Supplies had arriv'd, they 
intended to have attackt the Redoubt again, and have 
ftorm'd the Fort } boa/ting, if they had St. John's 
Town, they would keep all the Fifhery to themfelves, 
They threaten ftill a new Invafion, expecting Ships 
and more Troops at Quebeck from France for that 
purpofe. They deftroy'd all the Fifhing-craft, andleft 
none of the Englilh Youth they could light on there 
when they went away, fome they fent to France ^ who 
came to England by Exchange : Others, for want of 
being exchang'd, enter'd into the French Service j and 
fome are Slaves at Quebeck. They have now at Via- 
centia, aGovernour, a Lieutenant-Governour, a Ma- 
jor, 3 Captains, and Subalterns anfwerable, 3 Com- , 
panies of Soldiers, 1 Gunner, 1 Bombardier, 3 Sar- j C count 
geants, 1 o Mafons, and other Artificers, 500 Fighting- &c> ' 
Men, befides 300 Indians and Canadians \ and do 
their utmoft to fortify themfelves, fo that they may 
fecure their own Fifhery, and deftroy ours \ which, 
if effected, would be a Lofs to the Nation of 500000 /. 
a year *, for fo much it has clear'd by this Trade on- 
ly. To defend themfelves till Supplies come from Eng- 
land^ the Inhabitants at St. John's Town have now built 
their Houfes round the Fort, under the Command of 
the Cannon, for fear of any newlnfult from the Ene- 
my : Within the Palifadoes drawn round this new 
Town, they have alfo built a Church, whofe Minifter 
is the Reverend Mr. John Jackfon : 'Tis not fo big as 
that which was deftroy'd by the French •, who have 
not fince made any further attempts on the Englilh \ 
and thofe that left their Harbours, are fince return'c! 
to them. 






Its DifcO' 




O F 


From its Disco very to the 
prefent Times. 

' Ova Scotia is part of the Terra Canadensis *, 
faid to be firft difcover'd by fome Bretons 
in the Reign of Lewis XII. but that was 
only en pafjant. Francis I. the French 
King, knt JohnVerazxan, whomwemention'dinthe 
Hiftory of Newfoundland; to take pofleffion of it in his 
Name. Verazxan landed in North Canada, andpof- 
fefs'd himfeif of the Country that lies beyond the Ri- 
ver of St. Lawrence, which is now the French Canada : 
But of that part to the Southward of the River, he 
made little or no Difcoveries ; for foon after he land- 
ed in Acadia, or New-Scotland, the Savages fur- 
priz'd and murder 'd, and fome fay, eat him up. The 
j^g/i/ft always took Acadia to be part of North Virgi- 
nia ; and indeed the fir ft Virginia- Company thought 
all was their own, which ihou'd be difcover'd North- 
ward, and was not planted by any other European. 
Nation. Sebaftian Cabot's having been there before the 
Bretons, or Veraxxari, by the ufual way of adjudging 
Right to the Weft-Indies, feem'd to give them the 
belt Title to it. The Princes of Europe thought they 
might difpofe of the Dominions of the Barbarians ; and 
made no fcruple of turning them out of their Dwel- 


The Hiftory of New-Scotland. 21 

lings, if their Subje&s wou'd go fo far to take their 
places. All thofe Countries that had no Inhabitants, 
were free to the firft Comers : and the ftrft that fet- 
tled here were the Englifh. 

The Bounds of this Province are the Atlantic}. O- Bounds. 
cean to the North, Breto»-l{\axi& and the Bay of St. 
Lawrence to the Ea/l \ Canada to the Weft, and New- 
England to the 'South: It runs from +3 to 51 Degrees 
N. L. and from the River of St. Croix in Norembegua, 
to the great River of Canada ; has almoft 200 Leagues 
of Coaft \ but was never much inhabited by the Indi- 
ans themfelves. 

When Sir Ferdinando Gorges was Prefident of the 
New-England Company, confidering the Extent of 
the Limits of their Charter, he p^opos'd to Sit Wmmpuut. 
am Alexander, one of 'the Secretaries of State for Scot- 
land, and afterwards Earl of Sterling, to procure a 
particular Patent for the Land to the Northward ot 
New-England, which Sit William, who was in favour 
with King James, eafily obtain'd •, and a. Patient tor 
this Country was granted him, bearing date Septem- 
ber the 10th, i62i. The next year, Sir Wilham and 
fome others, whom he got to be concern'd with 
him, fenta Ship, with a Company aboard , to fettle 
there, and plant: Thefe Adventurers fetting out too 
late, were forc'd to winter at Newfoundland. In 
1*23. They fet fail, and made Cape Breton, a Pro- 
montory, on the Northern Shore of Breton-mmd : 
They coafted it along, till they came to Port- Afouton, 
near Cape Sable in Acadia: Here they found three 
pleafant Harbours', and went afhorein one of them, The firjl 
which they calPd Luke's Bay : They fail'd up a great Voyage 
way in a large River, that had 8 Fathom Water zttbttber, 
Ebb : On each fide of it they beheld flowry Meadows, 
and a charming Profpeft of green Hills, and ftiady 
Groves •, or rather high Mountains, and thick For- 
refts : The Fields were deckt with Rofes red and 
white, and Lillies of a fragrant fmell : They jaw no 
body here 5 and their Curiofity being fatisfy'd, they 
coafted along to the next Harbour, two Leagues oft } 
Here they met with a broader and deeper River, and 
a more lovely Profped than before : They perceiv d 
the Situation was commodious for a Settlement, the 
Soil rich, ftor'd with Fruit and Grain, and fo natural- Ik Soil 

c$ iy 






Seifd by 
the French 



phique & 
que des 
Coftes de 
i' Ame- 
rique Sep- 

The Hifiory of New-Scotland. 

ly difpos'd for ftrength,that it might eafily be fortify'd. 
Goofeberries, Strawberries, Hurtleberries, grew there 
in abundance j as alfo Rye, Barley, and Wheat : But 
our Authors do not tell us who fow'd or planted them. 
From thence they fail'd to the next Harbour 12 
Leagues off, and found the Country ftill the fame, 
fruitful and beautiful : The Rivers were ftor'd with 
Cod, and other Fifh, great and fmall : There was 
alfo plenty of Fowl at land, as Wild-Geefe, Black- 
Ducks, Woodcocks, Herons, Pigeons, and many 
forts of Birds, the like to which they had never feen be- 
fore. The Timber Trees were Oak, Firr, Spruce, 
Birch, and other Wood, for which they knew no 
Name: yet all .thefe. Temptations did not prevail 
with them to flay -, They return'd to England 
the fame year, and vifited the Place no more. 

Thus the Plantation never came to any thing : and 
tho feveral Ships went thither to fifh, and load Lum- 
ber from England, and feveral Parts of America, yet. 
neither the Engliih nor the Scots ever perfefted a Set- 
tlement j which gave the French an opportunity to 
, feizethe Country, and fortify themfelves there at TV* 
Royal, on the North fide oiFunda Bay, in 4.5 Deg.N.L. 

The Engliih had fo little an opinion of this Ter- 
ritory, that they abandon 'd it to the French by the 
Treaty of Breda, 1 667. and made no attempt to 
difpoffefs thofe Intruders, till the late War •, at which 
we the more wonder, becaufe their Settlement was 
fo near New-England, that in all cafes of a Rupture-, it 
lay convenient to incommode them : And befides, if 
the Defcription we have given of the Province from 
our own Authors, and what the French fay of it be 
true, 'twas very well worth our while to put in our 
claim to it, and not give up our Right out of Com- 
placency to the French : But 'twas done in a Reign 
that was more favourable to France, than we or our 
Pofterity, I hope, ihall ever find another. 

The People of New-England had fuch fentiments of 
the Neighbourhood of the French in New-Scotland, 
that they refolv'd to drive 'em out at their own 
charge : They had built a ftrong Fort at Port-Royal *, 
where Monfieur Meneval prefided as Governour : 
They had alfo feveral Plantations along the Coaft ; 
and drove a confiderable Trade in Lumber, Fifhing, 


[The Hiftory of New-Scotland. 


and Furrs *, being encreas'd to cror 7000 Souls \ who, 
in conjunction with their Indian-Allies, were trouble- 
fom to the Englifti about Cafco Bay, and Weils, in 
New-England : To rid themfelves of this Enemy, the 
Government of New-England fent Sir William Phips sir w\ 
with 700 Men, and a convenient number of Ships, to Phips 
diflodge them: Sir William fail'd from Nantafcot on **» «■ 
the Wh of April, 1690. and on the nth tf -^«tS£J? 
riv'd before Port Royal: Monfieur Meneval the Go- 
vernour, furrender'd the Place after two or three days 
refinance *, and Sir William Phips took pofieffion of it 
in the Name of King William and Queen Mary, de- 
molifh'd the Fort, fent away the French Garrifon, and 
took an Oath of Allegiance to the King and Queen of 
England, of the French that ftay'd there ; over whom 
he plac'd a Governour. Sir William in his return 
deftroy'd another French Settlement at St. John's Ri- 
ver, on the South fide of Funda Bay. The Englifti for 
fome time carry'd on a beneficial Traffick with the 
Natives for Furrs •, and Baron La Hontan complains La Hon- 
they under-fold the French, and took fuch meafures, tan. 
as he fear'd wou'd in time drive the latter quite out of 
the Trade : But the French have fince recover'd Port They n* 
Royal, and their other places in Nova Scotia, which turn. 
they call Acady ', and the Englifh now content 
themfelves with their old Title to the Country, with- 
out any Endeavours to regain it. . 

Twill be expe&ed we mould fay fomething ot the 
Natives of New-Scotland, as well as of other Provin- 
ces of America : Thofe that dwell about Port Royal, 
werecall'd the Sour iquois, and were of a midling Sta- Delaet. 
ture, well-limb'd, tawny, black-hair'd, l^ardlels, all,*?/ the N& 
except their Rulers and Principal Men, the reft being t/vw. 
oblig'd to pluck up their Beards by the roots •, they 
were drefs'd like other Indians, wearing only a Cove- 
ring over their Nudities : In Summer they hv'd upon 
Fifli, and upon Indian Corn in Winter, but did not 
know how to make it into Bread, till they were 
taught by the Europeans : They had no Form nor 
Notion of Religion-, their Conjurors whom they 
call'd Autmoins, were their Priefts and Doctors: 
They confulted the Devil's Oracles, and receiv'd am- 
biguous Anfwers, like the Greeks at Delphos: They 
had certain Tabagfa or Feftivals, at which they us d 
C 4. tQ 

24 The Hiftory of New-Scotland. 

to fing and dance incelTantly: We have met with 
fome of their Mufick and Poetry, which we believe 
the Curious will be pleas'd to lee i 

lameja alle luya Tameja douvem Hau Hau He He. 

The two laft Notes He He, were repeated by all the 
Company prefent, like a Grand Chorus : And the Au- 
thor which Mr. Delaet took this from, affirms he often 
heard the word Me-Luya, a part of the facred Canti- 
cles, in their Songs, averring it to be genuine. 




O F 



Containing an Account of its Difcovery, Set- 
tlement, Ways with the Indians and French 9 
and all Events to the prefent Times. 


H I S Province being part of the Continent 1583 
which was dikover'd by Sir Walter Raw- Its ^ 
leigh's Servants, Barlow and Amidas ; and verjt 

r :0- 

by QneenEliz,abeth call'd Virginia ; we refer 
the Reader to the Hiftory of that Country for "a further 
Account of its Difcovery. The firft Man who landed 
here of oar Nation, was Sir Francis Drake, returning 
from the Weft-Indies, in the year 158* Heitayd 
two or three days-on the Coaft, and traded with the 
People for what he wanted. One of the Indian Kings 
fubmittedto Queen Elizabeths a Submiffion which 
ffcnirVd no more than a Courtiers Compliment. 
Captain Barlow, and fuch as fail'd to Virginia after 
him, generally went to South Carolina and thoie 
partson the Continent to the Southward of the Bay 
of Chefeapeak which were all call'd South Virginia, as 
thofe to the Northward were North Virginia, for feve : 
ral Years. Q ^ 




26 The Hiftory of New-England. 

Copt ; Gof- Captain Bartholomew Gofnold, of whom we have 
had occafion to fpeak in the fame Hiftory that we have 
mention'd above, wasthefirft Englishman who made 
any confiderable ftay in this Country : He was very 
well treated by the Savages*, and traded in the 
Latitude of 43. where he made land near Pifcataway 
River -, but not liking the Weather he met with there, 
he flood more to the Southward : He fail'd all Night, 
1 £02. and next Morning found himfelf imbay'd within a 
mighty Head of Land, which Promontory he call'd 
Cape Cod, from tha vaft quantity of Cod-fifh he took 
there -, 'tis the Northern Point of Plymouth County : 
He alfo gave the name of Martha's Vineyard, and 
Elizabeth-Wand, to two Iflands lying to the South- 
ward of the Cape, where lonie of his Crew made an 
Experiment how Englifh Corn would grow, and 
before they went, they faw what they had fown come 
up very kindly. 

The Reputation of this place, by the Character Cap- 
tain Gofnold had given it, put fome Gentlemen upon 
begging a Grant of it, (and this is the Charter we 
have mentioned in the above-cited Hiftory to be 
granted to Thomas Hanham, Rawleigh Gilbert, Willi- 
am Parker, George Popham, Efquires *, and others 
of the Town of Plimouth, &c. to plant where they fhall 
think fit and convenient, between 3 8 and 45 Degrees of 
Northern Latitude?) The Lord Chief Juftice Popham, 
Sir Ferdinando Gorges Governour of Plimouth, and fe- 
veral other Weft-Country Gentlemen and Merchants, 
were concern'd in this Company -, who, in Auguft, 
1 606. fet out a Ship for a Voyage to North Virginia : 
There were about 30 Men aboard ; and the direction 
Mr, Chal- of the Affair was given to Mr. Henry Challons : who 
Ions fet fail'd as far as the Spanifh Ifles •, and falling in with a 
Fleet of Spaniards, was taken, and fent Prifoner to 
Spain, together with all his Companions ; where he 
and they were barbaroufly treated. Tho the Adven- 
turers were very much difcourag'd by this ill Succefs, 
yet the Lord Chief Juftice Popham quickly after fent 
out another Ship, commanded by Captain Hanham, 
one of the Pattentees •, who made fuch Difcoveries, as 
Cm, Pop- *h°fe wno feM °ff before, refolv'd now to adventure a- 
ham' and S am '■> an ^ accordingly Captain Popham, and Captain 
Captain Gilbert, two others of the Pattentees 3 were difpatch'd 
Gilbert. away 

Firfl Fro 



out by 


The Hifiory of New-England. 


away with Two Ships, 100 Men, Ordnance, Stores, 
and Provifions, for a Plantation. Thefe Gentlemen 
arriv'd there in the year itfo8. and feated themfelves i*°*. 
about the River of Sagadahockin Norembegua; At the 
Mouth of which River, they built St. George's Fort : 
But Captain Popham dying, and Captain Gilbert be- 
ing oblig'dto return to England, to take pofleffion of 
an Eftate which was fall'n to him by the Death of his 
Elder Brother Sir John Gilbert, at that time Prefident 
of the North Virginia Company, the new Plantation 
was broken up, and the Planters re-imbark'd for Eng- 
land. Things lay thus till the year texi. and then itfu. 
fome of the Adventurers, who had more Courage than 
the reft, and was loth to lofe the Country, fitted out 
two Ships, commanded by Captain Hobfon, and Cap- ^P™P 
tain Herly, and accommodated with Men, Arms, Am- "$W 
munition, and Provifions, for a new Settlement : But*™ R ^ 
one Hind an Interloper, fet the Savages againft them . 
upon their Arrival} and the Indians afTaulting them, '" 
wounded many, tho they kill'd none. Captain Hob- 
fon perceiving 'twas to no purpofe for him to ftay 
there, and coming thither to trade, and not to war, 
failH home again to England : However, notwith- 
ftanding all thefe Difcouragements, the Trade was fo 
beneficial by the Furrs, and other Commodities, that 
were brought thence, that four Gentlemen, Captain 
Rawden, Captain Langham, Mr. My, and Mr. Shlton, 
fet out two good Ships at their own charge, to make 
Peace with the Indians, and renew the Traffick: The 
Command of the Ships, and the Management of the 
Adventure, was given to Captain John Smith, who had Captain 
been Prefident of the Colony at South Virginia^ and J°hn 
was famous for his Exploits there : The Captain being *>mitn s 
come to the Coafts, fifh'dforCod, traded with the Adven- 
Inhabitants *, and having only 8 Men in his Compa-«w- 
ny, landed, rang'd up and down, and furvey'd the 
Country. He made a very good Voyage •, and put 
1500/. in his Pocket: The Gentlemen on whofe ac- i^i 3 „ 
count he went, were alfo fully re-imburs'd their" 
Charges by the Produce of their Otter and Beaver 
Skins, Salt Fifh, Train Oil, and other Commodi- 
ties. He prefented the Court of Managers of the c a H'd 
North Virginia Company, with a Draught of the New-En- 
Country •, and got it call'd by the Name oiNew-Eng- gland. 



2 8 


Smith ta 
ten by the 



The qctaji* 
on of the 
firfl Settle 
mem by 
Mr. John 


The Hiftory of New-England. 
land in the year i er 4. The Society upon this Suc- 
ceis, immediately difpatch'd away 4 Ships, manning 
them with the fame Men that had been with Captain 
Smth , who did not go this Voyage, and filling up 
their Compliment with others : Thefe Ships made 
their Voyage in fix Months, as the laft had done, an3 
return d with a profitable Lading. The fame year, 
Captain Smith fail'd with two Ships for New-England 1 
and ill Weather breaking hisMafts, he was forc'd to 
return toPhmouth: Whence, fo eager was he for the 
Voyage,, he put to Sea only with a Bark, and pro- 
ceeding towards New-England, was taken by the 
■ French, and fent Prifoner into France : One of the 
Ships that was to have gone with him, arriv'd there ; 
and came back with a good Cargo. 

The next year, there went 8 Ships from London 
and Phmouth, which were loaden with Fifli and Train 
Oil} and fold their Commodities at good Rates in 
Spam, and the Canary Iflands. The year after, the 
Company fent no Ships thither \ but in the following 
year two ftout Ships fail'd from Plimouth', and made 
a profperous and profitable Voyage in 5 Months. In 
the year enfuing, another Ship was fent to New-Bng- 
land ; and the Adventurers fucceeded fo well, that e- 
very private Seaman had, clear of all Charges, 17/. to 
his fhare,in 6 Months time •, as much as 3 o /. now j and 
as good as 5 /. a Month, a Matter's Pay. Thus the 
Trade to this Country went forward, but the Settle- 
ment was little thought of-, till Mr. John Robinfon and 
Mr. William Brewfler (the former an Independant 
Minifter, who was driven out of England in the Reign 
of King James I. for his Principles, and liv'd at Leyden) 
reviv'd the Enterprize : Mr. Brewfler, and feveral Eng- 
lifh Families follow'd Mr. Robinfon to Holland ; where, 
'tho they had the Liberty of their Confciences, yet 
they found a great many Hardfhips and Inconveniences } 
and thought by removing to America, they might 
not only have the fame Liberty of Confcience, but 
more Opportunities of providing for their Families. 
King James, by Sir Robert Nanton, the Secretary of 
State's Mediation, confented to their tranfporting 
themfelves thither. Sir Robert ask'd the King, That 
fuch a People might enjoy their Liberty of Confcience, un- 
der his Gracious Protettion^ in. America •, where they 


The Hiftory of New-England. 29 

Wou'd endeavour the Advancement of his Majefly's Do- 
tninions, and promote the GofpeL The King reply 'd, 
'Twas a good and honeji Propofal. Mr. Brewfter ( for 
Mr. Robinfon did not live to go in Perlon) made an A- 
greement with the Company for a large Tract of Land 
in the South- Weft parts of New-England. He and his 
Companions embark'd at Delft, andfail'd to Southamp- 
ton -, where they met another Ship, that went with 
them, having feveral DifTenters aboard, who, quite 
tir'd out with the Perfecutions they met with, on ac- 
count of their Non-conformity, were refolv'd to ac- 
company them. They fet fail the <$th of Augvft, 1620. 1610. 
and after a dangerous Voyage, fell in with Cape Cod 
the 9 th of November : They defign'd to have fat down 
upon Hudfon River -, but their Dutch Pilot had been 
brib'd by the Hollanders to carry them more to the 
Northward •, the Dutch intending themfelves to take 
PofTeffionof that part of the Continent, which they The firft 
did afterwards j and were lately difpofiefs'd by the Colony ar- 
Englifh, who call the Country NewTorh Being ™*~ 
come upon the Coaft they intended to poflefs, they re- 
folv'd on a Form of Government before they landed, 
and fign'd an Inftrunlent as the Foundation of it ' 7 
Declaring themfelves Subjects of the Crown of England, 
joining in a Body Politick, andfolemnly engaging Sub- 
miffion and Obedience to the haws, &c. that Jhou'd 
from time to time be made for the Good of the Colony. • 
This was done on the 1 \th of November \ after which 
they chofe Mr. John Carver to be their Governour : Aft& John 
who fent 1 6 Men afhore to make Difcoveries, and Carver 
look out a convenient; Seat for their Settlement : They Governor. 
landed over againft Rhode Ifland, in the Kingdom of 
Patuxet; which Indian Nation had lately been de- 
ftroy'd by a Peftilence. The Savages, as they advanc'd 
higher up within Land, fled from them •, However, 
they found fome Indian Corn that was bury'd in the 
Snow. They fent another Party of 30 Men, and a 
third of 20, who had the fame Succefs : The laft were 
furrounded by fome Indians, who let fly a ihower of 
Arrows at them} but upon the Engliih firing their 
Pieces, they fled into the Woods, as the others had 
done. They then took Boat, and fail'd, till they 
came to a place which feem'd to be for their purpofe : 
The Land was high, and accomodated with pleafant 




jo The Hiftory of New-England. 

Fields and Brooks j The Harbour was a Bay larger 
than Cape Cod } and two fine Iilands, Rhode Ifland, 
and Elizabeth Ifland, in it. This Place was alio fo 
near Cape Cod, that it might be feen from an adja- 
cent Hill. 

Here thefe Adventurers refolv'd to feat themfelves - 
and accordingly began to build a Town on Chrifimas- 
day } which in 4 Months fpace they effected in fome 
Pli mouth meafure, and calTd it Plimouth. They had yet no 
colonjf. Authority from England to confirm them in their 
PoneiTIons , the Place being too far to the North- 
ward of that which they had treated for : and till they 
were impower'd to proceed legally by Charter from 
the King, they agreed among themfelves to chufe Ru- 
lers, who were, as near as pcffible, to govern them 
by the Laws of England. They faw no Indians all the 
Winter \ but were feverely afflicted by Sicknefs, 
which leffen'd their number from 150, to 50 Men. 
Early in the Spring, one of the Lords of the Moratig- 
gon Indians, who dwelt 5 days Journey from them, 
enter'd their Town alone, and bad them Welcome in 
Engliih •, for he had learnt a little of the Language by 
his converfing with thofe Traders that had been there 
before from England : Him they treated highly, and 
engag'd in their Interefts - as they did Majfajfoit, the 
greateft King in all thole parts, by the means or one 
Squanto an Indian, who had been in England : and tho 
he had no great caufe to love them for the occafion of 
his being there, yet he was fo well us'd, that he ever 
after had a friendfhip for the Engliih : He had been 
fpirited away by Hunt the Interloper, with Twenty 
Indians \ whom that Traitor fold to the Spaniards for 
Slaves : Squanto afterwards made his efcape into Eng- 
land i and was a Servant to one Mr. Slany •, from 
whom, tho he had noreafonbut his love of Liberty to 
leave him, he got away to his own Country •, and did 
very fignal Services to our Nation : For he fatisry'd the 
Indians, who in revenge, had till then'refolv'd to mur- 
der all the Englifh who fell into their hands, that this 
Hunt was generally cry'd out againft as a Villain, for 
An Ambaf w ^ at ^ e ^ done. Squanto was more than ordinarily 
fyto the kind to the New Colony, ferv'd them as an Interpre- 
Iniixn ter, and as fuch accompany'd Mr. Win/low in his Am- 
Kjng Maf- bafty to MafaJoit 7 to confirm the Peace that King had 
faffoit. come 



The Hijlory of New-England, 
come on purpofe to conclude at Plimouth Town : Mr. 
Win/low had the honour to be lodg'd on the Royal Bed 
bly Maffajfoit and his Queen •, the King doing the fame 
fionour to two or three of his Grandees *, which crou- 
ded the Ambaflador fo, that he did not at all like his 
Lodging-, befides, Majfaffoifs Court was fo ill provi- 
ded with Food, that Mr. Win/low was almoft ftarv'd : 
However, this Friendfhip was the more defir'd, be- 
caufe the Narragantfets, a powerful Nation, had de- 
clar'd War with the Colony, and fent them an 
Ambaflade of Defiance •, which Mr. Carver return'd 
boldly, and fomewhat check'd the Infolence of the 
Barbarians. The Governour dying in the firft year of wm . 
his Government, William Bradford Efq-, was chofen Watford 
to fupply his place: He was a Torkjbire Gentleman, E yw re 
and one of thofe who came from Holland ; from whence G QVsmr . 
more Families arriv'd, as alfo others from England,ht- 
fore the end of the Summer : And now the People began 
to plant in the Fields about the Town, to clear 
the Woods, to enlarge their Bounds, and built a 
fort of Fort at Plimouth, to prevent any furprize from 
the Narragantfets. They were in great diftrefs for 
want of Corn, till their own was fit to be gather'd j 
and that had like to have been fpoil'd by a fevere 
Drought, but there fell afterwards fuch refrefhing 
Showers, asrecover'd it} and the Settlement flourifti'd 
and encreas'd daily. In the mean while, they had no 
Pattent from England : To get which, they employ'd a 
Perfon, who took it out in his own Name, andwou'd 
have betray'd the Colony *, but at laft, after feveral un- 
fuccefsful Attempts to go thither, he refign'd it : And 
Mr. Win/low, the New-England Agent in England, pro- 
cur'd one ', which he took out in the name of the Go- 
vernour, William Bradford, his Heirs, Ajfociates, and 
Affigns : But when the Number of Freemen increas'd, 
the General Court defir'd him to furrender it into their 
hands ; which he generouily did. And thus the Pro- 
vince became a kind of Republick, by Pattent from 
King James I. that Pattent (referring the Sovereignty to 
the Crown of England) enabled the People to choofe a 
Governour, Council, and General Court, in manner of a 
Parliament', who Jbould have full Power of Adminijira- 
?, Execution, &c. As will appear by the Laws, to 


which I refer the Reader. For want of a regular Chro- 


the Hiftory of New-England. 

nology in this Hiftory, we are forc'd to ante-date 
fonie Events, andpoftpone others*, but we have been 
as exaft as poffible \ and fometimes fhall do thus, on 
purpofe to avoid breaking the thread of the Difcourfe. 
The People .at Tlimouth extended their Trade on all 
fides : And Mr. Bradford put to Sea in Perfon, to find 
out a PafTage to the Maffachvfets within the Shoals of 
Cape Cod *, but he did not fucceed in it •, However, 
he went thither by Land to trade with them. He 
found the Nation in a fickly Condition, and in an ill 
Humour with the Englifh, on account of fome LofTes 
they had fuffer'd from a Colony that had planted them* 
felves among them, under the Direction of Mr. We- 
fton, who defer ted that at Tlimouth, and feated ano- 
ther fmall one at Weymouth, in Suffolk CoUnty in Maf- 
fachufet's Bay. This Mr. Wefion, and his Followers, 
diflenting from the Church of New-England, fet up a 
Cot. Mat. Form of Worfhip in imitation of the Anglican Church * 7 
and 'twere to be wiih'd, that they had taken care by 
their Lives to adorn the Do&rine they profeft. On 
the contrary, They abus'd the Friendfhip of the Colo- 
ny at Tlimouth, and robb'd the Savages j and what 
was worft of all, they had enter'd into a iort of Part- 
nership in fome points of Trade with the Tlimouth Co- 
lony, which feem'd to make them concern'd in their 
Robberies •, and that render'd them Mpefted to the 
Indians. Mr. Wefion* s Men fpoil'd the Indian Trade, 
by the great Prices they gave for Furrs and Corn. 
The Governour from this Nation return'd to Nanfet, 
at the Bottom of Cape Cod, thence to Mattachiefi, Na- 
masket, and Manomet •, where he got good (tore of 
Corn. The King of the laft Nation, acknowleg'd the 
Sovereignty of King James. Mr. Bradford by thefe tar- 
ding Voyages plentifully fupply'd his Friends, who had 
not Corn enough of their own Growth, to anfwer the 
confumption of the Colony. The next Perfon who was 
fent aboard on the like account, was Captain Miles 
Standijb, who commanded the Militia of the Settle- 
ment \ which by this time amounted to 4'or 500 Men 
effeftive : He went to Mattachiefi, but was not as 
well us'das the Governour, for the Savages pilfer'd his 
Baggage as theyfaw opportunity to do it: While he 
was at Manomet, another Indian Town, one Witu- 
wamet a Majfachufet Indian, came to the King as an 



The Hiflory of New-England. $3 

AmbafFador from that Nation, to defire him to enter 
into a League with them for the extirpating theEnglifh 
as well at Plimouth as at Weymouth. C^tStandiJIj^ktt 
this Man had had his Audience, perceiv'd his Ufage 
was worfe than before ', fo he got his Corn aboard 
his Sloop as faft as he could, and haften'd back to 
Plimouth, having twice efcap'd the Defignsof a Tray* 
terous Indian, imploy'd by the Sachem, or King ot 
Manomet, to murder hinl . About this ti me Mapffoit, 
the Colony's Ally, fell fick, and a Compliment of Con- 
doleance being in fuch Cafes expefted by the Kings ot 
the Savages,Mr.^'??/2oiP was again lent to mm to pay it. 
This Gentleman not only performed the Office of an 
Ambafladorj but of a Phyfician , and as bad as the 
Monarch was, fome Englifh Cordials te ^°f\ h]1 f^rbe Mo- 
his former Health. In return of which Kindnefs^/-^^^ 
Mbit told him, the Confpiracy that ^Afaffachvjets ^.^ 
had form'd againft the Englifh, and advis'd him to faU 
upon them before they could execute it. The Englitn 
at Weymouth were fo infulted by them, that their 
Lives were precarious, the Savages taking the Provi- 
fions out of their very Fort, and threatning to cut 
the Throat of any Man that durft call them to ac- 
count for it. Thefe things being represented by 
Mt.Wm/Iow and Wefton's Men to the Plimouth Colony, 
they took it into Confideration how to proceed in the 
Matter •, and in the mean time the Governour order d 
Capt. Standijh to go to Weymouth, and defend the 
Enelifli there againft the Savages, notwithftanding 
they had by their Diforders brought this Danger upon 
themfelves, and all their Countrymen. When 
Mr. Standijh came among them, he found the Indians , 
as it were Mafters of that fmall Colony, and they 
us'dhim as ill as they did the Inhabitants otWeymputty 
He had but 8 Men under him -, with whom however 'Cbaftifd* 
he fell upon the Indians, kill'd fome of the Chief ot 
'em, and drove the reft to the Woods. 

Among thefe Indians was Wituwamet before-menti- 
on'd, a Bullying Barbarian, and an Enemy to the Ert- 
iilifhi and one P«#wf, a Fellow of Gygantick Sta* 
ture. With thefe two, Capt. Standijh and another 
Enalimman fought,and kill'd them on the Spot m fair 
Combate. He Challeng'd the Sachem of the MaJJachu* 
fets to decide the Controverfy, the fame way which 
D the 



They fub- 

The Hifiory of New-England. 

the Barbarian refus'd to do : And Mr. Standljh having 
put new Life into Weftonh Men, by his Example and 
Affiftance, they fell upon the Indians, who fled from 
'em with Terror and Precipitation at the noife of 
their Guns. Thefe Indians were fuch as liv'd near- 
eft Weymouth Settlement, and they giving the Allarm 
to the reft, the whole Nation was immediately up in 
Arms. At the approach of the Englifh they difpers'd *, 
fo Capt. £ta»dk$ returned in Triumph to Plimouth, car- 
rying with him the Head of Wituwamet, which an 
Indian in that Town feeing, was fo delected,' That be- 
ing queftion'd upon it, he confeft the Maffachufets, and 
the other IndianNations in Allyance with them, defigns* 
againft the Englifh. This Savage they releas'd, and 
fent to the Sachem to let him know, That they 
were provided to receive him , and if he attempted 
any thing againft the Peace of the King of England's 
Subjects at Weymouth, they wou'd feverely revenge 
it. Upon which the King fubmitted, and beg'd Par- 
don. The Indians were not long after moft of them 
deftroy'd by a Plague, which made room for the En- 
gliih,whonow inhabit the Country they then PofTefs'd. 
Both the Settlements were quiet, and fo continu'd 
for 10 years, profpering under the wile Government 
of Mr. Bradford, a Gentleman of equal Piety and 
Learning, and as zealous for the good of the Colony, 
as if he had been their Common Father. The Wey- 
mouth Settlement leifen'd by degrees, as the Vlimouth 
encreas'd} and at laft the People were forc'd to leave 
it, and remove either to the other at Vlimouth, or 
return to Old England. 

'Tis time we ihou'd take fome notice of Mr. Brew- 
fier, who was the next Founder of this Settlemeut to 
Mr. Robinfon,- and may indeed be reckon'd the firft} 
becaufe he came over, and liv'd and dy'd here. Tho 
he was a Lay-Man, yet, according to the Terms of 
their Religion, as a Ruling Elder he might teach and 
perform all the other Offices of the Miniftry, except 
difpenfhg the Sacraments, which he was not qualify'd 
by Ordination to do. So thefe New-England Men 


Pi i mouth 



continu'd without a Paftor till the Year 

1629 '■> 


Mr. Ralph Smith arriv'd from England, and took upon 
him tht government of the Church at Vlimouth. 
With him came the firft Black Cattle thither, which 


The 0ft ory of New-England. jf 

have To multiply'd, that for many years this Colony 
has fupply'd the Sugar-Iflands with Provifions as 
much as any, or all the reft, or Old England it felf. 
Mr. Smith prov'd to be a Man of very ill Morals ', and 
for that, and his writing Home againft the People of 
New-England, which the Governour difcover'd by 
intercepted Letters, He was expell'd the Planta- 

While the Colony at Plimouth by their Planting, 
Fifhing, and Traffick, were growing rich and nu- 
merous, feveral Worthy Perfons, encourag'd by 
the Proipeft of Advantage, and others animated by 
Zeal for the Propagation of Religion, refolv'd 
to make Settlements in other Parts of the Coun- 
try. The chief of thefe was Mr. White Minifter of 
Dorchefler, who having engag'd feveral Gentlemen in 
the Defign, they fent Mr. Roger Conant with iome Men 
and NecelTaries, to fettle about Cape Ann, the Nor- 
thern Promontory of Majfachufets Bay. Mr. Conant 
was foon weary of his Poft and about to return, 
when he receiv'd encouraging Letters from Mr. Watte, 
alluring him, That he wou'd procure a Patent for him 
and his Companions, and feafonable Supplies of all 
things : Upon which he ftay'd and look'd out for a 
more commodious Place to build a Town upon. 
Mr.White^she had promis'd,by folliciting the Matter 
ftrenuouily did it fo effeaually, That feveral of his 
Friends purchased of the North Virginia Company, caWd, 
The Council of Plimouth, that Part of New England 
which lies between the River Merimack and Charles- 
River in the bottom of Majfachufets Bay. The chief 
of thefe were , Sir Henry Rofwell, Sir John Young, 
Sir Richard Saltonftall, Ifaac Johnfon, Efq*, Matthew 
Cradock, Efqj Theophilus Eaton, Merchant, Thomas 
Southcot,El% and Mr. John Ven. They bought all 
the Company's Right and Intereft, and obtain'd 
a Grant of the King, bearing Date in the Year 
i<T28. To hold their Lands in Common Soccage as of the is 22, 
Manner of Eaft-Greenwich, and an AlTurance of Pro- Maffachu- 
te&ion in' their Liberty of Confcience, and for all luch fet Colony. 
as mould remove thither. Several of them accord- Matthew 
ingly went over with their Families, and carry'd with Cra(ldock 
'em as many as they cou'd engage to accompany them. E p GQm 
Of thefe Matthew Craddock, Eiqj was appointed Go- Vgwown 
D 2 vernour, 

^ ! ! 




John En- 

The Hifiory of New-England. 

nour, who feated himfelf at a Place call'd Nahem~ 
keik by the Indians, to which thefe Non-conformifts 
gave the Name of Salem, about 8 Miles Northward- of 
Bofion in the County ofEJJ'ex. To them came Mr.Hig- 
di(nt~Efy&Mfon, a Lefterftrire Minifter, and Mr. Skelton aMini- 
D?fmy fter of Lincolnfijlre, filenc'd for their not Conforming 
Governor, to the indifferent things impos'd on them by their 
Ecclefiafrical Governours. And thefe drew fo many 
Puritans after them, that Salem Colony in a little 
while began to Rival her Elder Sifter Plimouth. 
Mr. Hlgg'mfon was Chofen Minifter of the Church at 
Salem, and Mr- Skelton his Aflbciate. The former 
dy'd in about a Year, and his Son Mr. John Hlgglnfm 
fudeceded him very young in the Miniftry, and is 
Minifter of Salem at this Day. 

The Company of Adventurers in England rinding 
their Maffachufet Colony thnv'd, and was likely to 
turn to a good Account, refolv'd to give it due En- 
couragement 5 arid confidering Mr. Craddock was 
grown old, and his Deputy John Endicot, Efqj not 
ib fit for the Poft as a Man of greater Quality and In- 
tereft wou'd be ; By Virtue of their Charter, which 
impower'd them to elefr their own Governour, De- 
t v, \xr P ut y-Governour and Magiftrates, they made John 
thro eT Wlmyro P-> $ki of Grotm in Suffolk, Governour, and 
Governor 'Thomas 'Dudley, Efq^ of Northampton, Deputy Go- 
Thomas * vernour °f tne New Colony. To whom they fent 
Dudley, w i fn thefe Gentlemen large Supplies of Neceflaries, 
Efa Dejiu- ar "d about i ooo Perfons tranfported themfelves thither 
V <>over- at this Time. Among whom were Sir Richard SaU 
*or. tonftal, Theophilus Eaton, John FcnnjlSq, Jfaac Johnfon, 

Efq:, and his Wife, the Lady Arrabella Johnfon. They 
arriv'd in New-England in the following Year 1 6$ o. 
Mr. Winthrop entring upon the Exerciie of his Office, 
gain'd the Affeftion and Efteem of every Body •, and 
the eafinefs of his Government, the Succefs of his 
Councils, and the Piety of his Life, invited many 
more Families to retreat thither from the rage of 
their Perfecutors, who are an eternal Shame to the 
Purity of our Holy Religion, and the Chriftian Tem- 
per of a true Church of England-Spirit. The Head 
of thefe Furious Zealot5, was the Head of the Church 
at that time, Archbiihop Laud. To whom New-En- 
gland was as much ofeiig'd, as Old England was difo- 


The Hiftory of New-England. 37 , 

hYxp >A bv him; for his obftinate Severity drove fo 

It SL,,ftn^ out of England thither, for Liberty 

TcUdenc^ ^ d kaf he was himfelfforc'd to complain 

«JZ, S*> *5Wy «** fo ' w ^ fe *^;j 

^TteAfaffacbvfet Settlement had now built feve- 
rf Townf, a/cW^-Town, on CW« River g 
MidMtftx County, where there was a Chuich eiett. 
«f and M?. Jftfi an outed Minifter of WWvm 
K chofen Paftor of it »^ m S ff e 
County, and Bofton, which rofe out of the Ruins, it we 
mayu^theEKpredion of CW^-Town That Town 
being not thought fo Commode fo. Trade as* 
Jim, many of the Inhabitants remov d thither, as dia 
tZ Minifter Ux.WUfm. This Place fiour.fhd fo 
muchthat in a little Time it became the Capital 
offi&r Colony, and of aft &***&*■ M 
KtBofion, Roxbury hi \ Suffolk County was Ml^ 
hen%» m £ffi* County, Wwr-Tow £ A&«gg 
County; all the fe were Bnifti'd and lettled in lels 
th°n two years, and the Plantation went on foprofee- 
rouflyby the Multitudes of People who came over 
that Tome of them were forc'd to remove to other 

P The°firft whTbrle up from Mf, ^Colony , 
was Mr. Thomas Hooker, Minifter o c f* ,™ «-C* 
featedhimfelfataPlaceon Co^tSicut Rwer, where, w> 
He built the Town of 0»#* m the Com^f 
thence call'd Hartford-Comty. From J3 m fcfarfe 
veral Families remov'd to the Place now call d W,nd\or, 
in the fame County of Hartford. From WW-Town 
M went and fettled on the place where Mr 
Field nolvftands, as they did from S^^&g 
Field, This New Settlement had a fort of Gon|i^ 


Bffi Go- 


?8 The Hiftory of New-England.' 

x^3 J- on for what they did from that of Majfachufct -, but 
finding they had extended their Difcoveries far be- 
yond the Limits of that Colony, they fet up an inde- 
pendant Government of their own, founding it on a 
League or Agreement among themfelves, became a 
Body Politick, made necefiary Laws and Orders, 
Si- pr SP- er ° fficers to execute them, and Edward 
Hopkins Eiquire to be their Governour. This Gen- 
tleman returned afterwards to England, was made 
Warden of the Fleet, one of the Commiflioners of 
tne Admiralty, and chofen a Member of Parliament 
during the Protectorate ofCromwel. But many years 
before he left New-England, he was every other 
year choien Governour of Connecticut Colony. The 
T Havn<s « *" Vr had a J wa y s the Alternate with him, being 
i/« o? J °*» ,^f J Efquire. This Settlemeut was fcarce 
well hx d, before George Fenwick Efquire, was fent to 
Mew-England, on account of feveral Perfons of Quali- 
ty, who had bought of the Lord Say, and the Lord 
JSrook, iome Lands on the River which ran thro' Con- 
necticut Colony. Mr. Fenwick feated himfelf at the 
Mouth of the River :, and built the Town call'd Say- 
brook. The Lord Say and Brook's Title to that Terri- 
tory, was by a Grant from the Earl of Warwick, to 
whom the King had given it. John Winthrop Jim. 
Squire, affifted him in this Undertaking-, and had 
himielf thoughts of planting there : To which end, 
he got a Grant of thefe Lords for fome Lands', but 
being unwilling to hinder the new Colony, he made 
no uie of his Grant. In confideration of which, he 
was choien their Governour after the Reftoration. 
The Connecticut Colony thinking, that by purchafmg 
this Ground, their Right to the Land they had feiz'd 
without any Grant wou'd be the ftronger, bought it 
of Mr. Fenwick by Confent of the Proprietors ; that 
Gentleman having but begun his Plantation, and not 
tinding fufficient Encouragement to finifh it. With 
this lhadow of a Conftitution they continu'd till after 
the King's Reftoration^ and then they procur'd a 
Charter from the Crown-, upon which they chofe 
John Winthrop Efquire, Son of Mr. Winthrop Gover- 
nour of Majjachvfet, to be their Governour. 

Two years after the fettling the Colony at Connecti- 
cut^ Mr. Iheophilus Eaton, and Mr. Davenport a Mini- 


The Hiftory of New-England. 3 9 

fter, hearing of another Bay to the South- weft of Co* 

from NewTork; an d te»'d 'W er n the year ? 

¥ho they tad a Right to the Lands by ggS^JJ * 
had none to a particular Government ■ yet they W a 
themfelves, by mutual Agreement, into a Body <U Oil 
tick Theli Men who fettled here, were generally ij 
Trs and Merchants V and apply- Mg gjg Theophi- 
t^Trarle- choofina Mr. £aw», who had been ^ea a lns Eaton 
TuTk v Merch nt? for their 6overnour : But they # w 
me with fo many 'Loffes, that they were difcourag d wm „. 
SdSr TrafPck, and were going to tran port A ™ 
felves to Maryland, Jamwa,** > jf»f' r X»* 
Parliament had offer'd 'em the City <*?<*£**£ 
their Dwelling, with large Privileges : At Mt turning 
Aeir Iniuftrf'to Husbfndry, they thnv'd wond^ 
fully, and thought no more of amoving. Mr. W« i *57- 
tlvinJ in the vear K57. was fucceeded by W ft d 
TfeJL-" Efqmre, lud MOM tt* J«ffl» Hem* 

year x^+. Upon this Union the Colonies cho e John 
Wmthroi ijw. Efquire, to be their Governoui, and^^ 
Mr. Leet their Deputy Governour. f ^ e wha- 

Thus we have given the Reader a mort Hiftory ot yen CoJ 
the Rife of the four Settlements that were made in nks]oi?a . 
%roTnZnd*VJz have divided them into their | JohnW ia^ 
mnte Governments h and taken notice of their moft top 
Sk^bkOccurre^ We (hall Wg^^ 
our Hiftory more, generally ; ^^^^ & r? 
that related to all the Colonies, as they went under tne ^.^ 
general Denomination of AW-£^/^. M Leetu/fl 

§ The FtonewtA Colony was Ml &W * ^ Jgf" pej, 1? 

with Succefs : The fame did Maffachufet s S^emen 4 
wler the Government of Mr. Wmhrap** Eldei. 

P 4r *.•■ M 




4° The Hiflory of New-England. 

w» n,hh I he T S diaRS r re qU !f t? a ? d nothin S «flMWl them in 

«* ^ uponCaptSkw, whowasfaiUngupGwwfffimliver, 
gTC 1 ^ and * Men that were with him, and funk 
the Bark they were in.They alfamurder'd a Ship'sCrew 
who were thrown upon Long Ifland. Thefe Infancies 
occafiond the Governour and Council of Maffachu- 
Jet Colony, to fend out I2 o Men, commanded by 
Captain Endwot, Captain Vnderhill, -and Captain 
7W, to demand the Murderers * whom the InSians 
refilling to furrender, the Englifh deftroy'd their 
Country, and drove the Barbarians to the Woods. 
1 he J equots (a Nation inhabiting the Connecticut Coun- 
try; were very troublefome to the Settlement, kill'd 
nine Men, and took two young Women, neix Wea- 
thers Field. Upon which Mr. John Mafon with 90 
Men Captain Vnderhill with the Garrifon of Say- 
brook, confuting of 2o Men, and Captain Patrick 
with 40 Men from Aj/fc,^ were difpatch'd away to 
iubdue them, and clear the Colony of them. Cap- 
tain Mafon and Captain Vnderhill entrinp the Terri- 
tories of the Nvrragantfa their King retir'd to a 
Fort which he thought impregnable, with 5 or ,00 
Men, but the Englifh- attackt it with great Refolu- 
tion- and took it by ftorm the 20th of May l6i7 . 
putting all the Savages to the Sword, except 8 Men 
Who made their efcape. Weywajh an Indian Con- 
vtit,did the Englifh great fervice in this Expediti- 
on following them whenever they went in their 
Wars. Sajfacm -the chief Prince of the Barbarians 
threaten d to be feverely reveng'd on the Englifh for' 
thislofs, and accordingly made mighty Preparations 
to invade them ; but Captain Patrick, and La after 
Captain Stoughton, with a Reinforcement from ^/fo- 
fn f ' ? 0l ? ny ' ? rr u ivin S> th ~ Sava § e ^ himfelf up 
of, the Indians Pnfoners. They alfo put many hun- 
dreds to' the Sword, and fore'd sFjacuTto^yZ 
the Maquas, a Nation the moil dreaded of any 

S ri t ianS> bdng faid ro be Man-Eaters: but 
thefe Barbarians were unwilling to bring the War into 
their Country h So they cut the King and all the Pequots 
that accompany d him in pieces. The Narraganfets 
and the other Indian Nations, flibmitted on the Suc- 


The Hiftory of New-England. 4* 

cefs of the Englifh, who in this Expedition kill'd near 
i coo Men, took almoft as many, and cutoffnolefs 
than 1 3 of their Petty Kings. The Savages to gain ( 
the favour of the Englilh, murder'd the Tequots where- 
ever they met with them, and fent their Heads to the 
Chriftians ', who having thus chaftis'd the Barbarians, 
ftruck 'em into fuch a Confirmation, that they were 
quiet for Forty years afterwards. Indeed the Power 
of the Englifh began to grow formidable. The Majfa- 
chufet Colony had a ftrong Militia of near 2000 Men, 
commanded by their Deputy Governour Mr. Dudley, 
with the Charafter of Major General. Their 
Civil Government was well regulated, and all 
things going on happily among them felves, they were 
not afraid of any Irruptions from the Barbarians. In 
the year 1*38. there was a terrible Earthquake felt 
all over New-England, and the Peace of the Colo- 
ny had like to have = been difturb'd by a Faftion 
that grew to a great height among them. Thefe 
Perfons favOur'd thofe whom the Presbyterians call'd 
Seftaries :, by which, according to their modeft way 
of expreffing themfelves, is to be underftood Men of 
all Religions but their own. The Presbyterians pivifiom 
were for rigid Conformity to their Worfhip. Mr. ™ New- 
Winthrop the Governour, oppofmg this Faftion, they England* 
oppos'd him} and when the time ofelefting a new 
Governour came, fetupMr. Tho. Dudley, the Deputy 
Governour, againft him, got him chofen •, And in the 
following year, when Mr. Winthrop was reftor'd to his 
Government, wou'd have prevented it. The Court 
of Eleftion, for fear of a Tumult, was remov'd from 
Bofton to Cambridge : The Seftaries intended to con- 
found the Choice, by defiring the General Court to 
take a Petition they had prefented them into Confide* 
ration that day} which if it had been granted, the 
time for choofinga new Governour had elaps'd, and the 
Faftion had kept their own Governour in a year longer. 
Mr. Winthrop^ Friends did not prefently fee into the 
Deceit of their Opponents, and were going to confi* 
der the Merits of their Petition ♦, but Mr. Winthrop 
ftrenuoufly oppofing that Irregularity , procur'd 
the Eleftion to be carry'd on according to the cu- 
ftom of the Court ; and notwithftanding the violent 
Qppofition of the Faftion, he was chofen Governour 






42 The Hifiory of New-England. 

by a great Majority of Voices •, yet fo Powerful was 
the Party, and they fo aw'd the Officers, whofe Duty 
twas to wait upon the Governour, that they refus'd 
•to attend him,and laid down their Halberts : Mr. Win- 
thrcp, inftead of punning the Serjeants for their Info- 
lence, order'd his own Servants to take them up, and 
wou d not falter the Magiftrates to punifh the OfFen* 
ders. TheAntwomian and Familijlical Faftions were the 
moft Rampant, and thefe he was very Inflrumenta) 
;;'#«> getting an Order paft for banifhing 
the Chief of them : Himfelf pronounc'd the Sentence 
of Banifhment, and their Friends, who cou'd not call 
him to account as Governour, did it as he was a 
Member of the Church, and oblig'd him to vindicate 
himfelf before the Congregation, which he condefcend- 
ed to do, and was juftify'd by them. Thefe Heats had 
like to ha ve fpread as far as Plimouth, and /have crea- 
S? I a „? 1 f ererice between the two Colonies; but 
Mr. Wvnthroph Moderation triumph'd over all Diffi- 
culties, and prefervd the Peace of the Settlements. 

The Troubles of the Diflenters continuing at home, 
Sir Matthew Boynton, Sir William Conftable, Sir Ar- 
thur Ha/ierig, John Hampden,EfyOliver CromwelLEfc 
Teoth hi* N affl es t0 <> well known in the Hiitories of England^ 
dtTdfrZ f S erfl i 0t ? er Gentlemen, were preparing to remove to 
going,! Mw-England; at which both the Church and State 
New-En- were allarmVU and on the 3 oth of April, a Procla- 
gland. mation was lfTu'd forth, torefirain the diforderly tran-, 
[porting his Majejly'f Subjects to the Plantations, without 
1 63 7- a Licence from his Majefiy's Commiffioners : And an Or- 
der was made in Council, That the Lord Treafurer of 
England, fljould take fpeedy and effectual Courfe to flop 
eight Ships in the River of Thames, bound for New-En- 
gland, and command that all the Paffengers and Provifi- 
onsfhould be landed. All Unconformable Minifters were 
alio to be ftopp'd •, which proceeding, fays a Doctor 
of our Church, increased the Murmurs and Complaints 
of the People thus rejlraind, and rais'd the Cries of a 
double Perfecution \ to-be vex'd at home, and not fuffer 'd 
to feel Peace or Rejuge abroad. Tis true, the vaft Num- 
bers of People that tranfported themfelves to Ameri- 
ca, if it did. not make the Government jealous that 
they might throw off their Dependance on the Crown, 
as well as on the Church, yet it cou'd not but give 

The HiftoYy of New-England. 43 

an ill Wea of that Clemency to which it pretended, 
and which is the diftmguiihing Charade* of Chriiti- . 
in Rulers. Sir Henry Fane, jw. with near twenty^ Henry 
c ai i of Ships in his Company, vifited New- England V ane, )iin: 
aW thl tLe, and was Chofen Governour of Ma0a- Governor, 
chvfets Colony. He went over by the Kings Confent, 
and his Majefty commanded Old Sir Henry, Who 
was againft the Voyage to give his. The young 
Gentleman defign'd to refide m ConneBicnt Colony , 
but the Compliment paft upon him by that ot MoQ*- 
chuTet, alter'5 his Refolution. He became here a 
more rmid Non-conformift than he was before ', and 
when he return'd to England, was f o aftive a^amit 
the Royal Family, that itcoft him his Head, in the 
Year 1^2. The Plantation of New- England eti- 
creas'd fo in a few Years, That -Anno ^j-o. There 
were 4000 Men there, befides Women and Children. 
They had out-ftripp'd all the other Englifli Settle; 
ments in America, and probably wou'd have grown 
ftill more numerous, had not the Civil War m En- 
gland broke out, and put a flop to Peoples removing 
in fuch Multitudes till after the Reftoration. The 
Colonies were often mifreprefented by their Enemies, 
who had driv-m them out of England, as a Factious, 
Schifmatical Company of Perfons, who wou d in time 
endanger the State. Tho thofe were diftant and Chi- 
merical Views, yet they had like to have ruind the 
Plantations in New-England in King Charles the Mrlts 
Opinion, had not Mr. Winfiow of Vhmouth Colony 
undertaken their Defence : And accordingly he went 
to England, vindicated them at the Council-Board, 
and wip'd off thofe ill Impreffions, which the Go- 
vernment had receiv'd of them from their implacable 
Adverfaries. For which Service, when he return d, 
the Colony of Plimouth chofe him their Gover- 
nour: whofe Prefence being again neceflary m En- 
gland, Mr. Bradford was reftor'd to his Government, 
and Mr. Win/low went again to Court, where he was 
employ'd by the Powers then in being, and never re- 
turn'd to New-England ; but he did them all the good 
Offices he cou'd by folliciting their Affairs. Tho thele 
Settlements were feparate Jurifdi&ions, yet they were 
like theVnited Pmw»:«,conFederated into one League 
for the Common Good of them all ; which Coniede- 


- i 

44 The Hifiory of New-England. 

racy after feveral fruitlefs EfTays to bring it about, 
The Colo* was effected in the Year 1*43- and they became in 
ttffif»Mff4Faft as well as Name the Vnited Colonies, theyForm'd 
and Sign'd an Inftrument, declaring, That they all 
came into thofe Parts of America with the fame End 
and Aim, to advance the Chrifiian Religion, and enjoy the 
Liberty of their Confcienceswith Purity and Peace. It 
was firmly agreed between the four Settlements, that 
there fhou'd yearly be chofen two Commiffioners out 
of each,who fhou'd meet at fit Places appointed on pur- 
pofe,with full Powers from the General Courts in each 
Colony, to concert and conclude Matters of General 
Concernment : As Peace or War,or any thing relating 
to the Welfare of the Confederacy. Thus they fettled 
their Polity or Civil Government, and by Synods of 
their Clergy -, they did the fame by their Ecclefiaftical 
declaring, That the Church ought to be govern d by Pref- 
byters, Elders, &c. as will elfewhere be fhown more 
largely. They began very early to Found a Col- 
ledge at Cambridge, before call'd New-Town, where 
they eftabliuYd a Univerfity : Which was begun 
about the Year i's$h. when Mr. John Harvard Mini-} 
Mr. John fter °f Charles-Town near Bofion, dying, left almoft 
Harvard , 8o ° l - to be laid out in carrying on the Defign, and 
Founds he is look'd upon as the Founder of the Firft College- 
Harvard- which from him was call'd Harvard-College The 
Foundation was incorporated by the General Court, 2n f 
\6\o, and the Univerfity has fince flourifiYd fo much, 
that there is now another College built, and 2 or 
300 Students. We fhall treat further of the New- 
England Accademy in the following Chapters. 

The People of this Province applying themfelves 
moll by Husbandry, Tillage and Pafture ; their 
Trade confuted chiefly in Corn and Beef, which they 
exported to the Sugar-Iflands^ In Fifh, which they 
fent thither and to the Streights ; In Oil and Lumber, 
which they Shipp'd to all the Places where they had 
any Commerce. Their Lumber is Timber, Boards, 
Marts, Pipe-ftaves, Hoops, all good Commodities in 
the Wefi-Indies. They alfo fell to building of Ships, 
which Trade has fo encreas'd, that it has been a Com- 
mon Thing for the Merchants of London to have Ships 
built at Bofion, and other Parts of New-England,(ox: the 
We/i-India-Tx&d^ and there have been more Ships built 


The Hifiory of New-England, 4S 

in New-EndandAhm ln a11 the other p ™ v »Ll es jf .^ 
l^ fubkftto the Crown of B/g/aW. The Colony 
K&* thriv'd more than theothet three and 

In the Year i H J. Mr. Dudley was again chofen 
Governour,andMr.^;^ r ashis Deputy. Atwbch 
time there happen'd a fort of Tumult in the Town of 
mthaZ in §0W* County, whither MrMrop 
went to appeafe the Mutiny, by mterpofing his Au- 
Sority : Upon which the Seditious petition^ the Ge- 
neraVcourt Sgainft him, as '^^J^S^aSff- 
and he was forc'dto leave the Bench and ^™™**pfi as & 
an accus'd Perfon, to defend himielf-, which waving ^.^ 
his Prerogative, he did, and was acquitted by the 
Court- but his Profecutors were feverely find. 
jZindlcot, Efq-, wasnow Major General of the 
Forces, and WUliam Burgu, Efq-, Secretary Mr .Wm- 
throp in the following Year re-affum d the llaceoi 
Chief Governour, and fo continu'd till his Death. 
Mr. Bradford gov'ern'd the Plimoutb Colony alfo trnrty 
{even Years etcept three Years, in which Mr,l«Jr 
/Z<ra>,and two Years in which Thomas Pnnct ?,Elq, at 
the Choice of the People, took a Turn with him. 

The Convenient Colony loft their Governour Oaneffi. 
Mr /ifofttiw, whofe Brother was Warden of the Fleet cat-Colony. 
ini A and dying, left his Eftateto him, which 
oblig'd him to go thither-, where, befides his 
Brother's Poft, which was given him, he was 
made a Commiffioner of the Admiralty and Navy- 
Office, and ferv'd as a Burgefs in Cromwels Con- 
ventio'ns. His Place in New-England was *^b*™* 
by John Haines, Efq', George Whs, M*™ZJ™nor 
Wells, Efq:, JohnWebfter, Efq-, who were all Oover- gnw. 
nours of ConneZtkut Settlement, alternatively •, and- ^ 
contributed, by their prudent Admmiitation, to tne^ Web _» 
flourifliing State of that Colony. jbr, ^. 

Mr £*r*» held the Government of New-Haven Goverm . 
till hedy'd, and there hapning nothing remarkable in 
either of thefe Colonies, feperate from the Concerns 
of the Confederacy, wefhallnot detain the Reader 
longer about their Hiftory. The Province ; of 
Majfachufet fent out feveral Families, who mclin d 
to the Fifhing, and Beaver-Trade, to fettle to the 
North of Pafcatcway River, where thefe Newlnha- 

*£ The Hifiory of New-En^Iand. 

* 3 ft S**?? bui - U fe 7 eral Towns > and trt ° f e Parts are now" 

'*■/*«*'• SS* a /T° f * e ' r ,?f^«w. AfcrflSw'sVine- 
T m,v H ' *Jff" *?£ £ H#^ Wes were granted to 
to ^LJtT M t €W S Efq ? who ^led there with his own 
S-«^tS F he m T^ges were all this 
*k JJfe,, o n e rTnf 'i? " En ? llfl ? fear d them fo little > that 
rli on l^pt.Merm with a fmall Company, being pro- 

©», vok'd at the Prevarications of the Kino f ? the Mrra- 

ttT § amfetS -> went boldly to his very Town enteVd ht 

his Hoflages, and paid his Debts to the Colony, he 
wou d kill him - which the Barbarian promis'd to do, 

fo,^i CC ° rdl, X ly ' notoneo ^ Attendants daring 
toafiift him. There were feveral Rumours of Con- 
ines and intended Mafia cres : But they all va- 
niftd , and while Old England was rent and torn to 
pieces by inteftine Wars, New-England enjoy'd a 
profound Peace. Mod of the American Colonies on 
the Revolutions, after the Death of the King, Pro- 
claim d King Charles U. and flood out againft th Q 
Commonwealth, but M^England h whole Principles 
were nearer the Conftitution of the Republick than 
the other Settlements, willingly fubmitted to that 
Government- and feveral confiderable Gentlemen re- 
movd I to Old England, to come in for a fhare, with 
their Puritan Brethren,of the Spoils of their Enemies, 
and tne Benefit of Pofts and Offices, which now were 
wholly difpos d of by them. Many of the New-En- 
gland Divines left thole Santlijy'd Regions, as they are 
pleas d to term them, and came to England : Among 
Several ™! Gentlemen, were Mr. Win/low Governour of 
Ferfons re~ Umouth r Colon ^ who le ft his Government in A- 
moveto nertca, for a Commiflioner of the Navy's Place 
England, at home ; Edward Hopkins, E(% Governour of 
Connecticut, of whom mention has been made al- 
ready : Mi-. Geo. Downing, afterwards Sir George, 

aa ur7 Fan r' andothers - Of their Minifters were 
Mr William Hook, who thought fit to leave his Flock 
n New-Haven in New-England, for the Mafterfhip of 
the Savoy m Old England. Mr. Robert Peck, Mr. 
Hugh Peters, who left his Church at Salem, for a 



The Hiftory of New-England. 47 

Chaplain-fhip to Cromwell , Mr. Samuel Mather^ 
Mr. Blinman of Briftoly Mr. Eaton ofChefhire, Mr. 
Knowles of Lo»^«, Mr. Firmin of London, and many 
more, who were filenc'd after the Kings Reftorati- 
on, but had either fuch good Congregations in pri- 
vate, or had heap'd up fuch fair Provifion in the Days 
of their Domination, that they did not care to crofs 
the Atlantick again, to lay their Bones among the 
Brethren. We muft not qmit a Paflage in the Hi- 
ftory of New-England about this time, which relates 
to Venner the Fifth Monarchift , who was one of Hugh V^S 
Peter's Congregation at Salem. This Fellow was by y^ 
Trade a Cooper, but very mutinous in Publirk Mat- New . J 
ters: He would fain have perfwaded a Company of En dand. 
People to have abandon'd the Settlement at Maffa- 
chufet Colony, and have remov'd to Providence, one 
of the Bahama Iflands. 

They petition'd the chief Magiftrates for leave to do 
it • and an AfTembly was held to confider the Bufi- 
nefs. The Magiftrates affifted by the Minifters, de- 
clar'd, that for feveral Reafons by them alledg'd, they 
could not admit of their Propofal: Upon which fan- 
ner ftood up and faid, according to the Cant of the 
Place and Times, Notwithstanding what had been of-- 
fer'd, they were clear in their Call to remove. But his 
Companions not being fo mad as himfelf, there were 
no Attempts made to get offtumultuoufly, which Ven- 
ner was ready to have done, if any one wou'd have ac- 
company'd him. The Colony of Majfachufet, on the Maffa- 
Death of John Winthrop Efquire, who died March 25, chufet. 
1 6\ 9 . chofe Thomas Dudley Efquire their Governour , 
and Mr. Dudley furviving Mr. Winthrop but three or Tho.Dud- 
four years, the Inhabitants would have elefted John p E )V> 
Haynes Efquire to fupplyhis place, but that Gentle- Go ™ r - 
man removing to Connecticut, John Endicot Efq*, was , . |3* 
chofen Governour •, and Edward Gibbons Efq,fuccee- J QQt * £ , • x ' 
ded him as Major General of the Militia. Plimouth, governor. 
the Mother-colony of the three others, had the mil- pij mou th 
fortune 3 or 4 years afterwards, to be depriv'd of her Colony. 
old Governour Mr. Bradford, who died May the 9th, 
1 <?57. In his room the Court of Eleaors chofe t g 57 . 
Thomas Prince Efquire, who had been twice their Go- Thomas 
vernour before, to fucceed him •, and this Gentle- Prince 

man continu'd many years in the Government 

In EJnuire 
the Governor, 



4& The Hiftory of New-England. 

renCnl **' ^ Tlr 16 , 57 ' rh eophilus Eaton Efquire, GcP 
verier- vernour of Newhaven Colony, dying, Mr. Francis 
FrNew- ™^ ™eir Secretary, was chofen Governour: 
man Efr r this Gentlema n enjoy'd his honourable Office 
Governor. icirce r + y ears: > an ^ dying at the end of that Term, 
Wil. Leet ™ as Succeeded by William Leet Efquire ; who, be- 
Efq- Go- fore he came to New- England, had been Regifter of a 
vervour Bifhop's Court in Old-England. But, fays a famous 
Cot.Mat. Writer of that Country, finding 'twas made a Crime 
Mijt. to hear Sermons abroad when there were none at home ; and 
that the Court he ferv'd, made themfelves merry with 
fuch Peccadillo's as Fornication and Adultery, he took a 
difguft againft them, refus'd Conformity, and went 
to New-England, where the good Peoole err'd as 
much on the other hand, by hanging Men and Wo- 
men for thofe Peccadillo's, and feverely punifhing 
them for not attending their frequent Sermons, let 'em 
be never fo tedious and dull. 

On the Reftoration of King Charles II, the Colo- 
nies of New-England te\\ in chearfully with their Pres- 
byterian Brethren in Old-England, and Congratulated 
his Majefty on his Acceffion to the Throne of his An- 
cestors, fending Simon Bradfireet Efquire, Secretary 
of Majfachufet Colony, and Mr. John Norton Mini- 
r/r/rr 5 e r, ot 'PpwK in Epx County, a Man whom Dr. 
100 *• Fuller commends in his Church Hifiory, forhisLear- 
Tbe Colo- nmgand Modefty, to carry their Addrefs to his Ma- 
vies ad- jeft y •, which con tain'd chiefly a Petition for Liberty of 
rvf* ?' Con f cience ' Tne Y &A'd in Febrnary 1661. and re- 
v-na; II. turn'd in about a year, with Letters from the King, 
fignifying, That the Exprejfwns of their Loyalty and 
Aftettion to him were very acceptable -, that he would 
confirm their Privileges, encourage andprotetl them. 

The Colony of Connecticut having been all this 
time without a firm Charter, with the confent of 
that of Newhaven, prevail'd with John Winthrop Jun. 
Efquire, Son of the late Governour of Maffachufet, to 
go to England, to get them a Charter of Settlement 
and Union, which he did. This Gentleman had been 
generoufly educated, and was a Philofopher, as well 
as a Chriftian, and a Gentleman ; Infomuch, that 
when the Royal Society was Eftablifli'd, he was ad- 
mitted a Member of it, and he communicated feveral 
curious things to them, as appears in the Collection of 


The Hifiory of New-England* 49 

their Tranfaftions. 'Tis faid that he procured the 
King's Favour, by preferring him with a Ring which 
Kin? Chariest had on fome occafion or other given 
Mr: mrithrofs Grandfather. On his Arrival in New 
England, the two United Colonies made him their ^nrth 
Governour-, and Mr. John Webjier Governor of ^i 
Connecticut Colony, and Mr. William Leet Governour ven ajfh 
of that of Newhaven, refign'd their Charges into his nks ^,-. 
hands', the New Colony choofmg Mr. Leet to be^. 
their Deputy Governour. There were fome Mem- John 
bers of thefe two Colonies who oppos'd this Union, Wmthcop 
but the major Part were for it, and they prevail d 'fn^ 
And by the Moderation and Prudence of their Go- ■**£ 
vernour Mr. Winthrop, they werefoon all reconcild ie °+- 
to the Union. rn , 

While thefe things were tranfafting, Alexander, 
Son of Maffaffo", Elicited the Narragantfets to 
revolt-, Which Mr. Prince, Governour of Phmouth 
hearing, fent Jofias Win/low, Efq-, who at that time 
Commanded the Militia of the Settlement to feize 
him ; which he did at a Hunting-Houfe of his, and 
brought him Prifoner to Himouth ; where he dy d 
of Grief and Rage. His Brother Phdtp fucceeded 
him, and was a Plague to the EngliiTi, notwithstan- 
ding he had renew'd the League with them, and 
fworn to the ftrift Obfervance of it. But he gave 
them no difturbance till about nine Years after his 
Brother Alexanders Death. 

Twas now that the Province of New-England was 
become a powerful Nation. The City of Boflon the 
Metropolis, being as big as moil: of our Epifcopal 
Sees in England, and containing no lefs than 12 or 
1 4.000 Souls. For after the fevere Aft, call d the 
Bartholomew M, which fome pretended Church ot 
England Men procur'd, to turn above three Thou- 
fand as good Proteftant Minifters as any in the World 
out of their Livings, many of them remov'd to New 
England', and were follow'd by fome hundreds ot Fa- 
milies, who fear'd the fame cruel Treatment from 
Arch-Bifhop Sheldon, who had been a Creature ot 
Doftor Laud's, as they had met with from that I re- 
late. The whole Number of Inhabitants in this Co- 
lony were computed to be near one hundred Thou- 
famk and fome of thofe who came over, bringing 
E & ood 

i W 










The Hifiory of New-England. 
good Eftates with them, the Engliih fill'd their 

Towns, and extended their Limits. Such was the 
General State of the Colonies in the year 1 665. when 
S™" tnat ofMafTacbufet mourn'd the Death oftheir Gover- 

Richarf' 5?!? ^ r ' Endlcot ' In whofe Chair the y P^c'd Richard 
Billing- B : l £ n &>«m Eiq* a very old Man, who had been a Ma- 
ham Efqx g ;lt , r , at f or Councellour thirty Years before. He en- 
Govmm. PY d that honourable Office about Seven Years:, and 
1*72. ^k'^Jp&gii J° hn Lever en Efq} was advanc'd from 
John Le- the Poll of Major General of the Militia, to that of 
verett Governour of the Colony. The next year 1*73. Mr. 
Efy Go- Prince, Governour of Plimouth Colony, dy'd*, and 
SLh WaS fucceeded b Y Jofi" Winflm Efq-, the firft Go- 
cZv Ver J n ° U ,V that Was born in New-England; A Man 
Jonas endow d with fo many Chriftian and Heroick Ver- 
Winflow tues > ^ at ne ^ cms t0 have wanted a larger Sphere 
Efa Go- to f& in, that he might have fhewn himfelfmore, 
vernor. and have ferv'd the Commonwealth better, than in 

thole rude Corners of the World. 
ru t c 1 A year or two be f° re he was chofen Governour, 
It wl ° f r he ^ ar with the Indian Kin §> PMip Son of Majfaf- 
r&bi&g'" &S?^ ° Ut - He ha , d a lon § n tinie beep contriving 

- -onipiracy to invade and deftroy the Engliih •, 
which he difcover'd the fooner, to revenge an Affront 
he pretended to have receiv'd from the Plimouth Co- 
lony, the Government having hang'd one Tobias a 
Coimcellor of his, and two other Indians, for murder- 
i^gjohn Saufaman^n Indian Preaching Convert. They 
had a fair Trial, and were condemn'd by a Jury of half - 
Engliih and half Indians. However Philip, who ha- 
ted the Engliih, was refolv'd to take this occafion of 
i hewing his ill Difpofition towards them. He cour- 
ted Several other Indian Nations to joyn with him ; 
and Multitudes of them flock'd to him to fight againft 
thQ Common Enemy, as they reckon'd the Chriftians. 
The Governour of Plimouth fent MefTengers to de- 
mand the reafon of Philip's arming, but his Envoys 
were mmited j and foon after a Party of Savages made 
an In-road into the Territories of that Colony. They 
% -a Volle y °£ miaIj Snot on a Congregation of 
Chriftians when they were at their Devotions, kill'd 
three Men, and wounded another.. They pillag'd 
the Plantations about Mount Hope, and began the 
War between Smanfey and Taunton in the County of 

The Hiftory of New-England. 5 1 

Plimoutk This Settlement immediately feat to the 
other two for Succours } and that of Majfachufet, with 
all poffible diligence, difpatch'd away Capt.^i Tho- 
mas Prentice with a Troop of Horfe, and Captain 
Daniel Henchman with a Company of Foot, toallilt 
their Brethren of Plimouth. Thefe were follow d by 
a Company of Volunteers, commanded by Captain 
Samuel Mofely, and were join'd by the Phmmth For- 
ces under Captain Cudworth at Swanfey. They lent 
out 12 Men to difcover the Enemy, of whom the Sa- 
vages from their Ambumes kiil'd one but the reRirarsmtb 
drove them from -behind the Bullies, thothey were tote. 
five times their number. The next day the little 
'Englifh Army march'd againft the Indians, who 
durft not give them Battle, but abandon d their Coun- 
try to tffeir juft Revenue. The Engjifli in their 
March found the mangl'd Carafes of fome of their 
Countrymen, their Heads ftuck upon Poles, Bibles 
torn in pieces, empty Wigwams or Cottages, and no 
body to oppofe them. Philip himfelf fled with the 
reft, and left his Kingdom to the Mercy of the Inva- 
der. The Name of Philip's Nation was Wompanoagsy 
and thefe had drawn in the Narragantfets into the 
League againft the Englifti. 'Tis true, the latter had 
notlppear'd in Arms", however the Englifh knowing 
how far they incourag'd the Rupture march d thro 
the Country of the Wompanoags into that ot the Nar- 
ragantfets, and fore'd them to renounce their Alliance 
with Philip. Captain Cudworth proceeded into the 
Dominions of the Sachem of Pocajfet, where Captain 
Fuller and Captain Church, with two fmall Detach- 
ments of Englilh, were over-power'd by an Army ot 
Barbarians, twenty times as many in number as they 
were. Captain Fuller was driven by them into Rhode 
Ifland, and 200 of them furrounded Captain Church 
and 15 Men in a Peafe-field : Notwithstanding the 
Inequality of the Number, Captain Church fought 
them with invincible Refolution till all his Ammuni- 
tion was ipent, he then retir'd to the Shore, driving 
all that oppos'd him before him-, and fome Sloops 
comma off from Rhode Ifland, he retreated thither -, 
from whence, without lofs of time, he oafs d over to 
the Continent, got two or three Files of Mufqueteers 
from the Majfachufet Forces, and engagM them again 
E 2 "* 






The Hiftory of New-England. 
in Pocafet He flew in this Aftion 1 5 , and in the for- 
mer 3 o of the Savages, and ftruck fuch a Terrour in- 
to the reft, that they fled to the Woods from the 
Imall Company he had with him, of which he loft not 
a Man. Captain Cudworth being join'd by the Afaffa- 
chujet Captains , march'd from Taunton to a Swamp 

a }%S$ wh ewthe Savages from feveral Ambuf- 
cades kill d fome of his Men, but the Englifh purfuing 
them to their Wigwams, they found nolefsthan too 
or them empty ^ out of which the Indians were fled to a 
neighbouring I hicket. The Officers thought the beft 
way to reduce them wou'd be by ftarvbg i fo they 
polled two Hundred Men at all the Avenues of the 
Tmcket, and fentthe reft to the Relief ofMendham- 
wnere the Nlpmuck Indians, King Philip's Confede- 
rates, committed terrible Spoil and Cruelty. Philip 
himfelf was in the Thicket, and being driven to De-> 
fpair, he with his beft fighting Men taking the ad- 
vantage of a low Tide, in a River that ran through the 
Swamp, wafted over it on fmall Rafts, and efcap'd into 
the Nipmuck Country •, i oo of his Men were left behind 
m the Tnicket,who furrender'd themfelves at difcretion. 
The Englifh purfu'd Philip aflbon as they heard of his 
Flight: Andtho they could not come up with him, o- 
vertook fome of his Men • of whom they flew 30. The 
Monhegin Indians join'd with the Englifh } and moft of 
the Welter n Nations were fet againft them by Philip. 

Thus the whole Province of Mafachufet became en- 
gag'd in the War, the Flame of which rag'd more 
than it had done in that oiPlimouth. Captain Hut- 
chmfon being fent to know the Reafon of the Savages 
invading that Colony, was himfelf mortally wounded, 
and eight of his Party kill'd ; the reft fled to Ouaboag, 
a little Village where the Chriftian Inhabitants were 
retir'd 'into one Houfe, and the Barbarians having de- 
ftroy'd-the reft, befet this alfo. They try 'd all I the 
Devices they could think of to beat them out of it, 
but the Englifh defended themfelves fo bravely, that 
all their Attempts prov'd in vain •, at laft they re- 
iolv'd to fet it on fire • and juft as they were preparing 
to cio it, MrprJVilward, who had heard of his Friends 
Diftrefs at Ouaboag, arriv'd with 48 Men, attack'd 
tht Savages, and fore'd them to raife the Siege of this 
Hovel, for it cteferv'd no better Name. The Major 


The Hiftory of New-England. 5 ? 

detatch'd Captain Lathrop and Captain Beers with 
more Forces to obferve them, for Fear they mould 
march to Connecticut River, and feduce the Indians 
there. This Colony fent Major Treat to the A Al- 
liance of their Mother Maffachufet •, andtheGover- 
nour, who heard that the Savages upon that River 
within his Government were in motion, lent a Party 
of Soldiers, with an Officer, to de mand'of them Hotta- 
ees for their peaceable Behaviour : But thefe Barbarians 
were fo far from anfwering the demand, that they 
kill'd their King, becaufe he wou'd not go with them, 
and then fled to a Swamp \ from whence they fir d on the 
Enelim, and flew 9 Men belonging to P feveral Towns. 
Thus this bloody War fpread over all New-England. 
They deftroy'd the Plantations about Deerfield, a ve- 
ry pleafant Country, and forc'd the Garrilon there to 
fhut themielves up within the Fortification ot a poor 
Work which they had rais'd for their Defence, it be- 
ing a Frontier Place in Hampfdre. They flew 8 Men 
in the Woods near Squak-heag. Upon which Captain 
Beers was fent with 40 Men, to fetch oft that and iome 
other (mall Garrifons. Thefe were intercepted by an 
Army of the Savages •, and Captain Beers with 20 ot 
his Men having fought to the laft with the utmoit 
Refolution, was over-power'd by Numbers and l\m-> Captain 
the reftefcap'd to H*dley, and a few days after Ma- Beers 
ior Treat with more Soldiers perform'd what he had/to;/, 
undertaken. Captain Lathrop marching with s o Men 
to bring off the Corn from Deerfield, was alfo inter- 
cepted by 80.0 Indians. The Captain thinking he 
■fliou'd fucceed better by fighting as the Savages did, 
skulking behind Trees, and aiming at Tingle Perions,- 
expos'd his Soldiers to the Ruin that follow d, 60 ot 
them being kill'd on the fpot. Captain Mcfely hear • 
ing the Noife of the Fire, haiten'd to relieve Lathrop, 
but he came too late: He broke his way through the^ 
Barbarians five or fix times •, and with a handful or 
Men kill'd almoft 100 of the Enemy, loofing no 
more than 2 of his own. In this Aftion fell Captain And Capt, 
Lathrop, and above 70 of his Men, the greateft Slaugb- LaR™?, 
ter that/ever happen'd till that Day ol the NewEng- 
land Chriftians. _ 

The Indians encourag'd by this Succels, tell upon 

Spring- field ,-(the jHoftages they had given for their 

E 3 j? re ° 


ij> H 



1 I 

| 1 



: . 1 


54 The Hiftory of New-England. 

preferving the Peace, flying before they came) they 
burnt 5 2 Houfes, and among the reft, the Minifter 
Mr. Brewer's, together with his Library : and -had 
cut the Throats of all the Inhabitants, had not an ho- 
neft Indian reveal'd thei* Defign to them time enough, 
before 'tms executed, tor them to retire to the for- 
tify'd par#;of the Town. 

The Geperaf Court fitting at Boflon, order'd all their 
Forces to rendezvous about Northampton, Hadley and 
Hatfield, for the Security of thole Places. Of which 
Orders the Indians having no notice, and growing 
bolder by Succefs, 800 of them broke in upon Hat- 
field ; but the Englifh being prepar'd to receive them, 
the Enemy were foon beaten out of the Town, and the 
Weftern Counties were for a long time free from their 
Incurfions, except now and then fome Straglers com- ' 
mitted a few Robberies. Thefe Indians fled to the 
Narragantfets, and were entertain'd by them : Upon 

1 which the Commiffioners of the United Colonies, 

whowereaflembl'don this Emergency, refolv'd 'twas 
a Breach of the Peace j and underftanding that Na- 
tion intended to begin a War in the Spring, were be- 
fore-hand with them ; and in the Winter fent Mr. 
Wwflow, Governour of Plimouth Colony, with 1000 
Men, to invade their Territories. General Win/low 
being joyn'd by the Connefticut Forces, march'd up 1 8 
Miles in the Enemies Country, attack'd the Savages 
in a Fort they had rais'd in an Wand, ofabout jor* 

Inihm ^ Cr ?> an ! d , ta] ??£ ll h y Storni > P ut ~°° Mians to 
worded the Sword, befides 300 which dy'd of their Wounds, 
and a vaft number of Old Men, Women and Chil- 
dren, who had crowded into the Fort, which was 
thought impregnable. The General loft in this gal- 
lant Aftion 85 Men and 6 Captains, Cape. Davenport, 
Capt. Gardner, Capt. Johnfon, Capt. Gallop, Capt. 
Sealy, and Capt. Marfijall, and about 150 Englifh 
were wounded. This was the beft Fortification the 
Barbarians ever had, being fo itrengthen'd by Nature, 
that they wanted not the Arts of Europeans to fortify 
it. The Savages had never fuch a terrible Blow given 
them, and they cou'd never recover the Lofs they 
fuffer'd. After this the Englifh had fome flight Ad- 
vantages more in the Winter, and then returned to 
their Quarters. Mendham not being tenable, they de- 


The Hiftory of New-England. $5 

ferred it, and the Indians laid it in Mies. The French 
r/cw/tho there wus no War between England^ 
©A Affiftance and they fell ^J^f^ 
after, burnt feveral Houfes kill'd and I cam ,d ^ way ^ ** 

into Captivity above 40 ^V^/rhSSf 
the Minifter Mr. Richardfon's Wife and. Children. 
He was then at Sofian fblhciting Succcjjj|ujd found 
his Houfe and Library in Ames when ^^™ d> and 
heard the dreadful Tid tags of his Family feeing le a- 
way into Slavery by the Barbarians who ; had been 
forc'dtoleave the place by Captain Wrif^h. .V^ 
did further Mifchief at Marlborough, Sudbury Chclmf- 
STand 200 of 'em furpris'd Medfield burnt half 
the Town, and kill'd 20 "of the nhabitants. Ihe 
like Damage they did to Weymfhj and enter'd tne 
Luies that were drawn up for the Defence ^of North- 
^ P 7on%t they were reUs'd by Ma or » | 
ter thev had burnt 5 Houfes, and kill d 5 » erions. 
TheEn y emy finding they had not Strength fufficient to 
carry on a General War, return'd to the Province 
that a? firft was the Seat of if, furpns'd part of 
Plimoutb, and having murdered two Families, retird. 
Then they fell upon Warwick, and burnt it to the 
ground. Captain Pierce with jo Englifli, and 20 
Chriftian Indians, purfu'd thefe Incendiaries; who 
fay ng an AiXfc'adefor him, in which they were ve- 
$eftrous, and over- powering him with Multitudes, 
kill'd him and all his Men, except 1 Englilhman and UpuVm 
,, Indian Allies. Captain Puree and his MgfcH^'M 
their Lives dearly, there being .+0 Indians Enemies 

fl ^SKa3etPart^sfa g esW|^ 
W«t> in Alhes i flew feveral Chnftians «,**£ 
&U; burnt +0 Houfes at Mikfc, 3° at i**t* 
Si committed terrible Cruelties at Cktef^ 
and A(« on the poor innocent Childi en and tho 
^Inhabitants of the" Town of Wfa^fallydoutup- 
Jn tliem and kill'd so out of 300 in one Wight, 
£&b« was' Suited by them fever,! Houfe 
Wnt and 12 Men coming from Concord to tneir 
Affiftance cut in pieces. Captain Wadfworth heal- 
fng of h'efe Murders and Burnings, march'd agamic 
SI Savages with 70 Men-, of which they having no- 
ke, Sunded him in the Woods with , 00 Men, 

a I 

E + 


/ ■■'*; 




5<* The Hifiory of New-England. ' 

c«V. SfeKd wi^' ° f hi$ S ° ldiers ' took feveral Pri ' 
Woodf- him?,Kn^ f W ? a £f at , er Lofs thanaII > flew 
worth mi h '^% Ca?t ^ n Bratt ^anL with the lofs of , 20 
Cavt.Bm- 2 the Ef W- The Prifoners they took, they put to 
tlebank ® mh Wlth exquifite Tortures. ' Y P 

^ mS! the y/°" tin »'lprofperous for four or five 
finre P f 1 5? firft blow that was ^n them 
n ' r JC n f A 1 ^ w ' s Viftor y 5 was by Captain 
ST l^^r^olony, attheheadof ,o P Vo- 
J non? , R ^ "° Jndian Confederates. Thefe fet 
upon a Body of the Savages, flew 7 o of them, a- 
mongft whom were fome o? their chief Princes : And 
t\^T aS '^ l %' m u P° n ^k Indians that were 
SuS^T? iHEngli^ and DifTentionarifmg a- 
Onnor^nv arb fi a r S ' S av * the Chriftians the more 
CoTh T4 S °- defeatin g them. Another Party of 
2T m E r ghfh routed anot ^r of Indians, and 
J™ 44 ' Wlthoi ? t an y lofs - T «ey took fome Prifo- 
ners, among whom was Qnanenchet, the mighty Sa- 
chem of mrragawfet, whom the Englifh wifdy gave 
to their Indian Auxiliaries to cut off his Head, know- 
3 a i , wo " d make the Brea ch between thofelndi- 
v^Lc -!. / n t my x irr , e P arable - However, the Sa- 
vages aid further Mifchiefs at Plimouth, Taunton, 

T& S Z" Conc r d ^ Haverhil ^ Radford and Woburl 
t^ ?n? K- mpted r?. me the Town * Bridgwater, but 
SWr'f 1 f ntS fa,i y; n g r out u P on them, and a|reat 
Tfc v vrt?§- i t r the ftme tinie > fav ' d that Place. 
I/ P E , nghf} ! klI|,d / eve ral of the Indians near MedfieU 
and Ihmouth h and having notice by two Boys who, 
bemg Captives, made their efcape from them 
that ieveral Savages were in great Security fome Miles 
further up the River, Captain Turner with 1 80 Men 

ner fa- and m hl s. Retreat was himfelf furpriz'd and kilfd, 

******* TJu 3 ° f ^ M , en ' by an Ambufcadeof Indians 

W%' who P 7 rchasd this Victory with the lofs o£ 

3 00 of their Fellows. At Hatfeild2 5 of the Savages 

werekill'd and but j Engliih ; and at RohobothM 

Indians, with the lofs of one Englishman only. A 

Detachment oi±t Majjachvfet Forces took and kill'd 

40 Indians-, and another of ConneBicut 100 Savages 

Mims without loofing a Man. Seven hundred Savages were' 

mrfiei. repulsd from before /&<%, and at the fame time, 


The Hiftory of New-England. 57 

the Mawas invaded their Country, and carry'daway 
their Wives and Children into Captivity. They fell 
upon King Philip's Subjeas, and kill'd 50 of them. The 
Barbarian had try'd feveral ways to engage them in the 
War with the Englilh ; one of which was this . He 
kill'd feme Wfo and gave out they were mur- 
der'd by the Inhabitants of Phmouth County. It hap- 
pen'd one of the Maqueje, whom he had mortally 
Wounded, as he thought, recoyer'd, efcap d into his 
own Country, and informing his King of the Truth 
of the Mattlr, that Nation conceiv'd an irrecon- 
cileable Hatred to Philip., for his Treachery and 

C ThiUp thinking he might return purely into his 
own Territories, now the Englilh had been fo har- 
rafs'd by the Enemy, came to Mount Hope and Major 
Bradford oi Plimouthh^ like to have falln into an 
Ambufh 1 but he was delivered by a ftrange Accident, 
flew many of the Indians, and reduc'd the Queen ot 
Saconet, who had revolted. Of the Narragantfets, 
the Connecticut-Forces kill'd 240. Two hundred fub- 
mitted in Plimouth County, and as many of them who 
attack'd Taunton were beaten off. Capt. Church with 
no more than 18 Englifh, and 22 Indian Confede- 
rates, flew 80 Savages without lofmg one ot his Com- 
pany. At Dedham, %e Englifh and <?o Confederate 
Indians, took Pombam, a Prince of the Narraganjets, 
and 50 Prifoners. This Prince receiv'd a mortal 
Wound, and lay as one dead', yet when an Enghin- 
man came to look upon him, the Barbarian took him 
fail by the Hair, and had kill'd him, if help had not 
come in. Thefe SuccefTes fo terrify'd the Indian Sava- 
ges, That John, a Segamore, or Lord of the Nipmuck 
Indians.mth 180 of his Men fubmitted to Mercy. To 
ingratiate himfelf with the Englifh, he brought in 
with him one of the Chief of his Nation, that had 
inftigated the reft to the War in the MaffachufetCo- 
lony! and the Officers order'd the Segamore to moot 
him, which he did. The Garifon of Bridgwater 
hearingPM*> with a Party of Men was in their Neigh- 
bourhood, fally'd out upon them, kill'd ten of his Fol- 
lowers, took 15, and the reft fled •, among whom 
was Philip, who for hafte left his Spoils and Trealure 
behind him. Cm. Church with 3 q Englifh, and 


I i 



5§ - The Hiftory of New-England. 

**•*» where g , Rot? T f°T W !5 0f T^^' inform ' d the Garifon 
Mi^ ™ ere * Body of Indians lay, upon which they fally'd 
<W,f °f^^^ 5« of them Prifoners. The Queen 
&X t fJ*A ^ was , with » - the lateAS 
fled to the River, and not finding aCanoo to carry 

Zr\- ?l th f eW her felf int ° the Water on I 
£^£ rn. teeaking Under her > ^ wasdrown'd: 
Some Enghlhman meeting with her Body by Chance, 
cut off her Head, not knowing who f he was, and 

leeing they made a hideous howling, and were in 
a terrible Confirmation. Capt. Church having re- 
cruited his Forces attfW*-Ifland, and receiv'd inti- 
mation by an Indian Deferter, whither Philip was 
fled, puriu d him sj and coming upon him, the King 
thought to have efcap'd from a Swamp, to which he 
had retir'd-, but an Englifliman and an Indian firing 
at him, the latter fhot him to the Heart. He was 
quarter'd, and his Quarters fet upon Poles for a Ter- 
ror to fuch Rebellious Princes as dar'd make War 
upon their New-Englifi Sovereigns. His Head was 
carry d in Triumph to Plimomh, and his Death put an 
End to the War in the Weftern Parts of New-En- 

■ m In the 'North, the Indians bordering on the Coun- 
ties of Main and Cornwall^ lying beyond Tefca- 
taway River, had driv'n a very profitable Trade with 
ths Englifh, who had fettled there. Thefe Europeans 
minded their Traffick more than Religion, and were 
Jo taken up with Lumber, Fifliing, and their Beavor- 
Trade, that they had not time to build Churches or 
Towns, but liv'd in Plantations, and in Houfes fcat- 
ter'd up and down : The Savages having fome old 
„ 7 . , Grudges againft them, and undemanding the Chri- 
Warsw the fhans in the other Parts of New-England were involv'd 
pZnf ^ a dan g eroi!S War, fell upon thefe Settlements, de- 
ftroyd many of them, and kill'd 5° Men, not with- 
out lofing twice as many of their Countrymen. 
Mr.Wakely of Cafe 0, his Wife and Children were 
butcher'd by them, as was Capt. Thomas Lake at 


Ki*g Phi- 
lip ft/ft/. 


The Hifioyj of New-England. 59 

Jrrowfilk Ifland. The Government of Maffachufet 
Colony hearing of thefe Murders, fentCapt -.Haw 
thorn, with Forces to fubdue them', this Gentle- 
manfurpriz'd 4°° of them, as they were coming 
to Deftroy Major Waldos Houfe itQwbccho, of 
whom half were fold as Slaves for .their Rebellion; 
S therefton Promife of future Obedience, difmiis d -, 
which gave Peace to the Colony for ^^'ciS^ 
Moft oT thefe Events happen'd between the \ .ear, cuC mi 
1575, and 1*7*. and tho they are not fo important, Newha , 
as the Great Aftions in Flanders and Spain which yen Coh . 
have lately rais'd the Wonder of the whole World, «,■„, 
vet the Valour of thefe Englifti Captains in America w . Leet, 
deferves to be remember'd, and thefeader will, we% Go- 
doubt not, be diverted with their Hiftory. Sadm- 

A few Months before the War was at an end dyd Mriadm . 
Mr. I^W Governour of Connethcut Co ^2\ZU^^- 
was fucceeded by Mx.Leet, who had form erly been ft _ 
Governour:, and two Years after dy'd Mr. Leveret Goverm £ 
Governour of Matfachufet Colony, whofe Place was phm0lltll 
fupply'd by Sfcw» Bradflreet, Efqj who had ierv d the ^ > 
Settlement in feveral Capacities. Mr. W^<m> Go- Mr. 
vfrnor of />**»«* Colony dying about :^M^ 
,580. was fucceeded by Mr.Tnwt, in whofe Time (?^. 
the Charter granted to this and the other Set- 1*83 . 
dements in ^England fuffer'd the fame FateH ; c™ 
with thofe of the Chief Corporations in f^f^GovJor 
Quo Warranto'* were brought againft them,ana a juci b - , New _ 
Sent enter'd up in Chancery : Upon which King England> 
Charles II. fent over Henry Cranfield, Elq", to . Dt uo- tyCommif- 
vernour of New-England •, and King 3fa/w<?/ arbitrarily^ ^ r(Wi 
affum'd the Power of making Governors, Deputy- the King. 
Governors, Magiftrates, Jufes, Officers of the N i- jte cd* 
Utia, and de'pnv'd the Colony of Ne^Eng^ul of J 11 -^ 
her Privileges. He iropos'd a Governour o* W * <- ^ rl / 1 
publick, withaCommi&n, by which he ,,d *%«"?%? 
four more of their naming, had Powers make > what 1*85. 
"km* tfcyjtowV, and levy Taxes uponi e 1 e pie ac~ J^ 
corfe to their own Humour. In the Y^ar i^s5, J°- E r q . Pre . 
feph Dudley, Efqj Son of Mr. Thomas Dudley, wasap-^ oj : 
pointed Preficltnt by the King's Commiilion. Ine New . Erl . 
Betted Govemours were all turn'd otit o\ tneir gland ^ 
feveral Governments, and the Form ot tne Ad- t u %ing s 
miniftration quite cliag'd. This Gentleman ™™m®- 


6 ° TheHiftoryof New-England. 

drosG*- was to the Peonle ™2 Y * - H ° W wdcome he 

pie And indeed his Government is reprefented bv 

S??*^^^^!?^^^ to ™demke anAdven- 
to *£e , lure 101 the Wreck near Port de la VUt« wtenU 

to employ him about, and he was fo fortunate as to 
hit upon the Ship where th S Silver he fought afer was 

£i 8 /i'/ n w, r0Ugh ; \ 000 °" '• in Piec « of E ght to 
fhl Kmi S°l j*°« »"<» '• We to h.iWe! 
him SW d r*S for disservice, and made 
tStartfthS //r' N ™- E *lti- Sir William^, 
unoncl that the Cnarter might be reftor'd bur tfi»r 
was a Grant which the King wouy not at anv 
Terms part with. Sir »H&wS Defign by obtaining 
a Pattern for High Sheriff of New-England was, hat 
he might have it in his Power to ftpply the Count™ 
with honeft Juries: But the Govefnmlnt then S 

hTar 8 rMatl7 y V?** hiS Pattent > "* wk n 
vJv\. ? cJim f which was in the Year i<r 8 8. he 
fed like to nave been AfTafijnated at his own door 

m£u%£ h t? IM^' Where he built a fine 
Brick Houfe after the Modern way of Building. 
The People of New-England, by their Sits at 

ChZZr^'&f?'* ^King^havtthe^ 
garter reftord , and had many good Words in an. 


The H^ofNew-Eflgland. 6i. 

fwer from him, but nothing was done in it, till after 
that Prince, for his Male Adminiftration in Old-En^ 
land, was reduc'd to the neceffity of abdicating his 

In the mean time, the Government of New-Eng- 
land grew fo rampant it became intollerable. The 
Properties of the People were every where invaded, Cot. 
and the Lives of the befl Men in the Country began to be Math. 
Prattis'd upon. The Minifters and their Miniftery, a 
moft infufferable Outrage, considering the Nature of that 
Set of Men, were difcountenanc'd, and the College 
and Schools difcourag'd. The Governour pretended 
to rule by a Faftion, and that all Foreigners. Laws 
were made without the Majority of the Legiflators ^nevan- 
conlenting to them. Complaints of Grievances were ces - 
frown'd upon, Monev levy'd without a General Court j 
Perfons imprifon'd illegally, and Tories were pack'd. 
Thefe Men gave out, That the Charters being loft, the 
People loft all their Titles to their Lands with them. 
Thofe who would take out New Patterns for Eftates, ■ 
that had been fifty Years in their Families, were forc'd 
to pay one fourth part of their Value for them. And to 
add to all thefe Affliaions another more terrible than 
all of them, The Indians by the Hardfhips they fuffer'd 
from the Government, and at the Inftigation of the 
French and their Abetters, broke out into a War in 
theEaft, which lafted almoft as long as that of Troy. 

Sir William Phips went in Perfon to England, to me- 
diate for his Country with the King, but he found the 
Court in inch Confufion, on apprehenfions of a Revo- 
lution, that he cou'd do no good •, fo he return'd after 
the Prince of Orange's being declar'd King, with In- 
ftruaion from the Mirriftry then at Court, how to 
proceed tor the Service of the Colony. King William 
was not willing to difplace the Governour, till he 
heard how he behav'd himfelf -, and the People of 
New-England fav'd him that trouble. 

About ioo Indians invaded the Eaftern Counties in 
July 1*83. and fays our Hiftorian, " Tho the Gover- Cot- Mat, 
" nour then in the Weftern Parts of it, had immedi- 
" ate notice of it, yet he not only delay 'd and negle- 
" ftedall that was necefifary for the Pubiick Defence, 
" but alfo, when he at laft return'd, fhew'd a moft 
a furious Difpleafure againft thofe of the Council, 

1 ; 

« and' 






62 The Hiftory of New-England. 

" and all others that had forwarded any one thing for 
" the Security of the Inhabitants, while at the fame 
.? time he difpatch'd fome of his Creatures on fecret 
Errands to Canada, and fet at liberty fome of the 
" moil murderous Indians whom the Englifh had 
" feiz'd upon. 

He imprifon'd a Man who brought over a Copy of 
the Prince's Declaration 5 and put out a Proclamation, 
requiring all Perfons to ufe their Endeavours to hin- 
der the landing of any whom his Highnefs might 
fend thither. Reports were fpread in Bofion, that 
Mifchief was to be expefted from the Rofe-Frigot a 
Man of War then in the Harbour. Upon all which 
many Soldiers of the Governour's Forces deferted 
the Army 5 and a general Revolt feem'd to be prepa- 
ring. Several Gentlemen met on this occafion, and 
refolv'd to appear at the head of the People, in cafe of 
an Infurreftion, and drew up a Declaration to be 
1 6 %?. difpers'd about the Country. On the 1 sth of April, 
fome of the difaffe&ed feiz'd the Captain of the Rofe 
Frigot, and immediately the Town of Bofion was in 
TteGcver.A nm: The Townfmen feiz'd the Governour -, and 
T^dt'h f ^ e wretc ^ ^ en t who by their innumerable Ext or- 
Peotle ims ane * Exa tti° ns t had made themselves the Obj efts of 
* ' univerfal Hatred. 

This Revolution was effe&ed without the leaft 
Plunder or Bloodmed. The Gentlemen who brought 
it about, appointed a Commkee for the Confervation of 
the Peace. The Criminals were fent to England ; and 
the Governour and Magiftrates who were in Power 
before the lofs of the Charters, were reftor'd to the 
Exercife of their former Authority. King William 
Kj Willi- and Queen Mary approv'd of their Proceedings, and 
am a p- granted them a new Charter •, which tho it refer v'd the 
proves of Power of nominating the Governour in the King or 
n, and Qieen of England, yet it granted them great Privileges, 
^yevoCUr- an ^ * n f ome re fP e & s greater than what they formerly en- 
ter K " j y^t t0 u ^ tne words of one of their own Country- 
men. While the Agents were follici.ting the Affair 
1 690. of the Charter, Sir William Phips reduc'd New-Scotland 
to the Obedience of the Crown of England, at the 
charge of thQ^Q Settlements, as we mall fhew in a- 
nother Chapter, Upon the Petition of Sir Henry 
Ajburfi and Mr. Mather, in the Name of the Colony, 


The Hifiory of New-England. f 6$ 

Kins William made Sir William Fhips Captain General, Sir Willi- 
andGovernour in Chief of the n<^*W"^%^ 
S Bav in New-England. Under which Title that Co- Pernor, 
lony only Teems to be meant, but the other two were 
included in the Commifiion. 

Canada was always a Thorn in the fide of New 
England, and from thence all her Troubles came 
The French <havi«g fuch a Natural Envy and Hatred 
to the Englifh, that they never mifs'd any opportunity 
of doing them a Mifchief, in whatever part of the 
World they met with them. By their own Confeffi- 
on, they and their Confederates the Harms* fell up- The French 
on an Englifh Company in the year 1587, andto f^-{fS/fc 
way from them to the Value of 50000 Crowns : Alfo f^T 
Monfieur Dulhut defeated another Company, com- f ^ 
manded by Major Gregory* who was Convoy to lome v - 
Iroquois, a Nation in league with the Englifh, and at 
War with the Hurons. Thefe, and other late Provo- 
cations from their Allies the Indians, were juft 
grounds for Sir William's Expedition to endeavour to 
diflodge them at Quebec. Their Indian Confederates 
rifl'd feveral Plantations about North Yarmouth ? and 
Captain Blaclman, a Juftice of Peace, feiz'd about 
20 of 'em, who had been Ring-leaders in the lait 
War. Thefe Indians were fent Prifoners to Falmouth, 
in Cafco Bay \ and the Savages took Reprizals. Willi- 
am Stoughton Efq*, Deputy Governour, and other Gen- 
tlemen, went to treat with them, whom the Savages 
promis'd to meet at Macquoit, and to bring their En- 
glifh Captives, in order to their being releas'd •, but 
never came, being, as they declar'd, diflwaded by the 
French: The Englifh ftay'd for them fome days 7 af- 
ter which, finding they had betray'd them, theyre- 
turn'd to Falmouth •, and they were fcarce arriv'd 
there, before the Barbadians fell again on North Tar- 
mouth. Yet Sir Edmund Andros took no care to put 
an end to this War before the Flame fpread farther, 
and the French had Tupply'd them with Arms and 

We fhali now take a ihort view of the State of the 
Indian War ^ in which we (hall find the French open- War with 
l y ingag'd. After the feizing of thofe Indians by Mr. tk Indians; 
Blackmans Order, the Savages furpriz'd Captain Raw- 
den and Captain Gendall: The former of them dy'din 


6 4 



The Hiftory of New-England. 

Slavery, the other made his Efcape -, and being about 
fortifying North Yarmouth, was attackt by the Indi- 
ans, whom he repu'lsU This was the firft Blood that 
was fpilt in this long War. Captain Gendall paffing 
over the River with his Servant in a Canoo, fell into 
an Ambufli of the Savages, by whom they were both 
murder'd ; They afTaulted and flew feveral Englifh, at 
a Village call'd Mer,y Meeting •, the fame they did at 
Sheepfcoat, a Town that was reckon'd the Garden of 
the Eaft : This Place they burnt to the Ground, and 
oblig'd the Inhabitants to retire into their Fort. 
They murder'd Mr. Burrow's and Mr. BuJJy's Families 
at Kenebunk j and committed fo many Outrages, 
that at laft Sir Edmund Andros with iooo Men, 
in rch'd into the Eaft, built a Fort at Pemmaquid, 
a^orherat Pechypfot, and repair'dand enlarg'd that at 
Sheep/boat. Upon the depofmg of this Perfon from his 
Government, the old Governour and Magiftrates fent 
Captain Greenleaf to treat with the Penacook Indians, 
, who, notwithstanding their fair Pretences, join'd 
with the Saconian Savages, furpriz'd Major Walden 
in his Garrifon of Quobecho, kill'd him, and 22 of 
his Soldiers, and carry'd away 19 into Bondage. 
This worthy Gentleman was betray 'd by one Mefan- 
douit, a Prince of the Saconiam, whom he had honou- 
rably entertain'd and trufted as a Friend, and who on 
the approach of the Indians, open'd the Gate of the 
Fort, and admitted them. Mr. John Broughton they 
murder'd in their Retreat •, and Forces being fent af- 
ter them, the Penacooh fled to the Woods, and left 
their Corn and Country to the mercy of Captain 
Nbyes and his Men, who enter'd it, and deftroy'd 
their Wigwams and Plantations 

The Indians kill'd many Men, Women and Chil- 
dren, in other places ^ as a whole Family on the 
North- fide of Merrimack River, four young Men of 
Saco whom they furpriz'd in the Woods, five more 
ritzr Saco falls, out of 25 who came forth to bury the 
others } one Starkey falling into their hands, to fave 
his own Life, difcover'd to them, that one Mr. Giles, 
and 14. other Englifhmen, were not far off, thefethe 
Savages murder'd. 

The Indians having intimation, that there was but 
a fmill Garrifon in ' Pemmaqmd Fort, got up upon a 


The Hiftory of New-England. 65 

Rock which over-look'd it, from whence they mife- 
-ably aaul'd the Befieg'd, who furrender'd, with 
fteir Governour Captain Weems* on Conditions 
if Life and Liberty. The Indians broke the Capt- 
ation, and bntcher'd the greateft part of them, as 
dfo Captain Skinner and I Captain Farnham who were ^ 
-omin/to the Relief of the Fort •, and Mr. PanJbaREvgUJb 
Kelvin hisSloopin the Barbican Thefe Lo^s^ 
caus'd the Inhabitants of Sheepfcoat and Kennebvnk to J 5 
ibandon thofe Places, and veto* Xo Falmouth* as did 
feveral other Planters in other Parts of the Eaft 

It was time for the Government of New- England to 
think of vigoroufiy oppoiing thefe Murders and De- 
gradations of the Savages : Accordingly Major M 
with 500 Men from Maffachufet, and Major Churchy 
one of their beft Officers from Plimouth, with as ma- 
ny more Englifh, and Chriftian Indians, march d a- 
gainft the Enemy, who hearing, that one Lieutenant 
Huckin was gone out of a Fort he commanded on the 
Frontiers, with all his Garrifon about their daily 
Work, intercepted them in their return, and cut them 
all off 1 7 in number. Then the Indians attack'd the 
Fortin it, which were only two Boys, and fome Wo- 
men and Children. Thefe Boys defended it agamlt The Brave- 
the Savages, wounded feveral of them, and when they ry of two 
faw the Barbarians had found out a way tofet fire to Englifh 
the Houfe in the Fort, and fo burn 'em out, , wou d Soys. 
not yield, but on Terms of Life, which thefe inhu- 
mane Wretches granted, and yet afterwards kill'd 
three or four of the Children, with one of the Boys, 
the other made his efcape. Captain Garner purfu d 
the Enemy, but they were too nimble for him. A- 
nother Party of 'em atTaulted Cafco, kill'd Captain 
Bracket, and had put the whole Town to the Sword, 
had not Captain Hall come opportunely with Relief, 
and engaging the Barbarians, put 'em to flight. 

The Defigns of Major Swape, and Major Church, 
were fruftrated, by the Treachery of fome Indian 
Confederates, who being fent out as Scouts, dijco- 
ver'd all that they knew to the Enemy ', and thele 
underftanding the Number of the Engliih, fled to 
their inacceffible Woods and Swamps, where there 
was no coming at them •, fo Major Swayne having 
reliev'd the Garrifon of Blm Point* retir'dto Winter 

Quarters. F 




Sir W. 


66 The Hijtory of NewvEngland. 

In the following year, Monfieur Artell, a French- 
ma n from Canada, and one Hoop-Hood an Huron Lea- 
der, affaulted Salmons Falls, and deftroy'd the beft part 
of the Town with Fire, and Sword, killing 3 o Perfons, 
and leading away above so into Captivity, ufing their 
Captives with the utmoft Barbarity that French and 
Indian Cruelty could invent. 

This Defcent of the French, and their confedera- 
ting with the Indians, alarm'dallthe Englifh Settle- 
ments on that Coaft ; and after the Reduction of No- 
PhiDsV Va ScGtia -> Sir William Phips was difpatch'd away with 
Expedition **.&& °f £ M ps ^.Tenders to attack Quebec*. The 
againfil principal Men of War were, ■> 

The Six-Friends^ Capt. Gregory Sugars Admiral, 44 Guns. 
The John and Thomas, Capt. Carter Vice- Admiral. 
The Swan, Capt . Tbo. Gilbert Rear- Admiral. 

They had aboard in all 2000 Men-, and fetting fail 
from Hull, near Bofion, thtgth of Auguft, 1690. ar- 
riv'd before September, at Ouebeck ; but were detain'd 
fp long by contrary Wind's^ that they were 3 Weeks 
going up the River of Canada, which otherwife they 
might have done in 3 Days. This gave the Count 
de Frontenac an opportunity to prepare for his De- 
fence, and draw all the Strength of the Colony to 
Quebeck; which Sir William Phips expected would 
have been divided by an Army marching over Land, 
and attacking Mount Royal Fort at the fame time that 
he fell upon the City. 

This Army was to confift of 1000 Men from New- 
York, Connecticut, and Plimouth Colonies, and 1500 
Indians, to whom the French give the general Name 
of Iroquois, but our Englifh difiinguifh them by the 
Na mes of their feveral Nations. The Englifh march'd 
as far as the great Lake of Canada, but not finding 
Canoos ready for them to pafs it, and the Indians not 
joyning them according to their Agreement, they 
ret-urn'd •, by which means, Count de Frontenac had no 
need of making any Detachments for the Security of 
Mount Royal. Sir William fummon'd the Count to fur- 
render the City, but receiv'd a very infolent abufive 
Aniwer : So on the 2th of October, the Englifh landed, 
under. Lieutenant General Whalley, to the number of 


The Hiftory of New -England. 6j 

1400, for to thofe few they were already reduc'd by 
the Small Pox, and other Difeafes. 

In the mean while, Sir William brought his Ships to 
bear on the Weft-end of the City, waiting when Ge- 
neral Whalley wou'd begin the AfTault j but this Gen- 
tleman hearing Count Frontenac had 4000 Men 
with him, and was provided to make a vigorous De- 
fence, notwithftanding the Prayers of the Englifh 
Soldiers to the contrary, refolv'd to re-imbark j and 
Sir William expecting the Signal of their attacking the- 
Town on the Eaft-fide, fent a MefTenger afhore, to 
know the reafon of their not giving the AfTault ^ 
which when he underftood, and that many of the Men 
were almoft frozen to Death, and that the Colonel Ito/a/t*- 
and others were ill of the Small Pox, he order'd them vats, 
onboard to refrefh themfelves •, and calling a Coun- 
cil of War, it was refolv'd to return. 

The Baron La Hontan, who was then at Quebec\^ 
(ays, there was not 260 French in the Town when 
Sir William came thither *, that when he fir'd upon it, 
he was two Leagues off it •, that the Englifh landed a- , 
bout 3000 Men againft the Ifle of Orleans^ about a 
Teagueand half below Quebeck ' but meeting with an 
Ambufcade, they retirU" 

The Englifh Account varies from this, and afTures 
us, that Ambufcade ran away from Whalley s Men. 
The Baron adds, That if Phips had been engag'd by 
the French, to ftand ftill with his Hands in his Poc- 
kets, he could not have done lefs againft them. That 
the Englifh kill'd Monfieur 5' Helene, and 100 French, 
and took the Sieur Jolet, his Lady, and other Prifoners. 
This was a fad Misfortune \ by the New-England Ac- 
counts,above 1 000 Men perifh'd in it one way or other. 
The Fleet was feparated in its return, and fome Ships 
driven as far as the Leward Iflands •, one was wreck'd, 
another never heard of-, a third founder'd and all the 
Crew loft} a fourth was driven afhore on the defblate 
I (land of Antecofla^ where Captain Rainsford and his 
Company, forty at firft, were reduc'd by Want anct 
Weather, to half the Number, in a Month's time, 
and then fav'd almoft miraculoufly. This Expedition 
coft the Colony of New-England 40000 /. for which 
they ran in Debt, and paid it off by Bills which they 
■made currant, like the Exchequer Bills in England. 

" F 2 " ; Sir 



68 The Hiftory of New-England. 

Sir William, foon after -his return to Bofton* 
fail'd from thence to Brifiol ; and haftning to London, 
fhew'd the King the neceflity of reducing Canada, for 
the Safety of his Dominions in the Weft-Indies ; but 
the French War in Europe lay fo heavy on King Wil- 
liam, that he could not find a way to begin it in Ameri- 
ca, where he had enough to do to defend his own Terri- 
tories. 'Twas now that this Knight,on the reprefentation 
of the Agents, of his Merit and Zeal for the King and 
Sir Willi- Country's Service, receiv'd his Commiffion ofGover- 
am Phips n our, and the new Charter we have already fpoken 
(jov S rm>r, f itl t his Chapter. With thefe he haften'd back to 
New-England, accompany 'd by the Agent Mr. Mather j 
- and a Day of Thankfgiving was appointed for the fafe 
Arrival of two fuch important Perfons. If the Author 
of Sir William Phips's Life, in Cotton Mather's loofe 
Colleftions, be to be credited ; He was a Man of 
great Honour, and a true Lover of his Country ^ as 
will appear by this Speech of his to the General 

Gentlemen ; 
Bis Speech Tou may make your f elves as eafy as you will for ever : 
to the Aj-Confider what may have any Tendency to Tour Welfare, 
Janbly. an{ £ Tou may y e y^ jy^ w y atever Bi[l$ Tm ^ eyt0 

me, confiftcnt with the Honour andlntereft of the Crown, 
PH pafs them readuly ; I do but feek Opportunities to 
feme you. Had it not been for the fake of this Thing, 
J had never accepted the Government of this Province : 
And whenever Tou have fettl'd fuch a Body of good 
Laws, that no Perfon coming after me may make Tou 
vneafy, I Jball defire not one day longer to continue in the 


Witches Y^ are tolcl ' ne was ver y careful to m ak e good 

pumJVd. J u "S es > J uftice s, and Sheriffs, and tender in burning 

Witches. The People of New-England were at this 

- time got into fuch a Humour of Witch-hunting, 

Cot. Mat. that there was a Society of them at Bofton, as there is 

p. 61. of Reformation in London ; and that Society engag'd 

themfelves to find out and profecute all Witches, 

as the Society in London feeks after and punifhes all 

Whores^ &c. The New-England Society had thrown 

no lefs than ioo old JVlen and Women into.' Goal 

" for 

TheHifiory of New-England. 69 

for Sorcery ) and fome had been put to Death * 7 
fome Scores lay ready for the Faggot j but the Mini- 
fters of Bofion, and the French and Dutch Minifters 
at New-Tork, informing Sir William Phips, that per- 
haps fome of the pretended Mifchiefs faidtobedone 
by the Witches, Alight be the Devil's doing in the 
Shape of fuch Perfons •, the new Governour was 
not fo ready to burn them, as thofe who went before 
him were-, and many of the Sorcerers, who lay only 
for the Warrant on a new hearing, were found rather 
to deferve Pity and Alms, than a Gibbet or Fire. 

Sir William by difcountenancing the Novelty of 
Witch-burning, clear'd the Country more of Wit- 
ches, than all the Executions that had been done be- 
fore his time. For to ufe the Hiftorian's own Expref- 
fion •, They ran as vehemently upon acquitting all the Ac- 
eus'd, as by miftake they ran at firfl upon condemning them. 
For which prudent Proceeding, the late Queen M&>. &"**> 
jgv-eur Sovereign of Sacred and Glorious Memory, 
wrote him a Letter of Thanks. 

We muft now take a further View of the Indian The Indian 
War', the Seat of which was in that part of the Pro- War. 
vince where the Governour was born. The Indians 
knew him Perfonally, and when they heard that he 
had taken a Ship full of Money, they wonder'd mighti- 
ly at the Fortune of a Man, of whom they had no 
manner of expectation that ever he would make fuch a 
figure in the world j but when he was made Governour, 
their wonder was increas'd, and Fear added to their 
Aftonifhment. They knew he was acquainted with 
them and their Country, and underftood how to car- 
ry on an Indian War much better than his Predecef- 

The French and Indians attack'd Cafco, kill'd Lieu- Cafco fa- 
tenant Clark, and 13 Men out of 30 near the Town, ken. 
drove thofe within it into the Fort, undermin'd it, and 
oblia'd the Englifh Governour Major Davis, after he 
had toft moft of his Men, to furrender, on pronufe of Major 
Convoy to the next Garrifon. However the French fent Davis, 
the Major and fome of the Men Prifoners to Quebeck, 
and the reft were murder'd by the Savages •, Captain 
Laurence was mortally wounded in this Siege, and 
many brave Soldiers kill'd. 




70 The Hiftory of New-England. 

Upon the. lofs of Cafeo, the Garrifons oiVapoodack, 
Spwwwk, Mew-point and Black-point, retir'd to Saco, 
and thence to Wells -, from whence half of them re- 
treated as far as Lieutenant Storers. Hopehood follow'd 
them, burnt fome Houfes, kill'd 12 or 13 Men and 
Women, and carry'd away g or 7 from Berwick and 
Fox-pomt - But Captain Floyd and Captain Greenleaf 
meeting him, many of his Men were {lain, and 
himlelf wounded. He was afterwards kill'd by fome 
French Indians, who miftook him and his Party 
tor Conrederates with the Englifh. At Spruce-Creek 
an oid Man was murder'd, and a. Woman made a 
Captive. At Lamperwell 9 Men were (lain, and others 
led into Captivity. Capt. Wifzvell, and Capt. Floyd, 
being detach'd by the Council of War rt P ortf mouth, 
toicour the Country as far as Cafco, overtook the 
Enemy near lVbeelwrightr-Pond, and coming to an 
Engagement, the former, his Lieutenant Flag, and 
molt or his Men were kill'd, which oblig'd GtpUW 
tyf&Jb to retire. They had 100 Men with them, but the 
X /t/lt dian r S 3 or + times that number •, and befides, there 
wtorml ^ ere f ? me French Soldiers mi *^ among them to difci- 
• pline them, and teach them a regular way of Fighting, 
which wasthereaibn that the Englifh wanted more 
Men in this Indian War, than they did in the former : 
Nor durft they venture an Adion where the Advan- 
tage was fo much on the Enemies fide, as they us'd 
to do. Atter this Vi&ory, the Savages made an 
incurfion as far as Amesbury, took Capt. Foot, and 
tortur'd him to Death. The Townfmen taking the 
Allarm fled to their Fort. However, the Enemy 
Kill'd 3 Perfons, burnt as many Houfes, drove off their 
Cattle, and retreated. 

A greater Force under the Command of Major 
Church was fent againft thefe Invaders. Himfelf, with 
300 Men, went by Sea, and landed in the, Night 
at Macqimt in Cafco Bay. They march'd immediate- 
ly to Fechepfcot an Indian Fort, which they found de^ 
ierted : From thence they advanc'd. 40 Miles up the 
River to Atmnofcoggin Fort, where they met 5 Indians 
haling away 2 Englifh Prifoners. They releas'd the 
Captives, but cou'd not come at the Indians. There 
were no more than 21 Indians in Amonofcoggin \ of 
them Mzpv -Church took and ilew 20, and let 5 E11- 

The Htflory of New-England. n 

alifh Prifoners at Liberty ', the Major hunted the Sa- 
vages up and down, forc'd them to drop fome ot their 
Captives, particularly Mr. Anthony Bracket, kill'd tome 
of their Straglers, but not being able to get them 
out of their Fortreffes, he return'd, leaving Capt* 
Comers, and Lieutenant Plaified in that Country to 
obferve the Enemy. ,il „ . . _J A rHiM 

Soon after the Indians came to Wells with a Flag Aime 
of Truce, and Major Hutchmfon and Capt. Townfend^"^ 
were fent from Bofton to treat with them. A Truce 
was concluded: The Captives on both fides were to 
be reftor'd, and Edgeremet and 5 more of their Sega- 
moresfiWd the Treaty (as well as they con d) in 
their Canoos at Sagadahoc , for they won d not come 
afhore. Among the Prifoners that were releasd, 
were Mrs. Hull, whom they woud feign have kept, 
becaufe (he cou'd write, to be tneir Secretary and 
Nathaniel White, whom they had Mien d to a 
Stake to roafthim to Death. Captain Convers ftaid 
with a good Garrifon at Wells, for the Security of 
thofe Parts. And thus the War ceas'd tor a little 
while, Anno 1691. „ , ,-, .. ., 

The Indians inftead of bringing in all the Captives, Th e Mum 
came down two or three Months aftei -upon Capt. break it. 
Convers at Wells ; but he receiv'd them fo well, that 
they withdrew. The Hoftilities being renew d, they 
kill'd 2 Men at Berwick, 2 zt Exeter, and 5 or * 
at Cape Nidduck. To prevent further Mifchief, 
Capt. March, Capt. King, Capt. Sherbam, and Capt. 
Waters, with 400 Men, landing at Macquoit, march d 
to Pechypfcot. Thefe Forces not meeting the Enem^r, 
grew fecure, and draggled out in Parties •, whim 
the Savages obferving, gather'd in a Body, attack d 
them with Advantage, and drove them to their Ships, 
with the Lofs of Capt. Sherbam and feveral Men. 
They then kill'd 7 Per fons at Berwick, 21 at Sandy 
Beach, a-Familyatftw/g/, another at Haverhdl, , and 
forc'd the Garrifon to defert the ftrong Fort ot Cape 
Nidduck, for want of Men to defend it. A Body ot 
Popifti Indians affaulted the Town ot York, kill d 5° 
Men, and led away 100 into Slavery •, the reft tor- 
tify'd themfelves in their Houfes f, and tho they were 
but a handful, yet the Savages, who were fcveral 
hundreds, durft not attack them. Here Mr. 2Pw»~ 
F 4 • mcn 


vers Bra- 

7 2 The Hiftory of New-England. 

tner the Minifter was fliot, to the great Joy of thefc 
Romijh Barbarians. A Ship was immediately dif- 
patch'd away, with a Grant to purchafe the Re- 
demption of the 2V£-Captives :, and thofe Men who 
remain'd in that Town talking of abandoning it, 
Major Hutchinfon was lent thither with a ftrong Party 
commanded under him by Capt. Convert, Capt. Floyd, 
and Capt. Thaxter, to .defend thofe Parts of the 
Country from the Incurfions of the Enemy. Capt. Con- 
fers was Pofted at Wells, with only 15 Men in the 
Fort, and 1 5 more in Sloops, to aliift the Garrifon 
upon occafion from the River. Againft him Ma- 
denkarvando, Moxus, Edgeremet, Warumbo, Indian 
Prices, Monfieur Burniff, and Monfieur Labrocree, 
and 500 Hurons, or French Indians, came down -, 
yet fuch was the ii. credible Valour of the Men in 
the Sloops, and th^ Captain with his in the Fort, 
that after feveral fruitless Attempts to mafter them 
by Land and Water, the French Generals, and 
their 4 Indian Confederate Princes, were oblig'd to 
retire -, and Monfieur Labrocree never liv'd to bear 
the Reproach of fo fcandalous a Retreat, being kill'd 
jn the firft of it. The Enemy happen 'd to take one 
John Diamond Prifoner,whom they us'd fo barbaroufly, 
that 'twou'd move too much' Horror in the Reader 
to hear it. For none but Indians or Frenchmen 
cou'd be guilty of it. 

Sir William Phips having fettled the Affairs of his 
Government at Bofion, and understanding the Enemy 
had made a terrible Slaughter of fome Husband- 
men,^, men on the Northfide of Merrimack River, rais'd 
quid Fort 45 ° ^ en ? an ^ niarcn 'd to Vemmaquid ; where Capt. 
buih by Bancroft, and Capt. Wing, by his Order and Directi- 
Sh Willi- on S built the beft Fort that is on the Continent of 
am Phips. America in Englilh hands: In which he put a 
Garrifon of 60 Men ; but the Charge of building and 
maintaining it, caus'd Murmurings and Complaints 
in the Country, which began to make Sir William's 
Adminiftration uneafy to him. Major Church took 
5 Indians at Penobfcot, demolifh'd their Fort at Taco- 
net, and deftroy'd the Corn about it. The next 
year Sir William fent 350 Men to Wells, and order 'd 
Captain Convers, whom he alfo made Major and 
Commander in Chief, to drain the Eaftern Garri- 




The Hiftory of New-England. 7 J 

tons, and march into the Enemies Country, which 
he did ; fcowr'd the Woods about Taconet, proceeded 
to Sacol and laid the Foundation of a Fort there which 
was carry'donby Major Hook, and Capt/M, and 
was a oreat defence to the Eaftern Counties. He 
took feveral Indians, and cut 'em in pieces, to revenge 
feme late Murders they had committed at j Qyller-Ri- 
ve? tecLetHc* alio the Englifh hearing the Sava-Saco-F<^ 
jres'appear'd about Quaboag, font out a Party of Horfe, 
who purfu'd them to a Swamp, and leaving their 
Horfes at the Entrance of it, follow'd them by their 
Track, okill'd moft of them, and recover d fome Cap- 
tives which they had taken, with all their Plunder. 
Upon the late Success of the Englifh, the vigorous 
Proceedings of Sir- William P hips, and the building 
the Forts in the Eaft, the Indians beganto incline 
to a real Peace, efpecially hearing the Macquas threat- 
ned to fall on them for killing fome of their Squas 
or Princefles, on a Whartel-berry Plain. Thefe Ma- 
quas had the life of Guns, before any other Indian 
Nation, and by this Advantage are laid to have kill d 
two Millions of Indians. They inhabited the Regions 
to the Weft, and were generally in League with the 
Enalifti. The Indian Segamores had a French En- 
voy in their Courts, who was a Friar, toftirthem up 
again!! the Englilh, and keep them m heart. This 
Prieft did his utmoft to perfwade them to continue the 
War; but the French not afiifting them with Men, 
Arms and Ammunition, as they promis'd, the Friar Kerf"' 
cou'd not hinder them from begging a Peace. begaPme. 

Accordingly a Peace was concluded the nth ot 
Jto&fi, 1693- by Capt. Wing, Mr. Manning, and 
Mr.Johnfon, in the Name of Sir William Pkps, and 
by Edgeremet for the Indians. The Indians Jay quiet 
about a year, and all that while the French P^ , 

inftigated.them to break the Truce They -at W**** 
prevail'd upon them to make an Inroad into th* ^ l ~ ln fl igitu i 
ritories of the Englifh, who were not provided to re- w h by 
ceive them, reckoning themfelves iecure in -tns Fre „ cb 
Treaty. Prielts. 

An Army of thefe Savages falling on a fudden on .Oy- x ^ 
/fcr-#wr-Town,made near too Perions Captives. One 
Bickford couragioufly defended his Houfe againit them, 
and defpairing to reduce him before Succours came, 



The En~ 

glijh take 

74 The Hifiory of New.Engkn<3. 

they left him : Such was the end of the Peace of 
Pemmaquid, the Place where the laft Treaty was con- 
cluded. They murder'd Mrs. Cutt and her Family 
on Pifcataway. They made an AfTault on Grotm i 
but were repuls'd by Lieutenant Lakin .« However 
they kill'd 20 Perfons in that Plantation. At Spruce- 
Creek they Hew three, and at Killery eight more. 
Here they barbaroufly us'd a Daughter of Mx.Down- 
™i\ wno notwithftanding me was knock'd down, 
had her Skull fcalp'd, and was left for dead, recover'd 
and is ftill Living. Mr. Pike, Under-Sheriff of 
Effex , was murder'd by them , between Amtsbury 
and Haverhill. To recompenfe thefe LofTes ? the 
Englifh feiz'd Bommafeen, one of the Segamores, 
who, with Edgeremet, had fign'd the late Trea- 
ty. He pretended to be juft come from Canada, 
and came into the Englifh Territories, on purpofe to 
endeavour to put an end to tht Hoftilities \ but it 
being prov'd that he was a Principal A&or in the late 
Minders, he was fent Prifoner to Bojlon. The lofs 
of io great a Man as 3ommafeen quoted the Indians 
for 6 or 7 Months, and then they renew'd their Bar- 
barities. They took two Souldiers belonging to the 
Garrifon of Saco, kill'd the one, and fent the other into 

Sometime after Sheepfcoat John, fo call'd from a Place 
of that Name, near which he was born, who was one 
of the famous Mr. Elliot's Converts, but now an Apo- 
ftate and Enemy, propos'd a Treaty, and the Indians 
came X.0P emmaquid, pretending to be forry that they 
had violated the Truce. To fhew their Sincerity, they 
deliver'd up 8 Captives, and promis'd to releafethe reft. 
Col. Philips Commander in Chief of the Forces, Lieu- 
tenant Col. Hawthorn, and Major Convers were Com 7 
million 'd to treat with the Savages, who defign'd 
only to get Bommafeen again if they cou'd •, and 
when they found the Englifh were refolv'd to keep 
him faft at Bofton, they broke off the Conference, 
and departed. 

An Ambufcade of Indians took Major Hammond 
of Rettery, and fent him to Canada, where Count 
Frontcnac treated him very honourably, having bought 
'rte&tTes mmofhis Savage-Mafter. Another Party came to Bel- 
■lerica, on Horfeback, which render'd them unfufped- 


The Indi- 
ans fir/} 

The Hiftory of New-England. 7 $ 

ed i they never ufing a Horfe, unlefs to eat him. 
Here they kill'd and took 15 Men and Women. They 
flew Serjeant March, and 3 Men, newPemmaqwd, 
and 6 more as they were rowing a Gondola round a 
Point above the Barbican. They took p People out 
of Newbury, and being purfu'd by Capt. Greenlea^ 
wounded them fo, when they found they couM not 
keep them, that they all dy'd, except a Lad. Capt. 
Church, Governour of Pemmaquid Fort, defirmg to 
lay down his CommiiTion, was fucceeded by Capt. 
Chub, who we are told was guilty of a Piece of Trea- Captm 
chery unworthy the Engliih Name-, for, meeting Chub* 
Edgeremet and another Prince on a fort of Treaty, "««»*• 
he put 'em both to Death. 

The next Year cms John Church, and 3 n1< ^ ot i^j. 
Ouobecho, Thomas Cole and his Wife of Wells, 
7l Perfons near Portfmouth, were maflacred, and 
7 taken Prifoners. In Auguft, the French landed fome 
Men out of a Man of War, the Newport, which they 
had taken from the Englifh, to affift the Indians. This 
Newsfo frighted the Traitor Chub, that he furrren- 
der'd thenewandftrong Fort of Pemmaquid. Ine 
People of New-England mifs'd their Governour 
Six William Pbips, whom by their Clamours and 
Complaints they had caus'd to be fent for to £»#*»*, 
a little after the Pemmaquid-Ye?,CQ, as we ihall inew 
in the following Pages, being now willing to hnilh 
the Indian War ', which, tho it made a mighty N oiie 
in New-England, will not have a like effeft on an 

The taking of Pemmaquid Fort threw the EnsliftiPemina. 
in thofe Parts into a dreadful Confternation ', an J the V" » e 
Deputy Governour, Col. Stoughton, fent out Col. Gtd-^ 
ney, Col. Hawthorn, and Major Church, with leve- 
ral Parties, to put a flop to the Enemy, who, pleas d 
With fo formidable aConqueft, were retir'd, doing 
no more mifchief at that time, except in murdering 
y Souldiers of Saco Fort, who fell into their hands. 

From Haverhill in the enfuing Year, they took 39 l69 g, 
Captives, of whom one was Hannah Dunjlan, a Wo- 
man of a mafculine Spirit : She had lain in not above 
a Week, yet fhe and her Nurfe waiK'd 15° Miles on 
foot to the Town where the Indian, fhe was to ierve, 
liv'd. This Woman being afterwards to travel with 

7* The Hiftory of New-England. 

her Matter and his Family, to a Rendezvous of 
Indians, fhe watch'd her Opportunity in the Night, 
and having animated her Nurfe to affift her, they 
mm ten of the Indians with their own Weapons, and 
made their efeapej for which Aftion they receiv'd 
a Keward of 50 Pounds, from the General AflTem- 
blyor the Province, and Prefents from private Perfons 
to a good Value. The Savages continuing their In- 
roads, kill d a Man at Tork, another at Hatfield, a third 
atGmw, and a fourth n Exeter, from whence they 
earned away 2 Children Captives. They kill'd another 
mn *t Exeter, after this wounded a fecond, and 
carry d off a third: They alfo furpriz'd and flew 
Major Froji and his Two Sons, and 3 Women near 
New-Chawanmc -, and dreadful Defolation threat- 
ned the whole Province, from an Invafion of the 
French : But before we fpeak of that, we fhou'd let 
c.,SS? er J?, now what became of the Governour, 
Sir William T>hips, and in whofe Hands the -Govern- 
m c %New~Engltmd was in thefe difficult times. 
m Sir William having fettled Peace, as he thought, 
in the Province, and the Trade being open'd with the 
Savages, went for England to juftify himfelf againft 
tne Complaints of his Enemies, who profecuted him 
at the Council-Board, for feveral Afts of Male- Ad- 
ministration. The General Aftembly of the Province, 
lent Letters to Court by him, to pray that he might 
De continu'd Governour, which feem'd to be a fuffi- 
cient Juftification of his Innocence-, and the King 
was fo well fatisfy'd of his Conduft, that had he liv'dt 
tis thought he would have been fent back in the fame 

at V , e dy ' d at London -> an d the Government of 
New-England was after his Death manag'd by his 
Deputy WdhamStoughton, Efq-, till the Year 1697. 
whe " ^ Earl of Bellamont came over Governour. 
. Sir William carry'd home with him a Project to 
n\ffi' l PP l y A he Kin S dom of England with Naval Stores from 

GovZor th % E f Qi ' n Par tf of Maffachufet Colony, which might 
UQvernor. ffly be done . he ^ fo intended tQ ^^ Affifta * ce 

for the Conqueft of Canada; and the Court was fo 
well conyinc'd of the Neceflity of that Conqueft, 
as to order Sir Francis Wheeler to ftop at New-En- 
gland, to take in what Forces the Province had rais'd, 
and thence proceed to Canada. Accordingly Sir Fran- 


The Hifiory of New-England. 77 

w arriv'd there during the Pence of Pemmaquidj but he 
liad loft three quarters of his Seamen and Landmen at 
the Sugar-Iflands, and fo that Defign came to nothing } 
which, had it been executed as 'twas projected, wou'd 
have prevented the Fears of a French Invafion in 
New-England. , r . ^ 

The Deputy Governour prepar'd for a vigorous De- 
fence, and the Forts, particularly thofe at Boftott, were 
put into very good Order. Major March with 500 
Men was polled on the Eaftern Frontiers, to obferve 
the Enemy on that fide •, and he did fo much good, 
that few Englifh fell into their Hands. They kill'd 
a Souldier n&FWells, took another and Roafted him. 
Three more they furpriz'd as they were cutting Wood 
for the Garrifon ztSaco Fort, and murder'd them. 
They took Lieutenant Fletcher and his two Sons, one 
of whom efcap'd *, the other with his Father was maf- 
facred. Major March proceeded to Cafco Bay, and 
came on the Enemy unaware, who after one Fire, 
fled to their Fleet of Canoo's and got off-, the Ma- 
jor having kill'd a good number of them before they 
cou'd get away, with the lofs of Capt. Weymouth of 
Bamflable and 1 2 Men. This A&ion, tho it does not 
appear to be of any great Confequence, yet was fo in 
errecl: : For it hinder'd the promis'd Irruption of the 
Savages, as that did the Defcent of the French, who 
being weakned by a Storm, and hearing of the De- 
feat of their Confederates the Indians, and the good 
pofture of Defence the Englifh were in, gave them no 


While the Savages continu'd their Incurfions, the Itfp7# 
Lord Bellamont in England was preparing for his De- The Earl 
parture, and fet fail in the DeptforaMm of War, in f Bella- 
November 1 697. He was driv'n as far as Barbadoes^ mont Go- 
but kept clear of the Ifland,and arriv'd in fafety zlBo-vemor. 
fivn, in December. After his Arrival, the Enemy he- Arrives at 
gan to grow weary of the War. They kill'd 20 Men Bofton. 
at Lancafter-Tovin, with Mr. Whiting the Minifter, 
burnt fome Houfes, and two or three old People in 
them, and carry'd away 5 into Slavery. They alfo 
murder'd one Man at Oyfter-Bay. Nor muft we for- 
. get Chub, the falfe Wretch, who furrender'd Vemma- 
quid Fort. The Governour kept him under Exami- 
nation fome time at Bojfon, and then difmift him. 



by the In* 

78 The Hifiorj of New-England. 

The Traitor As he was going to his Houfe at Andover, the Indian* 
furpris'd him and his Wife, and maflacred them," 
a juft Reward of his Treafon. They flew three or 
four Perfons more ; and had got Colonel Dudley 
Bradjireet into their hands, but being clofely purfu'd 
they difmift him and other Prifoners. They kill'd 
two, and took two fometime after at HaverhilL 
murder 'd an Old Man at York, and attack'd Deerfield 
on Connecticut fide, but were beaten off by Mr 
Williams the Minifter, and the Townfmen. A Man 
and a Boy were (lain at Hatfeild, and that was the laft 
Blood fpilt by them. For Count Frontenac gave 
Theyrnah notice to the French Indians, that there was a Peace 
Peace. concluded in Europe, and they muft reftore all the 
Enghlh Captives :, many of whom were dead, and 
the reft return'd. Major Convert, and Captain Al- 
den were fent by the Earl of Bellamont to receive 
them, and the Submiffion of the Sachems and Se- 
gamores , who came and excus'd themfelves for 
breaking the Peace, faying, The Jefuits would not 
let them alone till they had done it •, and if the Earl 
of Bellamont, and the Count de Frontenac, would 
not bamjjj thofe Devils, they could not promife the Peace 
wou'd loft long. 

Colonel Philips, and Major Convers were fent 
again to fettle Commerce with them, and to take a 
more formal Submiffion -, which Moxus, a principal 
Segamore, and others, Sign'd near Mares Point, at 
Cafco Bay, the 7 th of January, i<fj?8. 

On the Conciufion of the Peace, the Earl of Bella- 
mont fummon'd an AfTembly, wherein, befides his 
r Praires of * our Late Sovereign, King William of 
The Earl of Glorious Memory, he recommended to them, To'tn- 
Bella- g a g e t y ir j^ € i g ^ ovr j nc H ans fa a Trade, by a good Re- 
SPeVch to f.[ latlon i wd under felling the French. To provide War- 
tie Jf- • Stores * an ^ take care °f the Fortifications. To let 
their Laws agree with thofe of England as near aspofji- 
ble. To which the AfTembly made a handfome Re- 
ply, in an Addrefs of Thanks ; and the Lieutenant 
Governour Mr. Stoughton did the fame in the Name 
of the Council. So that all was Peace and Harmony 
now m New- Ev gland. The Earl of Bellamont wasal- 
fo Governour o£ New-lork, and chofe to refide moftly 
at the City. In his Abfence, the Lieutenant Gover- 
nour fupply'd his Place. In 

of the Je- 




1 7*o o: 


The Htfory 0/ New-England. 79 

In the Year 1699. the famous Pirate Captain 2&J 1699} 
was taken at Bojion, by Order of theGovernourtheC^f.Kid 
Lord Bellamont, and fent Prifoner to England, where the m* 
he was often examin'd concerning his Piracies men Bere * 
by Committees of Parliament, and afterwards try'd, 
eondemn'd and hang'd. • . 

In 1700. The AfTembly gave a Tax towards buil- 
ding a Room for a Library, and a Theatre at Cam- 
bridge, where there was an Indian College erected, 
or Appartments built for them in that of Harvard. 
On the 10th of March, 1702. a dreadful Fire broke 
out at Bofton, in the Houfeof Mr. John George, which 
burnt 10 violently, that 9 Ware-houfes, withavaft 
Quantity of Goods, werereduc'd to Afties, and feve- 
ral Streets confum'd and damag'd by it As to other 
Events, there have been none remarkable lately : 
The Indians have not dar'd to break the Peace in the 
prefent War •, and the Privateers which the Govern- 
ment and Merchants of New-England have fet out 
fmce the lall Rupture with France, have been fo 
fuccefsful, that they took 14. Merchant-men, and 3 
Capers, in a few Weeks time. The Earl of Bella-' 
mont dying in this year, Her Majefty Queen Anne 
was gracioufiy pleas'd to appoint Colonel Jofeph Dud- gS.gJ* 
ley to be Governour of New-England ; but the Go- Q Qve ^ mr \ 
vernment of the Province of New-Tork was given 
to the Lord Cornbury by King William. 


C H A P. II. 

Of the Country, Towns and Forts \ Of the 
Climate, Soil, and Product ; Of the Ani- 
mals and Trade at New-England. 

TV/TR. Delaet, who is look'd upon to be the moft exact the Extern 
J * VA Author that ever wrote of the Wefi-Indies, is in °f N ew " 
an, Error in his Account of New-England, when he England. 
fays it has but 70 Miles in Length. The Dutch at 
that time ihut it in fo much on the South-fide, from 
which they took all Newhavsn Colony, and the 




The Hiftory of New-England. 

in Eu- 

French on the North, where they reckon'd all beyond 
Pifcataway River, as part of Norembegua y that there 
was little left for New-England. But we fhall prove 
it runs near 300 Miles along theCoaft, without rec* 
koning the Angles, which wou'd make it much more. 
It is not any where in a direct Line above 50 Miles 
broad. It lies between 41 and 45 Degrees N. Lati- 
tude : Is bounded by the Terra Canadenfis on the N. 
Tenfihania W. New-Tork S. and the Atlantick Ocean 
E. By the Situation, 'tis in the Middle of the Tem- 
perate Zone } yet the Climate is not fo mild nor fo 
regular as to Heat and Cold, as thofe Countries are, 
that are Parallel with it in Europe, as fome Parts of 
Italy and France. For what reafon, "j" we may fee in 
-r Nam Mr. Delaet, who in his Defcription of it fays, " * The 
qua Mare « Summer is not fo hot, and that the Winter is 
contingit « more colc j t j ian ' t j s commo nly in the fame Climate } 
to e frS-" andforGoodnefsof Air, and Fertility of Soil, the 
or eft "" Country may be compar'd with the beft 
idque par- r0 P e » 

ceani (uti videtur) vicinitatem, cujus jugis & inconftans motus, ra- 
diorum Solarutn reflexum frangit, partimab Vaporum afcendentium 

copiam qui JEftum mitigant, &c 'And again, Eafdem regiones 

longe trigidiores effe qua. afcendentem Solum fpeftant, quam qua de- 

* ;Eftas minus ferveat, & Hiems magis algeat, quam vulgo in Euro- 
pa fub eodem Climate ; Cceli Solique bonicate cum laudatiflimis Euro- 
pe merito poffe comparari. 

The Climate of New-England , in companion 
with that of Virginia , is as the Climate of Scot- 
landy compar'd with that of England. The Air 
however is healthy, and agrees with Englifh Confti- 
tutions : On which account,^ this Colony is the moil 
flourishing and numerous of any that belongs to the 
The Soil. Crown of England in America. The Soil is ge- 
nerally fruitful, but in fome Places more fo than 
in others. 

We fhall fhew the difference in treating of the par- 
ticular Counties. In doing which, we fhall run along 
the Coaft from North to South, and take in every 
thing remarkable that has come to our knowledge: - 
Dividing the whole Country into the four firit Colo- 

The Hiftory of New-England. 81 

lies or Provinces, and thofe into Counties, according 
o the prefent Divifion of it in the lateit Surveys. 

Thelar^eft and mod populous Settlement is that of 
Maffachufet; which was the Name of the Indian Na- Mattacltu 
ion inhabiting that part of the Country, where now £*£• ^ 
rands the City of Bofton. This Province extends from 
7 aft to Weft in length along the Coaft from Scnuate in 
Himouth County, to Saco River in that of Ate,near i 1 © 
Miles, and in breadth from the fame Scituate to Enfeild 
n Hampjhire in the Province oiConnetlicute about jo,but 
tis narrower up in the Country. It contains the Coun- 
ties of, 

Towns Names. 

Main, in which are, ^Wells, 1 
^Tork, S 

Minifters Names. 

Mt'-Z Main 

Mr - County* 

Mr. Hancock* 


The Ifle of Shoals. 

Tork gives the Name of a Shire to a fmall part of 
this Province, but 'tis generally included in that 
of Main. 

in which J Hampton, 

Hedeckov 7 
Newcaflelj 3 



Mr. Joh. Pike. 
Mr. Job. Clark. 
Mr. Joh. Cotton. 

Mr. Sam. Moody. 
Mr. Jojh. Moody. 


The furthermoft Bay Northward is Cafco, in which 
is Saco River. On this River to-Town or Scar- 
borough ftands. Here is a very good Fort, built in 
the laft Indian War, and is a great awe upon the 
Hurons, or French Indians to the Eaftward. 'Twas 
mounted with 10 or 12 Guns. la the fame County 
is the William and Henry Fort, on Vemmaquid River, 
about 2 a Rods from High-Water- Mark , which in 
time of War, was mounted with 18 Guns, and gam- 
fon'd by 60 or 80 Men. The River Pemmaquid runs 
between 4.0 and 50 Miles up in the Country: There 
are befides three lefs Rivers, Spurnwmck, Kenne- 
Sunk, and Pifcataway, and feveral Iflands off the 
Coaft, fome of which are 10 Miles long, There are 
,G high 



82 The Hifiory of New-England. 

high Mountains, and horrible Forrefts in the Eaftern 
Parts of thefe Counties, which are the moft barren of 
any in New-England: However, towards the Sea- 
coafts, and upon the Rivers, the Soil is fruitful for 
Corn and Pafture ♦, but the chief Trade is for Beaver, 
Lumber and Fifh. Thefe two Counties, when they 
were firft planted, were a Province of themfelves, 
and were call'd New-Hampflnre, but they defir'd to be 
added to the Government of Majfachufet. The moft 
confiderable Towns in them, are Tork, Dover, and 
Wells, where there are Fortifications \ and Co there are 
in all the Frontiers, and indeed in moft of the other 
Towns, for the Indians in a Day's march can be in the 
middle of the Country. There were above 100 Fa- 
. milies in Wells, before the breaking out of the Indian 
War in the Raft. The County-Courts are held at 
Dover and Portfmouth the laft Tuefday in June, and 
at York the firft Tuefday in July. The next Coun- 
ties are, 

Towns Names. 

Minifters Names. 


' Amesbury, 



5 Mr. Francis Dean. 
1 Mr. Thomas Barnard. 


Mr. John Hale. 


Mr. Symmes. 


• Mr. Emerfon. 



Mr. Benjamin Rolfs. 

1 ' 


S Mr. William Hubbard. 
1 Mr. John Rogers. 



Mr. Jeremiah Shephard. 


jvlr. John Emerfon. 


Mr* Samuel Chcever. 



Mr. Tappln. 


Mr. Samuel Belcher. 


jVir. Edward Payfon. 


c. Mr. John Hlgglnfon. 

\ Mr. Nicholas Noyfe. 


Mr. Cvjhing. 

1 opfelld, 

Mr. Jofeph Capen. 


w Wenham, 

Mr. Jojcph Gorifo, 

S.dcm is the chief Town of this County. The 
County Court i> kept there the laft Tuefday m June y 


The Hifiory of New-England, 
and November. ■ It has a Market every Wednefday, and 
two Fairs in the Year, the laft Wednefday in May, and 
thelaft Wednefday in September. Tis pleafantlyfeated 
between two Rivers, and was the firft Town that was 
built in Maffachufet Colony. Lyn is a Market Town : 
The County Court is kept at Ipfwich, the laft Tuefday 
in March and September. This Shire is water'd on the 
Eaft by the great River Merrimack, navigable 40 
Miles up and more ; the Soil is not very fertile, ex- 
cept it be near the Coaft. The Hills here are not ve- 
ry high ; but in the Weftern Parts are inhabited by 
the Indians. There's an Ifland lies off of it, about 
three Miles long, which is very fruitful ^ andmoftof 
the Towns being built near the Sea-fide, afford great 
Conveniences for the Fifhery. In this County is the 
Promontory Trabig^anda, now Cape Anne, which is 
very high. The next to it is that of, 


Towns Names. 








I Maiden, 
S K Medford, 










Minifters Names. 
Mr. Sam. Whiting. 
Mr. W- Brattle. 
Mr. Char. Merfion. 
Mr. Tho. Clark. 
Mr. Jofeph Eaftbrook. 
Mr. Tho. Weld. 
Mr. Gerjham Hobart, 
Mr. John Whiting. 
Mr. WiL Brinfmead. 
Mr. Michael Wigglefworth. 
Mr. Simon Bradftreet. 
Mr. Nehemiah Hobart*; 

Mr. Jonathan Veirpoint* 
Mr. Daniel Gookin. 

Mr. James Sherman. 
Mr. Henry Gibs. 
Mr. Sam. Angier, 
Mr. -Fox. 


The chief Town of this County is Cambridge, fitu- 

sited on the Northern Branch of Charles River. 'Tis 

a Univerfity, which has two Colleges , Harvard 

G 2 Col- 



84 The Hiftory of New-England. 

College, and Stoughton Hall. 'Twas at firft call'd 
Newton, but it got the Name of Cambridge by 
the College's being built there. There are feveral 
fine Streets and fair Houfes in it. The County 
Court is held there the firft Tuefday in April and 
October. The next Town is Charles Town, the Mo- 
ther of Bofton ; from which it lies about a Mile croft 
the Harbour, over which there is a Ferry. Tis fitu- 
ated between two Rivers, Charles River and Miftic 
River, and takes up the (pace that is from the one to 
the other. Tis beautify'd with a handfome large 
Church, a Market-place by the River's fide,, and two 
long Streets leading down to it. The County 
Court is kept there the third Tuefday in June and 

Reading is a populous Town, commodioufly fitua- 
ted on the Banks of a great Lake. There are two 
Mills in it, one for Grift, and another to faw Boards j 
fuch a one as is on the River of Thames on Southward 

Watertown is noted for the Fairs held there the firft 
Fryday in June, and the \ft in September. The Ri- 
vers are fmall in this County, but there are a great 
many of 'em, which watering the Paftures, render 
this one of the pleafanteft and fruitfulleft Spots of 
Ground in New-England. The Fields are full of Cat- 
tle of all forts, and the Market at Bofton is plentifully 
fupply'd by it for Exportation, with Beef, Pork, 
&c. befides for a home Confumption. The Hills are 
cover'd with Sheep ', and both together refemble 
Sm. Del. Dcvonfiire in England, and as do the following County. 

Towns Names, 


Minifters Names. 
Mr. James Allen. 
Mr. Benjamin Wadfwortk 
Mr. Mather, fen. 
Mr. Mather, jun. 
Mr. Sam. Wilward. 
Mr. Emblin. 
Monfieur Daille. 


^ I Braintree, 
<5a J Pedham, 
^ JDorchefter, 

Mr. Mofes Fisk, 
Mr. Jof. Belcher. 
Mr. John Danforth. 



*T t Hingham, 

53 j Hull, 

•g i Medfeild, 

£ J Mendon, 

£ - Milton, 

^ \Wrentham, 


<?f New-England. 

Mr. >&» Norton, 
Mr. Whit-man. 
Mr. Jo/j Baxter. 
Mr. Grindall Rawfon. 
Mr. P*f «" Thatcher. 
Mi: Nath. Walter. 
Mr. S^w. 7wr*y. 
Mr. SfbjWfc Dwight. 
Mr. 5^w«f / y^w. 


The Capital of this County is ^, the Capital of | °£ 
New-England, and the biggeft City in 4ffi*K*i « ' 
cept two or three on the Spamfh Continent. Us 
built on the Sea Coaft, which J^, 1 ^"^; 
modious for Commerce. Tis fortify d on the id 
of the Sea by a ftrong Caftle, in an Ifland at^e 
Mouth of the Harbour, thence calld Caftlc-ljlmd, 
£ri on the fide of the Shore by Forts on two or three 
Neighbouring Hills, which command the Avenues to 
it g There are abundance of fine Buildings in xt pub- 
lick and private:, as the Court Houfe, Market Place, 
if William Phiph Houfe and others There are feve- 
ral handfome Streets: 'Tis bigger -than peters and 
contains xo or , 2000 Souls-, the Militia confiftingof 
four Companies of Foot. There are tnree : Parifli- 
Churches, and a French Church, and two Meeting 
Houfes, i'n this City, the old Church, North Cnurch 
and So'uth Church belong to the Pre.bytevians who 
are the Church of England as by Law EftabUJh * • The 
French Church to the French Proteftants 1 and _the 
Meeting Houfes to a Congregation ?^^?%f£% 
land Men and Annabaptifts. This is the chief P01 1 of 
the Colony, and from hence 3 or '.466 Sail otShp, 
have been loaden in a Year, with Lumber, Fifh, 
Beef, Pork, &c. for feveral parts of Europe and Amen- 
ca. Here the Governour commonly refides, the Gene- 
ral Court and AfTembly meet, the Courts of Judicature 
,f it ,and the Affairs of the Province are tranfafted Lin 
fhort, 'tis a very flourifliing City, and for the Beau , 
ty of its Buildings, and the Greatnefs of its Trade, 
sives place to few Towns in England. 
The Market at Boftort is kept .every Thurfflay. 
The Fairs on the firftTuefday in May, and on the • 
M Tuefday. in OMcr every year, &c. ^ ^ 






Quam hu 
jus Tra- 
ctus Para- 
haud im- 


The Hifiory of New-England. * 
Every year to hold three Days each. And, 
The County Court the laft Tuefday in April, July, 
October, and January, in every year. 

Dorchefier is the next Town to Bofion for bignefs. 

c r j i at t,ie mouth of two little Rivers near the 
Sea-fide : It has two Fairs ■, one on the fourth Tuefday in 
March, and another on the laft Wedneiday in October 
every year : Roxbury is noted for its Free-fchool. The 
Town of Weymouth is the moft ancient in the Province ; 
but is not of fo much confideration as 'twas in the In- 
fancy of the Colony. Here are no great Rivers in this 
bhire, but many little ones, which render it fo plea- 
lant and fruitful, that a famous Author fays it may not 
unworthily be term'd Paradice. ' To the Weft ward of 
this and Middlesex Counties, bordering on the Colony 
of Connecticut, from whence 'tis only Separated by the 
River of the fame Name, lies, 


PI imcuth 



Towns Names. 
;§ ^Deerfeild, 
^g I Enfeild, 
2 Hatfeild, 
"1 *rl Hadley, 
X £ I Northampton, 
% Springfeild, 
| j Southfeild- 
| [Wefifeild' 

Minifters Names. 
Mr. John Williams. 

Mr. W.Williams. 

Mr. Solomon Stoddard. 
Mr, Daniel Brewer. 
Mr. Benjamin Ruggles. 
Mr. Edward Taylor. 

This County being within Land, and hilly, is not 
fo fruitful as thofe that lie on the Rivers nearer the 
Coafts. Its chief Towns are Northampton, where the 
County Court is kept the laft Tuefday in March ; 
and Springfeild, where 'tis held the laft Tuefday in 

We muft now proceed to the next, but eldeft Co- 
lony in New-England. 

flimouth Colony, which runs along the Coaft a- 
bout ioo Miles, from Cape Cod in Barnfiable County, 
to Manchefier in Brifioll County, and in Breadth' 
from Monument Bay in Barnfiable County, to Scituate 
in Flimouth County, near 50 Miles. It contains the 
following Shires j that of 

The Hifiory of New-England. 87 

Towns Names. 
f Bridgwater, 
'& «T I Duxbury, 
^31 Marjbfeild, 
§ ^ 1 Middlebury, 
|^ \Plimouth, 
g £ J Scituate, 

Minifters Names. 

Mr. 3^^ Keith. 

Mr. Wifwul. 

Mr. Edward Thompfon. 


Mr. Jate Co«c». 

Mr. Jeremiah Cujhing, 

Mr, Deo date Lawfon. 


The chief Town of this County is New-fhmouth, 
the Capital of the Colony, and the oldeft in New- 
%£T>T\s fituated on the great Gulph of Batuxet, 
and contains 3 or 400 Families. . formerly 

The next Town to this in Bigneis was tormeny 
Scituate but tho jfcUtffc has the Honour of being 
theXropolis of the Province, Scituate has grown 
upon her fo P much lately, that me has two Churches 
&«!»« but one. There ^re ^two o 
three foiall Rivers in this Shire •, which, as tc .its 
Soil, is muchof thefamcnatnrewith^rf^ 
And raffins by Sea, from this County to the next, 
we S weather GapeCod, the higheft Promontory 
on the Coaft, and the moft Northerly Point of Land m 
the Province. The Country about it is barren •, but 
the Convenience of Fiihing renders it as populousas 
mofHn New-England, flie Shire takes its Name 
from the Town of Barnflable, lying in a Bay which is 
alfo call'd Barnflable. 

Minifters Names. 

Towns Names. 

g & Barnflable, 
$£ \Eafiham, 
*>■%) Mammoy, 
^% ^.Rochefler, 
^ d I Sandwich, 
^ !& I Tar mouth, 
PQ £* I 

Mr. John Ruffel, 
Mr. Sam. Treat. 
Mr. Nath. Stone. 
Mr. Arnold. 

Mr. Rowland Cotton. 
Mr. John Cotton. 

ble County. 

Oppofite to the South Bay of this Shire, call\j 

and in which is now the Panfli-Churcri, Wira iw 
befides feveral Indian Preachers, the UMVg£, 

M 4- " 



The Hiftory of New-England. 

™ bi !f d Ar moftl t y by Indian Conve rts, as is the other 
liland Nantucket, where there are no Englifh Prea- 
C iT S '/ h , ut J ndim , Paftors. The Streights between 
Martha% Vineyard, and the Continent, call'd Mala- 
bar, are a very dangerous PafTage. 

The next Shire to this is Brifiol County, in which 



Minifters Names. 
Mr. John Sparhawk. 

Towns Names 



Taunton, Mr. Sam. DanfortL 

Little-Compton, Mr. Adams. 

Swanfey, fitted at the Mouth of Providence River, 
is a 1 own or fonie note in the Country, but Brifioll 
is the place ofmoft Trade, and the chief of the Coun- 
ty, of which Rhode JJland is reckon'd a part. In this 
Ifle there are two Churches, at 

Newport and 

Z Mr. Nathaniel Clap Mini- 
5 fter. 


cut and 

Elizabeth Ifland, at the Mouth ©f Monument Bay, 
was one of thofe that Capt. Gofnold landed on. 

Providence and Patuxet Rivers, are the principal of 

this Shire, but are neither of them very big. The 

Narragantfets, the moft formidable Nation of all the 

Indians, inhabited the South Weft Parts of it. 

There is nothing in this County fo extraordinary or 

different from the reft, as to deferve to be mention'd. 

. The other Two Provinces, which are now the 

J° int Colony of Conneclicut and Newhaven, are in 

length from Stoniton in New-London County, to Rye 

liLs m X a "f eild County, on tht Borders of New-York, 

Extent 7 j° J ;i S ' and in brea ^ t]l fr° m Saybrook in New-Lon- 

• don County, to Windfor in Hartford about 50. The 

firft County we meet with in them on the Coaft, is 

New-London County, in which are, 

Towns Names. Minifters Names. 
Stoniton, Mr. James Noyes. 

Saybrook^ W.Thomas Buckingham. 


The Hiftory e/New-Englaad. 









Mr. Sam. Iread. 
Mr. Jofeph Mors. 
Mr. Ja. Fitch. 
Mr. Gordon SaltonjkaU. 

Mr. Abraham Perifon. 


The Eaftern Parts of this Shire are pleafant and 
fruitful, the Wcftern Swampey and Mountainous, 
which occafion'd a great Trade for Furrs and Lumber. 
Saybrook is the oldeft Town in the County, and is 
feated on the South fide of Connecticut River, as Lime 
is on the North, at the Mouth of it. This River is 
very laree, divided into feveral fmall Branches, and 
navigable as high as Hartford, 60 Miles within 

New-London is feated on a River call'd the Thames -, 
the firft Branch of which River goes by the Name of 
Glafs River, the next Branch by that of Rujfel's Delight. 
the third by that of Indian River, and the reft are fo 
fmall, that they are not thought worthy of a Name. 
There's another fmall River, which falls into the Sea 
at Manchester \ and thefe are all that are in this Coun- 
ty *, next to which within Land, is 

Hartford County, in which are, 

Towns Names. 


Middle Town, 







Minifters Names. 
Mr. Sam. Hooker, 

Mr. Timothy Stephens. 
Mr, Jeremiah Hobart. 
Mr. Timothy Woodbridge. 
Mr. Tho. Buckingham., 
Mr. No. Ruffell 
Mr. Dudly Woodbridge. 
Mr. Jer. Peck. 
Mr. Stephen Mi%. 
Mr. Sam, Mather. 
Mr. Tim. Edwards. 
Mr. Sam. Whiting, 




9© The Hifiory of New-England. 

Hartford is the moft confiderable Town in this 
Shire : It has two Parifh Churches in it, Old Church 
and New Church •, the People of New-England not 
diftinguifliing their Churches by Saints Names. Near 
Hadham is an Ifland in Connecticut River which wa- 
ters the Northern Bounds of the County : This Ifland 
is call'd Thirty Mile I/land, being that diftance from 
the River's Mouth. In the Weftern Parts are feveral 
Ridges of Hills, and thick Forrefts, which afford 
plenty of Gameand Traffick. 

The Two next Counties make the Colony of New 
haven, and both of them are Maritime Provinces. 

In Newhaven County are, 

ven Coun- 


Towns Names. 


Derby , 




Wallingford y 

Minifters Names. 
Mr. Sam. Rujfell. 
Mr. John James, 
Mr. Tho.Ruggks. 
Mr. Sam. Andrews. 
Mr. Ja. Pierpoint. 
Mr. Sam. Street. 

Near Brainford there is a ftnall Iron-work on a 
Branch of a little River that runs into the Sea there -, 
the Place is from thence call'd Iron-Mill There's a- 
nother little River which runs into the Sea at Milford, 
and another at Guilford. 

The Capital Town of this Province was Newhaven, 
which was firft built ; then Guilford, thenMilford, then 
Stamford, and then Brainford. The next County to it is 

Fairfeild County, in which are, 

Towns Names. 



Fairfeild Village, 







Minifters Names. 

Mr , Seth Shore. 

Mr. JofephWeb. 

Mr. Charter Chauncy. 

Mr. Jof. Morgan. 

Mr. Stephen Buckingham. 

Mr, Bowers. 

Mr. John Davenport. 

Mr. Jfrael Chauncy. 

iMr. Zachariah Walker. 


The Hiftory of New-England. 91 

There's no navigable River in this County *, that 
which falls into Hudfons River below Newark, not 
deferving the Name, tho 'tis broad at the Mouth } 
but it does not hold fo above 5 or 6 Miles, nor run a- 
bove 15 or 20 into the Country. Moft of the Towns 
are built upon Creeks in Hudfon'% River, and are of 
no great note for Trade or Bignefs j the Northern 
parts of New-England being the richeft and moft po- 
pulous, not but that there is good Corn, Beef, Pork, 
and other Provifions, in the Southern, tho not in 
fo great plentv as in Maffachufet Colony. The In- 
land Country" Eight or Ten Miles from the Shore is 
all Hills and Swamps, and un-inhabited. Some of the 
Rivers and Harbours we have mention'd, as thofe of . 
Merrimack and Sofion, are capable of containing 500 
or 1000 Sail of Ships, and are fhelter'd by about 200 
Iflands, that break the Winds and the Seas. The 
Woods are every where ftor'd with all forts of Necef- 
faries for building. 

Having gone over the four Provinces in their Geo- 
graphical Order, and given an Account of thefeveral 
Soils in each County, as alfo of the Climate in gene- 
ral, We come now to the Produft and Animals of 

We (hall begin with the latter, and fpeak firft of the 
Fifh, which is here excellent,and in abundance, both for 
Food and Traffick, as well in the Rivers, as in the Sea. 
As Cod, Thornback, Sturgeon, Porpus, Haddocks, The Fijh. 
Salmon, Herrings, Mackerell, Oifters, Mufsies, 
Smelts, Eels, Lampreys, Sharks, Seals, Crampus, 
Whales, and others fmall and great. 

Some years fince, there ftranded on the Coaftof 
New-England a dead Whale, of the fort which they 
call Trumpo, having Teeth like thofe of a Mill, its Low- j 
Mouth at a good diftance from and under the Note or Sjg j 
Trunk, and feveral Partitions in the Nofe, out of Ir ^r^ 
which ran a thin Oily Subftance, which candy'd', the j[, ridgt ' 
remainder being a thick fat Subftance, was fcrap'd Vol. 2. 
out, which is laid to be the Sperma Ceti. Thefe p> 844. 
Whales were to be met with between New-England 
and New-York, where they might be caught 8 or 9 
Months in the Year. 

The Whale Fiihery was more common formerly 
than 'tis now ; arid the Newfoundland Trade engrofles 


!* I 



rum ma 




92 The Hiftory of New-England. 

that of Cod in a great meafure ; but there is ftill vaft - 
Quantities of that and other Fifh taken* falted and 
fent to the Sugar Iflands, for the fubfiftance of th« 
White Servants and Negroes. 

The Sea is always full of Fifh on the Coafts of New- 
England, whether in fair Weather or foul , but the 
beft time for fifhing is in March, Jpnl, May, and part 
ot June. Captain Smith relates, that in his time there 
jorum he- were Alkermes taken worth 3 o or 40 /. which is now 
lecum. very rarely known, and few of 'em to be met. As is the 
Stellar FiJ/j, of which 6 or 7 were taken near the Shoals 
ox Nantucket ; and Mr. Wlnthrop Governour of Conne- 
cticut Colony, gave the Royal Society an account of this 
elaborate Piece of Nature, that divides it (elf into no 
lefs than 81^20 fmall parts by Branchings, and is one 
of the mod wonderful Works of the Creation. 

Captain Smith fpeaks of feveral forts of Beafts, as 
well as Fifh. which are feldom or never found in 
New-England, fuch as Lyons, Musk-Cats* &c. but 
there are Bears, ^oxes, Rackoons, Otters, Beavers, 
Deer, Hares, Rabbits, as alfo that admirable Crea- 
ture the Mofe •, of which we cannot give a better 
Defcription, than what Mr. Joffeyn has tranfmitted 
to us among his New-England Rarities-, *Tis about 12 
Foot high, with fair Horns, and broad Palms ', fome of 
1 2 Foot from the Tip of one Horn to that of the other. 
Another Author fpeaking of the manner of Hun- 
. ting this Creature, • fays, They commonly hunt it in 
the Winter, and Sometimes run it down in half a day, fome - 
times they are a whole one about it ; the Ground being 
then generally covered with Snow, theBeaft finks very heavy 
every Step he runs, breaking down Trees as big as a Man's 
Thigh. When 'the Sport fmen get up with him, they dart 
their Launces at him, and he walks /lowly after he's 
lb. p.437. wounded, till fpent with lofs of Blood, he falls like a ru- 
iridBikld'mg, making the Earth Jbake under him. His 
Body is about the bignefsofa Bull's ; his Neckrefem- 
blesa Stag's, his Legs are fhort, his Tail longer than 
a Buck's, and his Fiefti very grateful ; he moots his 
Horns every four years. 

The Beafts in New-England us'd to produce a pro- 
fitable Traffick with the Indians for Peltry, which is 
fince mightily decreas'd, as is that Trade in general, 
occafion'd by the dif-ufe of Beaver and other Skins, 



The H^rjf^ New-England. 9* 

neceflary in the Fell-mongers Manufadure. There's 
ibundance of all forts of European Cattle, as Cows, 
Sheep, Goats, Hogs and Horfesj the latter are alit- 
tlekind, not much larger than that of Wales, but are 
very hardy and ferviceable^ many of them are expor- 
ted to the Leward Iflands for Saddle-Horfes, and fome 
for Draught. The New-England Merchants alfo fend 
Leather thither, and vaft Quantities of Pork and 
Beef, as has been before men tion'd. 

Of Creeping things, befides thofe in common with 
other Places on the Continent of America, the Rattle- 
fnake is the moft noted and dangerous. 

There are alfofeveral kinds of Flies, which are very 
troublefome to the Inhabitants. There was fuch a 
fwarm of a. certain fort of Infe&s in New-England 
fome years ago, that they poifon'd and deftroy'd all the 
Trees for 200 Miles together. They broke forth out 
of Holes in the Ground like Maggots, and turn'd to 
Flies, with a Tail or Sting, which they ftuck into 
the Tree, and fo kill'd it with the Venom in the 

There is no Country almoft where there is greater 
Variety of Fowl, wild and tame, than in New-Eng- 
land , as Pheafants, Partridges, Turkies, Ducks, Forth 
Geefe, Herons, Storks, Cormorants, Swans, Widge- 
ons, Doppers, Black-birds, and Barndoor Poultry, 
which leads me to the Grain of the Country, as In- 
dian Corn -, and in a word, all Grains that grow ei- 
ther in Europe or America. They fend their Indian 
and Englifti Wheat, Oats, Peefe and Beans, Flower 
and Bisket, to Bardadoes and the Caribbee Iflands. 
Flax and Hemp grow there, as well as in the Baltick 
or Germany ; and there is hardly any advantagious 
Grain that they cannot and do not cultivate. 

The Indian Corn being that which is moft planted lb. 63a 
in this Country, and which was only us\I before the w Cul ' 
Englifh came there, it will not be improper to de- f'Zjk 
fcribe the Culture of it, as we find it communicated l c * m ' 
to the Royal Society by Mr. Winthrop. 

The Natives call d it Weacbin, and in fome Southern 
parts of America, 'tis known by the Name oiMatiso? 
Maize. The Ear is a Span long, compos'd of 8 Rows 
of Grain or more, according to the Goodnefs of the 
Ground, about 30 Grains in a Row. Tis of various 





H 111 


94 The Hifiory of New-England. 

Colours, as red, white, yellow, blew, olive, gree- 
nifti, black, fpeckl'd, ftrip'd, &c. fometimes in the 
fame Field, and the fame Ear •, but the white and yel- 
low are the molt common. The Ear is defended from 
the Cold and Storms by ftrong thick Husks j the 
Stalk grows e or 8 Foot high \ that of New-England 
is not quite fo tall as that of Virginia *, and at Canada 
'tis fhorter than at New-England ' 7 'tis jointed like a 
Cane, is full of fweet Juice like the Sugar Cane, and 
a Syrup as Iweet as Sugar may be made out of it, as 
has been often try'd. At every Joint there are long 
Leaves or Flaggs, and at the Top a Branch of Flowers 
like Rye-bloffoms. Tis generally planted from the 
middle of April to the middle of May, In the Nor- 
thern parts the Mohank Com is not planted till June, 
and yet is ripe in feafon ; the Stalks of this fort are 
fhort, the Ears near the Bottom, and are of leveral G> 
lours. The manner of planting Maize, is in Rows 
at equal Diftance every way, about 5 or 6 Feet \ the 
Earth is open'd with a How 4. Inches deep, and 4 or 
5 Grains are thrown in it, at a little dillance from 
one another, in the breadth of a How *, then they are 
cover'd with Earth : If 2 grow, the Crop will an- 
fwer : the Corn is weeded at a hands length, and the 
Earth is loofen'd about it with a How j this Labour 
muft be repeated as the Weeds come up j when the 
Stalk begins to grow high, a little Earth fhouid be 
drawn about it, and on putting forth the Ear, fomuch 
as to make a little Hill, like a HophilL Tis ripe about 
the middle of September , it muft be ftripp'd alfoon as 
gather'd, unlefs 'tis laid thin, to prevent its growing 
mouldy or fprouting \ the common way is to move 
the Ear together in long Traces, by fbme parts of the 
Husk left thereon, which is call'd Tr acting : Thefe 
Traces are hung upon Bearers within doors *, and 
will keep fo all Winter good and fweet. The Indians 
thrafli it as they gather it, dry it well on Matts in the 
Sun, and bury it in Holes in the Ground, lin'd with 
Mofs or Matts, which are their Barns : The Englim 
lately plant it 'with the help of the Plow j they turn 
up fingle Furrows 6 Feet diftant, then plow a-crofs 
at the lame diftance, throw in the Corn where thefe 
meet, and cover it with a How, or run another Fur- 
row over it with the Plough. 


The Bftory of Ncw-Engkn* 

The Indians boil it till it becomes tender, and eat 
t with Fifti or Vennifon inftead of Bread j fometimes 
they bruife it in Mortars, and fo boil it : The moft u- 
fual way is to parch it inJMhes, ftiring it fo artifi- 
cially as to be very tender, without burning •, this 
they fift and beat in Mortars into fine Meal, which 
they eat dry, or mix'd with Water. The Englifli 
mix it intoaftiff Pafte, make Bread of it, which they 
bake all Day or all Night. The beft fort of Food 
which is made of it is call'd Samp •, to make it, the 
Corn is water'd half an hour, beaten in a Mortar to 
the bignels of Rice, fifted, boil'd and eaten with 
Milk, or Butter and Sugar, which is a very pleafant 
wholefome Diet. The Englifh have alfo made good 
Beer of it, by malting it, or making it of Bread: 
When they malt it, it muft chil both ways, Root 
and Blade } to do which, they heap it up at a conve- 
nient time, then take away the top of the Earth in a 
Garden-Field 2 or $ Inches deep,after which they cover 
the Ground with the Corn, and the Corn with the 
Earth *, when the Plot is green all over with the Corn- 
fprouts, which will be in about iodays, it muft be ta- 
ken up, the Earth fhaken from it, and dry'd, then wafli d 
and dry'd again in a Kiln : This makes the Malt and 
that Beer, which will be pleafant^ wholefom, and of a 
brown Colour. The Beer made of Bread is more _ 
durable, and altogether as pleafant : To do it, they 
cut the Bread into great Lumps as big as a Man's Fift, 
mar fh and manage it as they do Malt, adding or o- 
mittingHops, asisdefir'd. 

Befides Garden and Orchard Fruit-trees, and 
Shrubs, of which there's fcarce any fort wanting, 
the Woods and Swamps here abound with Oak, 
Elm, Afh, Cyprefs, Pine, Chefnut, Cedar, Afpin, 
Beech, Firr, Safafras, and Sumach. 

Among the Rarities of New-England, is the Sabma 
Vulgaris, or common Savin, found very often in the 
Hills, a fpontaneous Plant j Here, as well as at Ber- 
mudas, is that Berry to be met with, which breeds Low- 
Worms that turn to Flies, bigger than Cochmeel thorp 
Flies, feeding on the fame Berry •, in which has been Vol. li 
found a Colour not at all inferiour to that x>f the Co- 
chineal Flie, and as to Medicinal Vertue much ex- 
ceeding it. 




96 The Hiftoty of New-England. 

A certain Tree grows in the Eaftern Parts of Nevo* 
England, on the Bark of which are little Knobs, 
wherein is a liquid Matter like Turpentine, of a very 
fanative Nature. The Dwarf Oak grows wild here, 
and was fent hence into England to be cultivated. 

But the Treafure and the Glory of their Woods is 
the Monarch Oak, the Spruce and Firr Trees, by 
which the Navy of England might be fupply'd from 
hence with all manner of Naval Stores, at a cheaper 
rate than they are now imported from the Baltich 
Pitch and Tar are made here, and as good in its kind 
as any from the North \ and more Ships, as has been 
hinted, built in this Province, than in all the othe* 
parts of the Weft Indies belonging to the Englifli, or 
perhaps to all the European Nations. 

'Tiseafy to imagine, that the Advantage of fb many 
Englifti Hands thus employ'd, is of much more Service 
to the Crown, than they would be in England, where 
there are already too many thoufands that are ufeleis. 
Induftry is neceffary for Life in America, where 
Trade. 'twas impofiible for a lazie Perfon to live at the firft 
Settlement of the Colonies •, but there being no luch 
neceflity in England, we have fo many idle infignifi- 
cant People, that 'twou'd be well if they were all in 
thofe Parts of the Englifh Empire, where their Hands 
muft provide for their Mouths, and I have no Notion 
of any more Difference between Old-England and 
New, than between Lincoln/hire and Somerfetjhire ', 
neither can I fee, why the Englifh in America fhou'd 
not be fuffer'd to cultivate their Ground, and im- 
prove it as they think fit, any more than that feeding 
and grazing ftiou'd be prohibited in Somerfetjhire fox 
the Advantage of Lincolnflnre. 

The People of New-England deal as much with 
Old-England as either of thofe Counties in proportion 
to their Numbers^, and by their aflifting the Leward 
Tfo^dvav-ifanfe w j tn p ro vifions, are rather a Service to the 
uge of it. p u blick lntereft than a Prejudice •, for without help 
from them, the Sugar Plantations cou'd not maintain 
three hundred thoufands Mouths, Whites and Blacks, 
as they do at leafl , Provifions cou'd not be fent them 
from England with that Eafe, Speed and Certainty, as 
from this Colony. 


The Hifiory of New-England. 97 

From the Iflands, the New-England Men receive in 
exchange for their Lumber, by which is meant 
Boards, Mafts, Pipe-ftaves and Hoops', and their 
Provifions, Sugar, Melafles, Rum, Ginger, Indi- 

fo and Cotton, more than enough to fupply their 
ome Confumption •, the reft they fhip for Eng- 
land. .>- ■• V' 

They have feveral Still-homes in Bofion, and make 
very good Spirits there •, but the main of their Trade 
for all forts of Neceffaries is with Old-England, from 
whence they have their Stuffs, Silks, Linnen, Bir- 
mingham-W^, Tools for Mechanicks*, and tho 
they have many Conveniences of furnifhing them- 
(elves with moft forts of wearing Apparel at Jiome, 
yet they import fuch Quantities of that and o- 
ther Merchandife from England, as renders their 
Commerce very beneficial, and worthy Encourage- 

The Mines of Iron and Copper which are found 
there, do not produce fo much as was expected, 'tis 
hop'd they will in time turn to a better account : Till 
then moft of their Iron and Copper- Wares will come 
from hence •, and We ought not to envy them the Im- 
provements they make of their Pafture and Tillage, 
fince we get fomuch by them otherwife : Which Ob- 
servation will, we believe, remove any ill Imprefli- 
ons that fome late Arguments may have made on the 
Minds of many, to the Difadvantage of this indu- 
ftrious People •, Becaufe, fays a known Trader, by sir DalJ 
Tillage, Fiflnng, Manufactures, and Trade, they to ^ Thomas 
intents and purpofes imitate Old-England, and did for- Hifl. J c . 
tnerly much, and in fome degree do now fupply the other f the W. 
Colonies with Vrovifions, in Exchange for their Comma- India C#* 
dities, as Tobacco, Sugar, &c. which they carry ^ to Ionise. 
Foreign Markets. How conveniently for the Nation's 
Inter eji I fnaH not determine, being no Enemy to any 
kind of honeji Indufiry : But this cannot chuje but be al- 
low d, that if any Hands in the Indies be wrong em- 
ploy' d, for Domejlick Interefi, it mujl be this and thofe 
other Colonies, .which fettle with no other ProfpecJ than 
the like way of living ; therefore if any, fuch only Jfjould 
be neglected and difcourag'd, who purfue a Method 
that rivals our Native Kingdom, and threatens in time 
4 total Independency thereon. 

y J H We 


98 The Hifiory of New-England. 

We cannot omit doing fo much Juftice to the Co- 
lony of New-England as to repeat what we mention'd 
above, That they fhip for England the Commodities 
they import from the Sugar Jflands, and do not carry 
them to Foreign Markets} which, with what was 
faid before, is, we hope, a fufficient Anfwer to this 
invidious Paragraph. Tho for want of Current Coin, 
fufficient for the Trade of the Country, the New- 
England Men are forc'd to barter Goods, and ex- 
change one Commodity for another, yet they have 
Money coin'd in New-England at Bofion, where 
there is a Mint •, and the Mailer or Warden of it-is ob- 
iig'd to coin the Money ot good Silver, of the Allay of 
New Sterling Englifli Money. And there is enough 
of this and other Silver, to anfwer all Perfons Occasi- 
ons in a Retail Trade. 


Of the Inhabitants , Englifh and Indian ; 
Their Religion, Laws, Cufioms, Manner x, 
Language, Strength and Numbers : With a 
Jhort Hiftory of the Vniverpty in New- 

f~X£ the many Nations of Indians mention'd by Capt. 
V Smith and Mr. Delaet, there are now few left, 

and of thefe fcarce any go by the Names they gave 
them. In thofe Authors we find the Indian Kingdoms 
The Indian of Segetago^ Pahtiuntanuck, Pocojfum, Taughtanakgnet, 
Nations, Wabiggan, Naffaque, Mafchecofqueek, Wawrigwech, 
Mofljoquen^ Wackcogo, Pajj'aranack, and their Confe- 
derates Aucocifco, Acoominticus, Paffat aquae, Aggo- 
wan, Majfacbufet, Naemkek. Of all whom only the 
two latter are mention'd by the Modern Hiftorians. 
The former Nations lay to the Eaftward ', and the 
Englifh fettl'd in the Southern Parts of New-England, 
where Captain Smith did not trade. 

Naemkek is that Country which 'now makes the 
County of EJfcx ; and the next to it was the Mafia- 


The Hifiory of New-England. 99 

chufets, which gave name to the chiefeft Colony in 
New-England : The People who inhabited thofe 
Parts that are now the Counties of Suffolk and 
Middlefex, were the moll Populous of any of the o- 
ther Indian Nations *, they feem'd to be more civi- 
lized than the reft, which might be occafion'd by their 
Commerce with European Nations y for all that came 
to trade there generally dealt with them, and nih'd 
off their Coafts. 

As they differ'd very much in their Language, 
Manners and Cuftoms from the other Indians, to they 
alfo differ'd in fomc meafure from one another *, and 
the fame did the Nations more to the South, of which 
we find many mention'd, as the Maffafoits, who J*<?Maffa- 
dwelt about Mount Hope in New-Briftol County, the* its. 
Pocaffets in Vlimoutb County, the Manimoys in Barn- 
ft able County, the Nanfets, Mattachiefts^ Namaskets 7 u ™ r indi 
who inhabited the Inland-Country between Provi- arts - 
dence and Merrimack Rivers*, the Narragantfets, 
who dwelt about New-London County*, the Pequots 
and Wapenokes, with whom they were almoft always 
at Wars *, the Marchicans, the Sequems in Hampfiire, 
about 20 Miles from the Coaft, the Navafii and Ho- 
rakaji further within Land *, all thefe were Inhabitants 
of the Country about Connecticut River *, the Mora* 
tiggons to the Weft ward of the Mafiafoits *, the Pat ux- 
ets between the Counties of New-Brijiol and New-Lon- 
don *, the Maquas towards the Lake of the Iroquoife, 
Weft ward of Connecticut River*, the Meneqlm^ and o- 
thers Eaftward. Thefe particular Nations had one 
more general Name, that of the Armonchiquois *, and 
thofe of Nortmbegua were ca] I'd Etechemins. But eve - 
ry Sachem or Segamore who was Lord of a Territory 
8 or 10 Miles in length, erected his Lands into a 
Kingdom, and gave a Name to his Nation. Thefe 
Segamores were their Captains, ele&ed out of the Se- t 
niors of their Noble Families. The Extent of the 77 ^^ 
Government of each was commonly bounded by fome vermnm « 
River or Bay. The Vote of the Segamore was defini- 
tive in their Publick AfTembliesj fometimes their 
Priefts and Wizzards, who were alfo their Phyfici- 
ans, were consulted *, the Power of their Segamores 
was defpotick : Valour made a Man noble, and they 
had no other Diftinction among them, but the Men 
H 2 of 

ioo The Hifiory of New-England. 

Ciotthing, of Courage and Poltroons. They were cloath'd with 
& c. Bear-skins, Wolf-skins, and the Skins of their wild 

Beafts*, which they threw off in Summer, and put on 
again in Winter. Their Food was Maize, Fifh and 
Fowl *, their Weapons were Bows and Arrows, 
ffaarperfd with Fifh-bones inftead of Knives-, their 
Boats were Canoo's wrought out of the Trunks of 
Trees, made hollow by Fire : Some of 'em had no 
fettl'd Dwelling, but liv'd eight or ten Families toge- 
ther in a moveable Tent, for the Convenience of 
Fifhing alamode des Tartares, from whom 'tis faid 
they are defcended : But this is only a Guefs, made 
from a fatal! Agreement in the Manners between 
thefe barbarous People and thofe, which is harder to 
be prov'd, than how America came firfl to be inha- 
bited. Some of them had fettl'd Habitations or Wig- 
wams in Towns, built with Polls and Matts, and 
cover'd with the Bark of Trees, large enough for fe- 
veral Families to cohabit, they being great Lovers of 
Society, and not quarrelfom. : 
Religion. They had no Notion of Religion or God* they 
worfhip'd a certain Devil, but not with Solemnity or 
regular Rites as the Negroes do \ they were then, 
and fti 11 are crafty, timer ous, fickle, quick of Appre- 
henfion, revengeful, thevifh, have as many ^ Wives 
as they can maintain, their Women fupporting the 
Pains of Child-bearing without the leaft Groan. 

Their Flefti is fmooth, and their Complexions 
good} but they fpoil the latter, by painting them- 
ielves with certain juices and Oils that render them 

Since their Commerce with the Englifh they are 
not quite fo barbarous as before : Inftead of Bear- 
skins, &c. they wear Mantles of Cloth. Some of 
their Segamores and principal Men have Houfes built 
after the Englifh Fafhion j and many hundreds of 
them have been converted to the Chriftian Religion: 
Mr. Mayhew, Minifter of Martha's Vineyard, and the 
famous new Englifh Miffionary Mr. John Elliot, were 
very instrumental in, propagating the Chriftian Faith 
among them. 

But before I enter upon that Subject, it may not be 
improper to let the Reader know the prefent State of 
thefe Barbarians, as to the feveral Manners, Cuftoms, 


The Hifiory of New-England . 101 

Forms of Government, Drefs, Diet, and Language, 
abftrafted from an Author who dwells among them. 

Tho thefe People are divided into fo many feveral n*» ft* 
Nations, that there are above 20 of them within the^' Stat*. 
Limits of this Settlement, ?et the y feem b ? thcnr 
Language to be originally of one Extraction, rornot- 
witMtandingthey can't underftand each other, tis 
occafion'd more from the variety of the Pronounciati- 
on of their Languages, than the difference or the 
Words. Nvppaw^ Duppaw, Rvppaw, figmfymg the 
Sun in three feveral Dialeas. Winmt, Wtmt, Good; 
Turn. Pumme, Vim, Oil. Their Language, it poi- 
fible, is more barbarous than their Manners-, and one 
wou'd think has not been refin'd fince the Confuiion 
of Tongues at Babel. For inftance, 

Nwnmatckehdtantamoonganunnonajh ", is in En- lwgu*ge* 

2lifh, Our Lvjhs. 

Noowomantammoaonkanunnonajh Our Loves. Cot. Mat. 
Kummoghdonattootturnmoooctkeaongannunw- ilb . 3. P- 
najh . . OurQueftion. l 93- 

There certainly will be occafion of no more Exam- } ^ • 
pies, to convince any reafonable Per ion of the Barba- Govern , 
rity of the Indian Language. mem. 

Their Government is a little more polite j their Kings 
are abfolute Monarchs, yet they confult their Nobles 
fometimes, and whenever they do fo, they behave 
themfelves with a becoming Majefty : Their own Opi- 
nion defides all Matters of Council. The Emperors 
or greater Kings have their Lieutenants, who go- 
vern as arbitrarily as their Mailers', the Crown aU 
waysdefcendstotheEldeft Son-, their Nobles arefnch 
as are defcended from their Princes, or enjoy Lands by 
virtue of Grants from them. They have Teomen who * 
claim a natural Right of living in their Prince's Domi- 
nions, and a common ufe of their Land*, and Villains 
Who are known to be defcended from Strangers and 
Foreigners, and are in ibme meafure (iibjeft to the Yeo- 
manry. The Prince's Revenues are Prefents, Wrecks, 
Furrs, Firft Fruits \ in time of War the People are at 
their 'difpofal : They have a Contempt oLthe limited 
Authority of the Englifh Governours*, and one 01 
thefe Kinps vifiting Mr, Mayhcw, Prieft and Gover? 
H 3 %? u f 




1 02 The Hijiory of New-England. 

nour of Martha's Vineyard, defir'd iomething of hiitt, 
which Mayhew yrom\$'& to do, adding afterwards, if 
the Inhabitants confented; the Barbarian reply 'd, What 
I promife or [peak is always true, but you Engli/h Gover- 
nors cannot be true, for you can't make your Words and 
Intentions true, but mine are always true, for I make 
3 em true. 
Money. Their Money they call Wampam, and is Beads 
made of the Shells of Fifh. Their Houfes are a few 
Matts ty'd about Poles faften'd in the Earth. They 
lie anights round a fire without any Covering, but 
the Turf or Bark on their Houfes. Their Cloathing 
is a Beaft's Skin upon their Backs, with an Apron 
hanging before thofe Parts that Decency among 
-Savages requires to be conceal'd. Their chief Diet 
is Nokehick, parch'd Meal and Water boil'd up to a 
Confiftency, and the Flefh of Deer, Bears, Mole and 
Rackoons ; Fifh and Fowl, when they can catch it. 
Their Phyfick is fome few odd Specificks, a Hothoufe, 
or Charms us'd by their Priefts. The Men are lazy -, 
their Wives do all the Drudgery, plant, drefs, houfe, 
and thrafh their Corn, and build their Wigwams. The 
Men hunt in Companies of Scores, and fometimes 
Hundreds together. They divide the Time by Sleeps, 
Moons and Winters. They believe there are many 
Gods, that every remarkable Creature has a God in 
it, or about it} they facriflce to the Devil} and 
Dancing is one ot their Religious Ceremonies : They 
are great Dancers, and will fpend whole Days, like 
fo many monftrous Scaramouches. Thofe of 'em 
that are converted, conform themfelves as near as may 
be to the Englifh in every thing. 

And now 'tis time to fpeakof thefe Indian Chrift> 
ans, of whom the firft that embrae'd Chriftianity, 
was one Jacoomes y a Mean Man of Martha's liland, 
whom Mr. May hew perfwaded to renounce Idolatry, 
which he did, and profefs'd the Chriftian Religion 
before the Saxhems of his Country, telling them, 
Indians 'The God they worjhif.d had great Power, but limited and 
zmvzrted. fubfervient to the God he had now Chofen. 

In i o or 1 2 years time this Minifter converted fc- 
veral hundreds, and redue'd them into the Form of 
Churches, over whom Indian Pallors weije in time 

fen after hi] 

Mr, ^.llioty Minifter of Roxburgh, 
^ about 

TheHiftory of New-England. io| ■ 

t« about a Mile from Bofion, undertook the miffiona- Mftratlof 
«« ry Work, learn'dthe Indian Tongue, trail dated *J**? 
« the Bible, and feveral Treatifes of Praftical Divi-^ 1 ^ 
« c nity, and Catechifms, in and about the year x6 7 o. 2> r<Leuf . 
" he form'd an Indian Church in a Towncall'd 2v* den, Heb. 
44 tuL baptiz'd them, andfirft adminifter'd the Lord s Pro f. at 
44 Supper to them. The Minifter of that Church Utrecht. 
44 19 years ago, was one Darnel an Indian. Mr. Elliot 
46 afterwards form'd four Churches of Indians in 
44 Majfachvfet Colony. 

" At Ma/hipang, 50 Miles from Boflott, another 
44 Church of converted Indians was eftabhnVd, and 
44 Jacoomes, whom we have mention'd before, being 
" now become a Man ofcPiety and Knowledge, was 
" admitted to be Paftor of it. 

44 There are 5 Aflemblies more or Indian Cnriiti- c M . 
44 ans not far from Majhipang, the Preachers being all ' ' 
44 Indians. At Saconet in Plimouth County, is a great 
44 Congregation :, and near Cape Cod fix Aflemblies 
44 more, among whom there are fix Indian Preachers. 
4C Mr. Treaty Minifter of Eafiham, preaching to 
" them often in their own Language. At Nantucket 
"Jfland is another Indian Church, the Minifter ot 
44 which is an Indian Convert. 

H At Martha's Vineyard is the two moft famous 
44 Churches of Indian Chriftians ', the Minifters be- 
44 ing John Hiacoomes, the Son of the former Hiacoo- 
« mesy and JohnTockinoJb, a converted Indian. They 
« meet twice every Sunday •, the Paftor prays extern- 
« pore with them, then they fing Pfalms, then the 
" Minifter expounds a Chapter in the Bible, gathers 
« Dodrines from it, proves them by Scriptures and 
" Reafons, and infers Ufes as the Englifh Presbyterian 
" Minifters do,by whom they were taught. They have 
" no Holidays, but Faft-days, The Barbarians being 
" ignorant of the true God, had no word to exprefs 
44 him *, wherefore in their Prayers and Sermons they 
* c ufe Englifh Words and Terms, as Jehovah, or 
« God, or Lord- They teach their Children Perkins's 
« andtheAflembly'sCatechifm. 

There are four and twenty Churches and Aflemblies 
of Indian Chriftians in NewEngland^ as many Indian 
Paftors, and four Englifh, who preach in the Indian tn&imsm 
Tongue* They have Apartments at Harvard Col- to*. 
5 H 4 lege 




lib, 6. p. 


tv opposed 
by iheir 

Ihe French 



lb; Erglifb 


C. M. 

h%* p.201. 

Tk Hiftoryof New-England. 

lege for the Indian Students, of which there are, or 
were lately between 20 and 3 o. 

At Nantucket Ifland there were 500 Indian Chrifti- 
ans about 10 years ago, who were wholly under the 
Lngliih Government, having 3 diftinft Courts, with 
1 ower to hear and determine all Caufes below 400 1. 
in value. They choofe their own Magiftrates, and ap- 
peal from them to the Englifh. They are ambiti- 
ous of knowing and following the Englifh Laws, and 
keep Records as the Englifh do. They put their 
Children to learn to write and read. 

^i tmn the Liberties of Eaftham there were 505 
Chriitian Indians 1 2 years ago, who had four Indian 
Paitors, as many School-matters, and fa Juftices of 
the Peace. Their Deportment, Converfe and Garb, 
are more Manly and decent than any other Indians. 
2 1 4 Converts were about Sandwich : At the fame time a 
new Church of 'em was erefted at Albany, in the 
Province of ' New-Torh 

TJ *f ir Kings and Powaws oppos'd the Progrefs of 
Cnriitianity to the utmoft of their power, but they 
durft not make many Martyrs for fear of the Englifti, 
to whom the Chriftian Indians in all times of Difficul- 
ty prov'd very faithful. 

Of thefe Indians there are about ij or 1600 in 
Martha's Vineyard, the whole Ifland being Chriitian -, 
and in all, 'tis computed, that the Number of Indian 
Converts and their Children may amount to about 
4000 •, of whom J^kf, the Indian Paftor at Martha's 
Vineyard, is a very famous Perfon for making 
Converts , tho not as the French do at Canada, 
by preaching up Heaven as a fort of Mahometan or 
Earthly Paudice, and Hell as an horrible kind of a 
Dwelling, accommodating both to the Pleafure and 
Terror of their Senfes. They tell the Hurons that the 
Enghfh murder'd our Saviour, and endeavour to make 
Converts for their own Intereft, more than the Good 
of the Indians. Thus the Catholick Indians to the 
Eaftward of New-England have not got much by 
changing their Religion. " •. 

As to' the Englifh Inhabitants of this Colony, who 
they were that went fir ft thither, we fhali beft be in. 
form'd of by Perfons who liv'd in thofe days. The 
Lord Digby,.2L famous ConfefTorfor the Caufe of King 


The Hiflory of New-England. 105 

Charles I. faid in Parliament, That Men of the left Con- 
fcience were ready to fly into the Wildernefs for Religion \ 
and Sir Benjamin Rudyard, That a great multitude of 
the King's Suhjetls ftriving to held Communion with us, 
but feeing how far m were gone, and fearing how much 
farther we wou'dgo, were fore d to fly the Land, very 
many into favage Wilderneffes, becavfe the Land wou'd 
not hear them. Do not they that caufe thefe things cajl 
a Reproach on the Government. 

But tho 'tis certain, many of thofe Gentleman and 
Minifters who firft went thither, were driven out of Firff Eng* 
England by perfecting Rulers of high-flown Principles, ^ f ^ 
yet they were not all of them of fuch nice Ccnicien- um • 
ces } for when a Minifter, foon after their Settlement 
there, preaching to his Congregation, Vrgd them to 
approve them] elves a Religious People, by endeavouring to 
propagate the Gofpel, or otherwife they woutt contradict 
the main end of flaming. One of the Aflembly cry'd 
out, Sir you are mifiahen, Our main end was to catch 
Fijh. However, it appears by their Hiftory they were 
very bufie in fettling Churches, fummoning Synods, 
and eftabiiftring a Church there, which had the Form 
of Gbdlinefs j and it does not become us to judge 
whether it was without the Power. a h Q 

The firft Churches w 'ere Independents cxangreg* v ™ n 
tional, feveral Presbyterian Minifters coming over af- 
terwards, there happen'd frequent Jars and Difputes scbifm 
among them, till at laft they fign'd Articles of A- there.' 
greement as to Matters of Difcipline. They have had 
feveral Schums, as they term them, among them, as 
the Hierarchal Church at' Weymouth, the Anabaptists at 
Swanfeym&Bofton, Mr. Roger Williams's, whopreach'd 
up the Invalidity of King Charles's Pattent, and a- 
gainft the Sin of taking the Indians Lands from them, 
a raoft pernicious Doctrine, for which he was 
b anifh'd. 

The Antinomian and Familifiical Tenets were 
broach'd, and a dreadful Confufion in Church-Affairs 
threaten'd to ruin the Infant Colony, but they got o- 
ver all Difficulties, and fettl'd their Church in fome 
fort of Order, drawing up Articles of Worfhip 
and Difcipline -, which being more tedious than edi- 
fying, we fhallnotfet down here, but refer the Rea- 
der, if he has any Guriofity to know them, to Cotton 
Mather 's Hiftory 'of New-England. The lib. 5, 



106 The Hiftory of New-England. 

The Independents and Presbyterians having agreed 
on a Comprehenfion, are the Ejtablifitd Churchy and 
die Church of England, Anabaptifis and Quakers the 
Tollerated Diffenters. Their Synods have referv'd to 
themielves fomuch Power, that the Government has 
little left it in Ecdefiaftical Cafes, and the Minifters 
of every Town are like fo many Governours within 
their PrecincTs. 
Civi) Go- The Civil Government was at firft by Governours, 
vernmnu Deputy Governours, and Major Generals, chofen by 
the General Court, who were the Deputies of the 
Towns, like our BurgeiTes in Parliament •, but now 
thofe Officers are commiffion'd by the King. As to 
their Power, and that of the General and Inferiour 
Courts, their ways of raifmg Taxes, and making 
Laws, we refer the Reader to the Laws of New- 
England, m the Abridgment fo often cited in this 

The Strength of thefe three confederate Colonies 
confifts in the number of their Militia and Inhabitants *, 
it being computed, that in all New-England there are 
above i«^oooo Souls, and of them 50000 fighting Men \ 
whereas the Indians, were they collefted into one Body, 
Ih M°f™ s cou'd not make an Army of 10000 Men ^ but as they 
ywm* are divided into above 20 feveral Kingdoms, differing 
in Language, Manners and Interefts, 'tis impoffible 
for them to enter into fuch a Confederacy, as to be 
able to do the Englifh any confiderable Damage ; and 
the latter, when they pleafe, can difpofTefs them 
of the fmall Territories they enjoy in their Neigh- 
bourhood ; but either thinking it their Intereil that 
they fliou'd live as they do, to furnifh them with 
Peltry, and help to till the Ground, or that 'tis an In- 
juftice to turn the right Owners out of their PofTefli- 
ons, or being afraid that the French, jealous of the 
Growth of the Englifh Empire in America, wou'd 
join with them, they let them alone, and are in no 
great danger of receiving much Difturbance by 
tt'watof The Peo P le of New-England, in their way of 
living of Livin S> Manners and Appearance, refemble their 
the lnhabi- Brethren in Old-England, excepting that they are 
wits. more formal, precife, morofe, and not fo fincere as 

They are very fevere in their 

the Englifh pifTenters. 

The Hiflory 0/New-Englaad. 
Laws againft all forts of Immorality, and fo much, 
as if they thought Pleafure cou'd not be innocent j 
but in the Execution of thofeLaws, there is fuitable 
Tendernefs had to the Infirmities of Humane Na- 



The moft commendable thing among them, is their 
Academy, and their Schools, every Townfmp of 50 
Families being oblig'd to have a School, to teach to 
write and read j and every Town of 100 Families, 
to have a Grammar-School} the Mafter of which, 
muft be qualify'd to fit his Scholars for the Vmverfity y 
which they began to eftablifh as foonas they were 
well fettl'd in the Country. < 

In the year 1530. the General Court advanc d 400 /. 
towards building a College at Newton in Mddlefex, 
about 7 or 8 Miles from Bofion \ and the Town on the 
founding the College there had its Name chang'd to 
Cambridge \ but the fmall Sum of 400/. would not ^ 
have gone far in fuch a Defign, had not Mr. John Har- ™«> 
vard. Minifter of Charles Town near Bofton, dyd. ^ 
foon after, and left alnioft 800/. to carry on the 
Work, as we have already niention'd. Then the o- 
ther Colonies gave fome fmall Contributions towards 
it •, and private Per fons finding there was a Probabili- 
ty of fucceeding in it, contributed much more than 
whole Colonies. 

The College being built and endow'd, was in ho- 
nour of their great Benefaftor xMr. Harvard, call'd Harvard 
Harvard College •, and Mr. JSFathaniel Eaton was College. 
chofen Prefident: He was a Man of Learning, but i!fr.Natlj. 
fo cruel in his Nature, and lewd in his Morals, that Eaton 
he was expell'd the Univerfity, and excommunicated. wJM*w? 
Upon which he went to Virginia, and from thence to 
England \> where he conform 'd to the Church of 
England, was made Minifter of Biddiford in Devon- 
fiiire, after the Reftoration became a violent Per- 
secutor of Non-conformifts, continu'd his wicked 
Courfes, and dy'd in Jail for Debt. 

In the year 1540. The Magiftrates and Minifters 154©. 
chofe Mr. Henry Dunfiar to be Prefident of the Col- Mr. Hen? 
lege, to which the General Court granted a Charter, ry Dim- 
and made it a Corporation, confuting of a Prefident, ftar Pnf t 
2 Fellows and a Treafurer. The Governour, Depu- 
ty Goyernour, and the Magiftrates of the Colony 



ioS The Hifiory of New-England. 

TbeCoBege being appointed to be the Vifitors. The Income of 
Revenue. Charlton Ferry was fettl'd upon it, and its Revenues 
in a little time were fufficient to maintain the Ex- 
pence, with a very fmall Affiftance from the Treafu- 
ry of the Colony. 

'Tis obfervable that Sir George Downing, who was 
fooften employ'd by the Rump, and afterwards by 
King Charles II. as their Envoy Extraordinary in 
Holland, was the fecond Perfon that was entered a 
Student in this College : Sir Henry Mildmay fent his 
Son William MMmay, Efq-, the Elder Brother of 
Henry Mildmay Efq*, of Shawford in Hampfoire, to 
ftudy here, as did William Stoughton Efq*, late Lieu- 
tenant Governour of the Colony, and Founder of 
Stoughton-lh\\ in this Univerfity, Jofeph Dudley 
Efq*, the prefent Governour, and many other Gen- 
tlemen of the Province, who are of principal Note in 
this Hiftory. 

Mr. Dunfiar was a Perfon very well skill'd in the 
Oriental Tongues, and a Man of as much good Lear- 
ning as ever vifited the American Shore, but inclining 
to the Baptift Opinion : The rigid Presbyterian and 
Independent Party got him turn'd out, after he had 
been ferviceable to them in helping their Miniftersto 
tranflate David's Pfalms. 

'Tis true 'tis a very mean Performance, and un- 
worthy the Spirit and Harmony of that Divine Poet, 
but Mufick and Eloquence are not to be expe&ed in 
New-England j and till they throw off that wretched 
Affectation which we commonly call Cant, and which 
is of no manner of ufe, unlefs to deceive Fools, and 
amufe Hypocrites, we cannot fee what great ufe their 
Academy will ever be to them, for 'tis the main end of 
Learning to pleafe and inffrutt *, and how formal 
Nonfenfe and miferable Jargon, tho 'tis larded with 
hundreds of learn'd Quotations, can have any Effect on 
a reafonable Mind, is beyond Reafon to comprehend. 

The Hifiory of New-England written by Cotton 
Mather, a Man of Fame in his Country, as appears 
by the barbarous Rhimes before it in Praife of the 
Author, is a fufficient Proof, that a Man may have 
read hundreds of Latine Authors, and be quahfy'd to 
eonftrue them, may have fpent his Youth in a Col- 
lege, and be bred up in fetters, yet have neither Judg- 

The Hiftory of New-England 1 09 

meat to know how to make a Difcourfe perfoicuous, 
nor Eloquence to exprefs his Sentiments fo that they 
may pleafe and perfwade, the eafieft way to Convicti- 
on- for of all the Books that ever came from the 
Prefs with the venerable Title of a Hiftory, 'tisim- 
poffible to mew one that is fo confus'd in the Form, 
fo trivial in the Matter, and fo faulty in the Exprd- 
fioa, fo cramm'd with Punns, Anagrams, Acrofticks, 
Miracles and Prodigies, that it rather refembles 
School Boys Exercifes Forty Years ago, and Komjk 
Legends, than the Coitions of an Hiftonan bred 
up in a Proteftant Academy. _ 

The Reader will excufe this Digreffion, which 
hardly can be call'd fo properly, it ferving to give an 
Idea of the ufe the New-England Men make of their 
Univerfity, and tofhew how far an Humour or Arte- 
aation may prevail to the Prejudice of the molt uletul 
and reafonable things. c 

That Hiftory of Cotton Mather's is enough to give 
one a Surfeit of Letters, if all the Schools in the 
World were like Harvard -Col lege *, for that the 
Eloquence and Elegance of all that School is the fame 
with the Hiftorians, will appear from his Father 
Inc. Mather's Letter to the Church of Cambridge^ and C. M* f a 
a thoufand Quotations of other New- England Authors xtf« 
fcatter'd up and down in the Hiftory. 

This is not faid to reHed on the Defign or their 
Univerfity, but if poflible to make them fee their 
Error in the Execution of it, that they may leave off 
mean Cant, which was in Fafhion a hundred years 
ago, add the Purity of Language to that of Do&rme, 
and let the Scoffers fee that Religion needs no little 
Shifts, and Arts to fupport its felf, and that the Force 
and Harmony of the Divine Truths are never io con- 
vincing and moving on reafonable Souls, as when they 
are exprefs'din elegant and apt Phrafes, free from the 
Poverty and Tautology of the prefent New-England 
Di&ionj let their own Dr. Bates inftrud them bet- 
. ter in his bell: Pieces, if they think themfelves too 

pious to learn of our Tillotfon and Calamy. David'* 

There was a Prefs fet up at Cambridge^ and the ^ fm 
Pfalms firft Printed there, about the time of Mr. ^^4 
Dimjlar's being elected Prefident. t^d printed 

in New- 
This England. 

no 715* Hifiory of New-England. 

This Verfiqn, tho 'tis abominable as to the Mee- 
ter, has the Commendation of keeping clofer to the 
Text than any. The Excufe the Tranflators gave for 
C. M. lib. their bad Verfes, That God's Altars need not our To- 
%.]>. ioo. hfhings, is of the fame ftrain with their other Argu- 
ments, as if they had affe&ed to be flnt and rough, 
and cou'd have done better, or that we ought not to 
fing the Creator's Praife in our beft Language and 
fweeteft Melody, according to the Example of the 
Holy Pfalmift whom they pretended to tranflate. 
If they wanted a faithful Tranflation, why did they 
riot do it in Profe ; for among all their Gifts, they 
might with a little Modefty have feen that they were 
not endow'd with that of Poefy. 

In Mr. Dunftar's time the Library was fetup at 
The Librfr Harvard College, and feveral Gentlemen of Old 
ry there. m d New-England contributed to it, as Sir Kenelm Dig- 
by, Sir John Maynard, Mr. Baxter, Mr. Hill, and 
Mr. Gale : And many others became Benefactors to the 
College Revenues, as Alderman Ajhhurft, Sir Richard 
Saltonftall, Edward Hopkins, Efq*, and the Moft Reve- 
rend Arch-Bp. Vfier. 

The Students began to take Degrees of Batchelour 
and Matter of Arts -, but tho the College have a 
Right to beftow that of Doctor, they never exercis'd 
it, except in the Cafe of the Prefident Mr. Inereafc 
Mather, as will be fhewn in its due place. Mr. 
Dunftar having been 14 Years their Prefident, not- 
withstanding all his Learning and Merit, was expell'd 
by his Brother Non-conformifts, for not conforming 
with them in all things *, and Mr. Charles Chauncy 
Cbauncy (born in Hartfordjbire) Minifter of Scituate, was ele- 
Prefident. aed Prefident in his place. 

He had been Greek Profeflbr at Cambridge in Eng- 
land, was skill'd in the Oriental Languages ; and, fays 
my Author, the Hiftorian fo often quoted, wrote a 
Witty Latin Poem on the Death of Queen Anne, Wife 
to King James I. Printed in the Lachryma Cantabrigi- 
enfis.. He was intimately acquainted with Dr. VJher, 
and a Man oftgood Senfe and Learning according to 
the Times, but was forc'd to retire to New-England 
for not coming up to Bp. Laud's Heights in Matters of 

Their De 



The Hiftoryof New-England. in 

He eovern'd Harvard College with Piety, Care 
and Judgment feventeen Years, and then dying, was 1*71. 
fucceeded by Dr. Leonard Hoar, the firft Prefident Dr. Leo. 
who had his Education in the fame College. After HoarP«J. 
Which he travel'd to England, and commenc'd Doftor 
of Phyfick in Cambridge. He marry'd the Ld. Li/les's 
Daughter, and returning with her to New-England, 
was elefted Prefident of the College •, but fome great 
Men in the Country taking a difguft to him, the 
Scholars, countenanc'd by thofe Gentlemen, were 
very difobedient, and made him live fuch an uneafy 
Life, that after he had been Prefident four Years he 
refign'd his Office. 

While he govern'd the College there was a new 
Subscription taken to enlarge it, and near 200 /. fub- 
fcrib'd and paid, of which Sir Thomas Temple gave 
100 /. With this Money there were fo many Edifices 
built, that it look'd like a new College, which ftill 
went by the Name of the Old. Several Indians were 
admitted in the time of his PredecefTor, and in his 
own Prefidency. The firft who took his Batchelours 
Degree was Mr. Caleb Ckeefchaumuk : Since that, o- 
thers have proceeded as far*, and many Indians e- 
ducated here, are Preachers to Indian Churches. 

Mr. Vrian Oakes, Minifter of the Town of Cam- * f ?*: 
bridge, was chofen to fucceed Dr. Hoar. He was^'-"f ia ? 
born in Old-England^ but brought over young to iKsre J° 
NewEngland, and educated in Harvard College, 
where he took his rBatchelour and Matter's Degree. 
This Man, excepting that he was very religious 
after the way or the Country, does not feem to 
have had any extraordinary Qualities worthy 
the Station to which he was advanc'd^ and in which 
he liv'd fix years. 

On his Death Mr. Jncreafe Mather, one of the 
Minifters of Bofion^ was elected Prefident, but his 
Congregation refufing to part with him he declin'd i<?82. 
it j and Mr. John Rogers was cholen into that Place : Mr. John 
His Father came to New-England when he was about Rogers 
6 Years old*, he ow'd what Learning he had to Fref. 
Harvard College, and is commended for abundance 
of good Nature. 

In his time the College was like to havebeen burnt to 
the Ground, but was prevented by his accidental fhor- 


l 4 

— ■ 



Mr. Inc. 

Mr. Leve' 
ret and 
Mr. Brat- 

ton Hall. 

The Hiftory of New-England. 

tening his Prayer *, it being the Cuftomof the Prefi- 
dent of the College to pray in the PublickHall with 
the Scholars. Mr. Rogers, like the reft of his Brethren, 
us'd to be fbmewhat long /, but on the Day that the 
College took Fire he was Ihorter than ordinary, and 
the Scholar in whofe Chamber it was, return'd time 
enough to have it put out. 

He dy'd after he had enjoy'd his Office two Years, 
and the prefent Reftor Mr. hcreafe Mather, was 
chofen in his Place, to which he was now promoted 
with the Confent of his Congregation. This Man 
was the firft Prefident who was born in New-England, 
whither his Father Mr. Richard Mather was driven 
by Perfecution in 1 £3 5. His Son is the Author of 
the New-England Hiftory ♦, and the Father, when he 
was in England to follicite the Affairs of the Country 
as their Agent, preach'd often in the Diffenters 
Meetings •, his Stile being more affected and quaint 
than thofe of the Non-conformifi Teachers who are 
nioft fimous in that way, and wou'd confirm all 
that has been of the Harvard Eloquence, if any of 
his Sermons had been Printed. 

On the taking of the Charter from this Colony, 
Col. Dudley, whom the King had made Prefident of 
New-England, chang'd Mr. Mather's Title of Preji- 
dent into that of ReStdr. 

While Mr. Mather was in England, Mr. Leveret 
and Mr. Brattle, two of the Fellows, govern'd the 
College -, and when he return'd With the New Char- 
ter granted by King William and Queen Mary, the 
Univerfity had a New Charter granted them alfo by 
the Government of New-England. 

After this the Academy began to thrive, Harvard 
College or Colleges being too little for the Students, 
Mr. Stovghton built a New one, with more Expence 
than the Benefactor of Harvard was at •, it is from 
him cali'd Stoughton Hall, and in both of them there 
are near 400 Students Engiifh and Indians. 

This Univerfity has produced leveral Writers, who 
have publifh'd Sermons and other Difcourfes in New-En- 
gland and Old-England, but they have had no great Cur- 
rency or Reputation, tho it mull be confefs'd that fome 
of the Authors feemtobe what is generally underftood 
fey the Phrafe Good Schollars ; and we know no rea- 


r The Hiftory of New- England. 113 

fon why they ftiou'd not be fo, having the lame 
Advantages of Books and Brains, as other Men in 
other Univerfities ; but 'tis in Stile, as in Painting, 
ev'ry Nation has a Manner, by which 'tis known, 
and which will be more or lefs Polite, according to 
the Genius of the People. 

In return for the Services Mr. Inc. Mather had Mr. Inc.' 
done the Country and College by his Agency in Mather 


had to do it appears by the Words of the Diploma, 

Quum gradus Academic 'as , tarn in Iheologia quam in 
Philofophia, pro more Academiarum in Anglia, 
conferendi Potefias, ab amplijjimo Gubernatore, & 
a fumma Majfachufettenfis ProvincU CurU, fecun- 
dum Sereniff. Regis ac Regimx, Gulielmi & MarU y 
Mis concejfum Diploma fit ad nobis commijf. & 
quoniam vir clarijjimus, dec. 

Notwithftanding that the Charter granted by King 
William and Queen Mary had impower'd the Gover- 
nour and General Court of Maffachujet-Colony to grant 
a Charter to the College, with Power of conferring 
Doctor's Degrees, as is expreft in the Diploma ; yet 
My. Mather himfejf never made ule of the Title, nor 
the Univerfity before nor fince thought fit to beftow 
it on any other Man. We fhall conclude this Ac- 
count of New England, and its Univerfity, with a 
Lift of all the Prefidents and Fellows from the Foun- 
dation of Harvard College to the year, 1 69%, 

A Lift of the Prefidents and Fellows of Harvard 

Mr. Nath. Eaton, Prefident, expellU 

Mr. Henry Dunfiar, Prefident, turn'd out. 

Mr. Charles Chauncy, Prefident. 

Dr. Leonard Hoar, Prefident, refign'd. 

Mr. Vrian Oaks, Prefident. 

Mr. John Rogers^ Prefident. 

Dr, Inc. Mather, Prefident and Re&or, 

1 63 0. 






I 6-y 6. 






1 6 6%. 

1 666. 



. 1671. 


R* Hijlory of New-England. 
Years in which they took their Batchelors Degree, 

Mr. Samuel Mather , 

Mr. Samuel Danforth, 

Mr. Jonathan Mitchel, 

Mr. Con. Star, 

Mr. Samuel Eaton, 

Mr. Z>i^ O^fo, 

Mr. John Collins, 

Mr. Mfk/ Wigglefworth, Z FelloW c 

Mr. 7Tb«»* 2W/*y, fellows. 

Mr. Thomas Shepherd, 

Mr. Samuel Nowell, 



Mr. Samuel Hooker* 


Mr. Samuel Bradfireet, 
Mr. Joflma Moody, 
Mr. Nehemiah Ambrofe, 
Mr. Gerjbom Bulkley, Fellow. 
Mr. Increafe Mather, \***a\m. 
Mr. Thomas Graves, £ FdioWS ' 
Mr. Zachariah Symms, l ra ii rt „ t£ . 
Mr. J^W*^ tfr^i, JFellows. 
Mr. Samuel Shepherd, Fellow. 
Mr. Samuel Willard, Fellow. 
Mr. Samuel Elliot, Z Fpl i ow ~ 
fat. Peter Bulkley, £ Fellows - 
Mr. Nathaniel Chauncey, 7r>u ftWQ 
Ml. Jofiph Whiting, £ FelIows < 
Mr. Solomon Stoddard, Fellow. 
Mr. gander Nowell, 1^^ 
Mr. ./wib Pwcho, S 

Mr.W#^ ^ Fell0WSo 
Mr. John Richardjon, 3 
Mr. Nehemiah Hobart, Fellow. 
Mr. Daniel Gookin, Fellow. 
Mr. Ammis Ru Corbet^ Fellow. 
Mr. Ifaac Fojlt 

Mr. Samuel Sev all, 
Mr. Samuel Danforth, 
Mr. Peter Thacker, 
hit. Samuel Andrew, 
Mr. Nathaniel Goohn, 

1 Fellows. 

> Fellows. 


The Hiftory of New-England, 

Mr. John Danfirth, Fellow. 

Mr. John Cotton, ? p^ows. 

Mr > Cotton Mather, $ . ^ 

Mr. John Leveret, ? Fellows, Vice Preii- 

Mt. William Brattle, S dents « 

Mr. Samuel Mitchel, Fellow. 

Mr. Neh. Walter, Fellow. 

Mr. John White, Fellow. 

Mr. 7W Dudley, "l Fellows. 

Mr. Ben], Wadfworth, $ 

Mr. Ebenezer Pemberton, Fellow. 

Mr. Jabez. Fitch, Fellow. 

Mr. James Allen, "£ Fellows. 

Mr. Charles Morton, S 

The two laft were bred in England, and Mr. Morton 
tauaht Academical Learning at Newmgton, before he 
was forc'd to fly to New-England, by the Perfection 
in the late Reigns. 

'Twas impoffible to publifh a Work of this Nature 
with that Expedition as was expe&ed, the Author 
being oblig'd to flop longer for Informations from A- 
merica than he at firft imagin'd -, by which means 
this Treatife has remain'd unpublilh'd till the preient 
Year, 1708. ' _ . , • 

We left Colonel Dudley in PoiTeiTion of the Govern- 
ment •, and he began the Exercife of his Power with 
vigoroufly entering into the War with France on that 
fide: He fitted out 4 Sloops, put 200 Men aboard, 
and order'd them to cruife on the French Coalt ', trom 
whom they took 9 VelTels ', and at the fame time, tte 
New-England Privateers, who have been very fucceii- 
ful, took 3 Ships bound for Canada. Sometime be- 
fore this Conftamine Phips, Efq-, and WiL Vaugban^ 
Efq; prefented a very loyal Addrefs, to congratulate 
HerMajefty's Acceffion to the Throne, in the Name 
of the Province of New-HampJIrire. 

There has happen'd no material Events fmce rela- 
ting to this Colony •, the fame Governour continues in 
his Poft, and we mould have added a Lift of the Coun- 
cil of Mafachufets ; but the People, by Virtue of their 
Charter, choofmg the Members them felves, wecomd 
not procure their Names, which are not regularly 
tranfmitted to England. It feems the Province at Ea/t 
I 2 Q * 


1 677. 

1 6% I. 



k l 

1 1 6 Tk Hifiory of New-England. 

or New Hampjhire, which we have fpoken of, delivered 
up their Rights entirely into the Hands of the King ; 
who by the new Charter that was granted to it, re- 
ferv'd to the Crown the Power of naming the Coun- 
cil. Tho New Hampftrire is incorporated with the 
Government of New-England, yet the Counfellors are 
not elected by the Inhabitants, as thofe of Majfachu- 
fets, but nam'd by the Government in England. Be- 
ing at prefent, 

Colonel Jofeph Dudley, Governour. 
JohnVJfjer, Efq', Lieut. Governour, 

Wil. Partridge, Efq: 
Teter Coffin, Efq-, 
Robert Elliot, Elq} 
John Gearifl), Efq*, 
Wil. Vaughan, Efq' ? 
Sam. Penhallow, Efq', 
John Plaifted, Efq-, 
Richard Waldron, Efq', 
Winthrop Hilton, Efq', 
Jofeph Smith, Efq} 

J> Counfellors* 


C«7 ) 



O F 

N EW-Y R K: 


An Account of its Difcovery, Settlement, 
Revolution, and all other Events, to this 
Time ; Of the Climate, Soil, Trade, 
Inhabitants, English and Indians, 

TH I S Country was at firft call'd Nova Bel- 
eia\ and the Dutch, who pretended to the 
Propriety of it, included Martha's Vineyard, 
zn&Ehzabeth'I/land : The former of which 
they call'd Henry Chrtftiatfs Ifland j and the latter. A- 
drian Block's, from the Name of two Maflers of Ships, 
who, they fay, difcover'd them: But it does not ap- 
pear they had any Right to thofe Ifles, or indeed to 
the Continent on Hudfon's River, till they bought ltot 
Captain Hudfon, who difcover'd it, and fold it to 
them about the Year x<?o8. which Sale being 
without the King's Licence, was excepted againit 
by the Englijh ', but there were no Attempts made 
by them- to fettle here themfelves, or hinder the 



1 1 S The Hiftory of New- York. 

The Englijh, who fail'd from Holland to the Weft- 
Indies, and fettled Plimouth-Colony, intended to take 
PoiTeffion of the Territories lying on the Coaft of the 
Bay form'd by Newhaven Colony, and Long- I/land \ 
but the Matter of the Ship being a Dutchman, was 
brib'd by fome of his Countrymen to betray them, 
and land them further Eaftward j which he did ac- 
cordingly, and prevented their fettling in Nova Bel- 
The Dutch gia? where the Hollanders had begun to plant, but 
■Settlement had been driven thence by Sir Samuel Argall, Gover- 
nour of Virginia. They then apply'd themfelves to 
King Jamesl. who gave them leave to build fome 
Cottages, for the Convenience of their Ships touching 
there for frefh Water and Provifions, in their Voy- 
age to Under this Pretence, they incroach'd 
by little and little, fo much, . that they built Towns, 
fortify'd them, planted, and became a flourifhing 

They built the City of New Amfterdam, in an Ifle 
call'd Manahattan, at the Mouth of Hudfon's River } 
to which they gave the Name of the Great River ; and 
the Bay to the Eaft of it, they cali'd by that of Naf- 
fau. They built a Fort about So Miles up the River, 
which they nam'd Orange Fort •, and from thence 
us-d to drive a profitable Trade with the Indians, 
who came over Land as far as from Quebec, to deal 
with them. Henry Chrtftiatiy and after him, Jacob El- 
fan, were the flrft Dutch Governours here, for the 
Weft-India Company in Holland •, to whom the States 
General had granted this Country. 
Its Bdmds. The firft Bounds of New-Tori, were Maryland on 
the South ", the Main Land, as far as could be difco- 
ver'd, Weftivardj the Great River of Canada, North- 
ward :, and New-England, Eaftward. It now is re- 
due'd into a much narrower Compafs \ for King 
Charles II. having given this Trad of Land to the 
Duke of Tori, by a Charter, dated the 12th of 
March n 1 66\. the Duke made a Grant of part of it 
to Under-Proprietors, who call'd it Eaft and Weft- 
Jsrfty^ which are now its Limits in the Weft and 
$outh : On the North 'tis bounded by Long-Ifland^ 
and on the Eaft by New-England : Hudfon's River di- 
vide's it from ihejerfcys) and a Line drawn between 
Rye m& Greenwich^ ieparates it from New-England : 


The Hiftory of New- York. 
So that the whole Province on the Continent is not a- 
bove 20 Miles over, but 'tis 120 in Length •, and what 
was properly call'd Nova Belgian It lies between 40 
and a half, to 42 Degrees, 5° Minutes, Nortnern 
Latitude. The Climate is more temperate than tnat 
of New-England, and the Soil fo fruitful, tnat one to(W 
Bufhel of Engllfl) Wheat has produc'd a Hundred, «^«/. 
which was a fair Temptation for the Enghjfj to de- 

fir A 1 ccordingly in the Beginningof the ^.^f^g 
Wars after the Relation, King CW/« the lid, who ^ '«».' 
hadbeftow'd it on his Brother, fent a Squadron of • 
Men of War, and fome Land-Forces, under the Com- 
mand of Sir Robert Car, to recover it.. Sir Robert 
arriv'd there in the latter End of the Year 1^4. lan- 
ded 3000 Men upon Manahattan Ifland, and march'd 
dire&ly to New-Amjlerdam. The Governour of the 
Town was an old Soldier, and had loft a Leg in 
the Service of the States \ but being furpriz'd at the 
unexpefted Attack of a formidable Enemy, arid not 
knowing the certain Numbers of the Englifi, he was 
prevail'd upon by the Inhabitants to furrender. Sir 
Robert Car, by Order from the King, had proclaim'd, 
that all who fubmitted to the Crown of England? 
Ihould be receiv'd into his Proteaion •, and the Citi- 
zens of NewJmJierdam fearing to be plunder'd, and 
outed of their PoiTeffions, if they refilled, perfwaded 
the Governour to deliver up the Town •, which they 
could not have defended againft the Befiegers, it they 
had brought their Artillery to bear: And tnus this 
Place fell into the Hands of the EngliJIA 'Twashand- 
fomely built by the Dutch, of Brick and Stone, co- TbeTinm 
ver'd with red and black Tile-, and the Land being tfNew- 
hiah, it affords an agreeable Profpeft tatheSpecta- iU — 
tors at a Diftance. Above half the Dutch Inhabitants 
remain'd, and took an Oath of Fidelity to the King 
of England. Thofe that remov'd, had Liberty to car- 
ry off their Effeas, and their Places were fooniup- 
ply'd by Englijh. There are now above 800 Houfes, 
the meaneft worth 100 I in this City, which for the 
Strength and Pleafantnefs of its Situation, may com- 
pare with any in the W T orld. • 'Tis govern'd by a 
Mayor, Recorder, Alderman, and Sheriff, Common 
Council, Conftables, and other inferiour Officers, in 
- ; \ a, Imita- 

'. " m 


120 The Hifiory of New- York. 1 

Imitation of the Government of the Corporations in 
England. It has but one Parifh Church, but that is 
Urge and beautiful * and the Minifter has 100/. a 
Year fettled on him. The Council-Houfe is a fair 
tdihce. James-Fort is a ttrong, regular Fortification, 
and commands the River. Befidesthis, ithas a Wall 
to the Land, mounted with Ordnance, andfeemsto 
defy the Power of French or Indians. There is a Prin- 

??f P ¥ fs in ^ is Town ' The Ifland lt ftands in, is 1 4 
Miles long, but is not of a proportionable Breadth. 
It was inhabited by a Nation call'd the Manhattes, who 
were more feirce and barbarous than the other Indians. 
Thefe the Hollanders difpofleffing, had an Appear- 
ance of Right to fucceed them ; but Arms decided the 
Difpute much more to the Advantage of the Endiflj ; 
who 13 Days after the Surrender of New-Amfler- 
dam, to which City was now given the Name of 
New-York, march'd under Colonel Nicholls, up.the 
Country to Orange Fort, which flood on Hudfon's 
Kiver, j Miles below where the Eaftern Branch parts 
trom the Southern, and runs up almoft to the Lake of 
tns Iroquois, 200 Miles within Land. This Fort 
^ Colonel i^cM//ea%reduc'd, and calPd it New AU 
hany, the Duke of fork's Scotch Title. Here is always 
a Garnlon of two Companies of Soldiers. 

About jo Miles above New-York is Kingflon, a very 
pretty Town, containing 200 Families, Engli/k and 
Dutch. Tis well-built, and popular for its Big- 

Twenty Miles above Albany, is ScheneBada, a Town 
Jeated mone of the fineft Vales in the World, not un- 
like tae pleafant Valley, which the Trent waters, in 
Nottinghamshire, to which it has been often compar'd. 
Here are near 100 Houfes. The Inhabitants are 
part Enghjh, and part Butch. This Place was deftrov'd 
in the beginning of the late War with France, by the 
trmch Indians, who maffacred the People, fparina nei- 
ther Age nor Sex ; face which there's a Fort built to 
prevent a surprize. 
Indian .Between this Fort and New-York feveral Indian 
Mmws. Nations owelty as the Machntoxvomi, the PachamL 
the Wooran, the Mankikam, and next them, the 
Maquas, Weftward of Fort Orange. The Country 
ai! along 13 very fruitful, The Indians,, whq are noj 
i 1 very 

The Hiftory of New-York. 121 

very induftrious, pofTefs it all, except Sopors- KM, on 
the Weftern Shoar of Hudforts River. And the Dutch 
had no Plantations there, as the Englijh have fince, tho 
the Inland Country is ftill thin of Settlements. 

On the Coafts is the County of Weft-Chejier, in 
which are the Towns and Parifhes of Weft and 
Eaft-Chefter, Yonkers, De Cham, the Pariih of Rye, 
Stonebrook, Munerenock and Bedford. The County 
Town and Parifh of Richmond, Sir Robert Car having Tovnu^ 
reduced all on the Eaft Side of Hudfon\ River, took 
in the Town and Fort of Arafapha and Delaware- 
Caftle, on the Weft Side, without lofing a Man. 
Staten Ijland, at the Mouth of Rarltan River, and 
Long Ijland, follow'd the Fate of the other Towns. 
Thus the EngliJI) oblig'd the Dutch to fubmit every 
where to them. Col. Nicholls was appointed Govex- Cohvel 
nour of the Province of New-Yorli, and he conclu- Nicholls 
ded a League between the Inhabitants and the In- G ^ermr. 

Before we enter further into the Hiftory of this 
Colony, 'twill be requifite to fay fomething of Long 
Ijland, which is part of the Settlement. Tis too Long 
Miles long, but 12 broad, and was inhabited by the Ifland. 
EngliJ}), before Sir Robert Car came thither :, for King C Mat* 
James having made a Grant of it to William Alexander, 
Earl of Sterling, Proprietor of New-Scotland, the In- 
habitants of Lyn in New-England, finding themfelves 
ftreighten'd in Ground, refolv'd to remove thither by 
Confent of the Lord Sterling; with whofe Agents 
they made an Agreement, for a Part of the Ifland to 
plant and fettle in. They then went thither, about 
100 Families in all, with Mr. Vierfon their Minifter, 
and began to plant at the Weft End of the Ifland % but 
the Dutch of New Amfterdam gave them fuch Diftur- 
bance, that they deferted their firft Plantation, and 
fettled at the Eaft End, entering into an Ecclefiaftical 
and Civil Combination, for the'Government of their 
little Colony. They built a Town, and call'd it 
Southampton ; where it remains ftilJ, and is part of the 
Province of New-York, being annex'd to it when the 
Englijh recover 'd the Dominion of this Ifland, and the 
adjacent Continent. Out of Southampton the PariPn of 
JtridgerHamp n was lately taken. The Weft End of 
the Ifland is now Queens County in tins Province. 

,.n ,,. ., . , t% . Th 




l l 

122 The Hi (lory of New- York. 

The Town and Parifli of Jamaica, the Town and 
Parifh of Hempjied^ Confiable Town, Vtrecht, and o- 
ihers of lefs Note, belong to Queens County. 

The whole Ifland is furnifh'd with convenient Har- 
bours j and off the Coaft, particularly the Eafiern, 
lie feveral Iflands, but none of them inhabited. Sta~ 
*£# Ifland, at the Weft End, is 16 Miles long, and 5 
or 6 over. The chief Plantations upon it are Billops^ 
at the South End } and Palmers at the North : On 
the Eaflern Point is Dover ^ another fmall Settle- 

In Long I/land there were alfo fom q French Inhabi- 
tants \ but now they are either remov'd, or fubjeet to 
the Englijh Government. The Dutch made as good 
Earthen Ware here as they do at Delft \ and fome 
write, that it did not fall fhort of China \ but the 
Englijh do not come up to them in that Manufacture, 
Iks Trade. The Trade driven by them, is Furs, Skins, Tobac- 
co, as good as that of Maryland *, Horfes, Beef, Pork s 
Oil, Peafe, Wheat, and all forts of Englijh Grain, which 
they fbw, and have very good Increafe of it. All other 
Fruits and Herbs thrive there, together with Flax 3 
Hemp, Pumkins, Melons, &c. The Soil being moft 
of it very good. Towards the Middle of the Ifland 
lies a Plain 16 Miles long, and four broad *, where 
there grows very fine Grafs, which makes extraordi- 
nary good Hay, and is excellent Pafture for Sheep or 
other Cattel. There is no manner of Rubbiih, Stick 
or Stone to be found upon it :, and the Place is fo fit for 
Races, that twice a Year the belt Horfes in the Ifland 
are brought thither to try their Speed, and the Prize 
is a Silver Cup to the fwifteft. 

There are two or three other fmall Plains of about 
a Mile fquare, which are very beneficial to the neigh- 
bouring Towns.. 

On thQ South Side of Long Ifland, in the Winter 
lie Store of Whales and Grampvffes, which the Inhabi- 
tants catch in their fmall Boats, and drive a confidera- 
fcle Trade with the Oil. An infinite Number of 
Seals lie all the Winter on fome broken Marfhes^ 
Beaches and Bars of Sands. They make an excellent 
Oil, and wou'd be very advantageous to the People of 
the Country 2 if they fell into an eaiier way of coming 
at ther^. 


The Hifiory of New-York. 125. 

The Englijh y and others, on the Continent of New* 
York deal with the Indians for the Skins of Elks, 
Deer, Bears, Beavers, Otters, Raccoons, and other 
rich Furs •, and in Summer are fupply'd by them, 
with Venifon, Fifh and Fowl very cheap. Their 
other Trade is to Barbadoes and the Sugar Iflands, 
with Horfes, Beef and Pork, for which they receive, 
in Return, Sugar, MelafTes, Rum, &c. They alfo 
have a very profitable Commerce from New-York to 
Madera and the Azjnres^ with Pipe Staves and Fifh, 
for which they load their Ships back with Wine and 
Brandy *, and there is fcarce a more advantageous 
Trade in all the Englijh Commerce. I have known a 
fmall Ship imploy'd in this Voyage, backward and 
forward from New-York to Madera, clear the Owners 
above 3000/. in lefs than two Years ', when the firft 
Adventure was not a fixth Part of the Neat Proceed of 
the Voyage. 

The Productions of the Soil of this Country are 
the fame with that of New England. It has nothing 
peculiar to it felf, and we mall therefore refer the Rea- 
der to that Hlflory concerning this Article. The Soil is soil 
richer, and the Climate milder-, lying 2 or 3 De- 
grees more to the South •, but 'tis here alfo colder in 
Winter, and hotter in Summer, than in the Euro- 
pean Countries of the fame Latitude. 

The Animals, Beads, Birds, Fifh and Fowl, the Animals. 
creeping Virmin and Infects, are the fame as thofe in 
New England, and the Savages fo little different, that 
'tis needlefs to repeat the Defcription of them, but 
becaufe every Nation of the Indians vary in fome- Indians.' 
thing or other •, we fhall give a fhort Account of 
thofe of New-York. 

That their Language is as barbarous as that of the 
New England ! Indians will appear by the following Ex- 
amples, as, 

The Neck, Nequoykangen y 

A Lyon, Synqnovmachggh, &c And of this dread- 
ful Speech, there are feveral Diale&s, according to the^ 
Difference of the Kingdoms. As for the Perfons of 
thefe Indiansy they are generally handfom and well 
limb'd. By dying or painting their Skin, they fpoil 
their Complexions, which are all Tawny. Their 
Hair is black. They -are bold and dextrous in hand- 
- ' line 




124 The Hifiory of New- York. 

ling their Bows and Arrows, which are their chief 
Arms. They keep a friendly Correfpondence with 
the Englijhj whom Pere Hennepin, owns they love 
much better than the French *, and never gave them 
any fuch Difturbance, as our Countrymen have met 
with in New England and Virginia. They are apt to 
learn all things, and willing to be inftrueted in the 
Chrifiian Religion, but their Pawaws, or Priefts, who 
live by Idolatry, hinder them from embracing it, as 
much as poilible •, and by Perfwafions and Threats, 
keep 'era in their Diabolical Worfhip. As to their 
Wives, no People in the World make themfelves fo 
eafie in Wedlock, if a Man diflikes his Wife, he tarns 
her off for the leaft Offence that is, and takes another. 
The Woman, in Revenge, carries away her Children 
with her, and the Houfe is rid at once. The Wife, 
while fhe lives with the Husband, may Cuckold him 
without Crime or Scandal •, but then fhe muft ac- 
quaint her Husband, or her Parents , that fhe has a 
Gallant. They have a very indifferent fort of Maids 
among them, it being lawful and reputable enough 
for their Virgins to be as generous to Mankind as they 
pleafe, before Marriage, provided they keep con- 
ihntly to one Man after it. When a Woman is 
with Child, fhe never admits of the Conjugal Em- 
braces till me is deliver^, and never while fhe gives 
fuck. Belle Couftume, fays a French Author, Onauroit 
bonne grace de Vouloir prcfchcr cette doEbrine auxfem- 
mes de L Europe. Comme on enferoit Efcovte ? Which 
becaufe it reflects on our European Ladies in this Mat- 
ter, I fhall leave in the Language I found it. 

The Indians pay a great Refpecl: and Obedience to 
their Kings : They believe the Transmigration of 
Souls, and know as much, and talk as learnedly of 
the Creation of the World, as their Neighbours. 
They are everlafting Dancers, given to all manner of 
American Sports and Gaming, and will play away all 
they have at- Cards. They have certain Feftivals, or 
Times kt apart for their Paftimes. They don't take 
much Care in their Drefs, in which they differ little 
from the New-England Indians. ' Their Lodgings and 
Way of Living, are very homely. They are almofl 
always at War; They fe'ldo in give any Quarter but 
to Women and Children, whom they keep for Slaves. 
: : " ,T?3 

The Hiftory of New- York. 125 

5 Tis a bloody Battle with 'em, if 8 or 10 Men are 
kill'd y and a mighty Prince who has a hundred Sub- 
jefts fit to. bear Arms, of which there are, in allj 
fcarce 1000 Indian Men in the Territory of New-Tork, 
whereas there are 7 or 8 times as many Englijh. We 
muft now give an Account how the Colony advanc'd 
from its Infancy to itsprefent Maturity. 

Colonel- Nicholls continu'd Governour, till about sir Ed- 
the Year 1*83, when Sir Edmund Andros, of whom mund An- 
we fhall have often Occafion to fpeak, was appointed dros Go- 
his Succeflbr. The Reputation of this Settlement en- vernwr. 
creafing with its Trade, it became a populous and . 
thriving Plantation, in which Condition it remains 
to fhis Day. Col. Dungan fucceeded Sir Edmund ^ ^ 
Andros i in the Government of New-Tork. This ' G ^ 
Gentleman was a Roman Catholick, and King James vermur . 
the lid put him into this Place : He was an old Soldier, 
having been long in the King of Spain\ Service, and 
that gave him fuch an Averfion to the French, as 
hinder'd his betraying the Province to them, ei- 
ther in King James's Reign, or after the Revolution* 
Before the late King abdicated the Government, he 
confented that French Priefts mould come from Quibec 
in Canada, and have free Leave to make what Converts 
they could in the Province of New-Tork : Accordingly 
they came *, but Col. Dungan immediately order'd them 
to be gone, faying, Their Defign was to gain over the Eng- 
lifh and their Allies to the French Inter eft, and not to the 
French Religion ; wherefore, like a Man of Honour, he 
drove them out of his Province. The French King 
complain'd of him to King James, who was highly di? 
pleas'd *, and 'tis thought, Col. Dungan would have loft 
his Government, if his Highnefs the Prince of Orange 
had not been declar'd King. This Governour was 
afterwards Earl of Limerick? and is ft ill living in 
Ireland. There happen'd nothing extraordinary in. 
his Time: For the Indians giving the Inhabitants no 
Difturbance, there were no Wars to create Action, 
and difturb the peaceable Commerce of the People. 

After the Revolution, Col. Dungan was recall'd, it 
being inconfiftent with a Proteftant Government to 
employ Fopijh Officers. The War broke out in thofe 
Parts almoft as foon as in Europe, between the Englijh 
and Fremh 9 and their Confederates. We find mention 




1 ,, 

l } 

26 The Hifiory of New-York. 

made of an Expedition, undertaken by the Englijh a* 
gainft the French, by La Hontan ; but that Author has 
not done us Juftice ; neither muft we expect that ever 
the French will own they were beaten : He fays, the 
Englijh came within a Day or two's March of Quibec y 
and then return'd without doing any thing. The 
Truth of the Fact is : In the Year 1^0. Col. Peter 
Schuyler, with 300 Englijh, and 300 Indians, march'd 
from Fort Albany up to Quibec, 400 Miles from New- 
York, and the French Governour oppos'd him with no 
lefs than 13 Companies of regular Troops, and as ma- 
ny Indians : Notwithftanding the Inequality of their 
Numbers, Col. Schuyler charg'd the Enemy with equal 
Bravery and Succefs, routed them, kill'd 30 Officers, 
and 300 Soldiers with little or no Lofs ; but being not 
ftrong enough to attempt the Forts, he contented 
himfelf with his Vi&ory, and retreated. A full Re- 
lation of this Action was printed at New-York. The 
French alfo made an Expedition againft the Englijh, 
furpriz d Schcnetlada, burnt the Town, and murder'd 
the Inhabitants. 

King William appointed Col. Fletcher to fucceed the 

Earl of Limerick in this Government, and he held it 

Goverwur.feyQ^i y ea rs. He had a Garrifon of regular Troops, 

in the City of New-York, to prevent any Surprize 

from the French and their Confederates the Hurons. 

In his Time, A.D. 1696, the Count de Frontenac, 
Governour of Canada, having a Defign againft Sche- 
netlada and Albany, in this Province, and intending 
to draw off the five Nations of Indians, inhabiting 
the neighbouring Parts, from the Friendfhip they 
liv'd in with the Englijh, left Quibec about the 1 6th of 
June, and coming to Mount-Real, met there soooFremb 
and Canada Indians, and being provided with Canoos, 
Stores of all forts, and other Neceflaries for this Ex- 
pedition, he advanc'd by the River of the Iroquoife 
towards New-York. After a long March of above 1 00 
Leagues, he came into the Country of the Oranda- 
guefe, one of thofe five Nations, and furprifing them 
with fo great a Power, deftroy'd one of their Caftles, ' 
burning their Corn and Pro ifions. Colonel Fletcher 
having Notice of this Invation, march'd with the 
Englijh Soldiers, then in Garnfon 21 New-York, a Bo- 
dy of the Militia, and feme of the Indian Allies, to 
\ put 


The Hifiory of New-York. 1 27 

put a Stop to the Progrefs of the French. The Count 
de Frontenac hearing of his Approach, made a hafty Re- 
treat. Upon which, a Party of the Upper Nations of 
the Indian^ Friends to the Englifi), who were 
coming to their Relief, attack'd his Rear, and kill'd- 
feveral of the French , who were not only difap- 
pointed in their Projeft, but iuffered a great Lofs. 
Th&lroquoife were all exafperated againft them, by 
this Invafion, and defir'd Col. Fletcher to meet the 
Chief^of their Nations at Albany, to concert Meafures 
with them, for carrying on the War againft the Com- 
mon Enemy, and revenge themfelves on the Count 
de Frontenac for invading their Country. Col. 
Fletchers Succeflor was Col. Slaughter. 

Twasinthe Interregnum, if we may be allow'dOfo^ 
toufe that Word, between this and Col. Fletcher's Slaughter 
Governments,, that Col. Lefley took on him that*** 1 *"* 
Office, without any Commiflion from England. He 
was of the Fa&ion that always pretend to be more 
Zealous for the publick Good than others. And fuch 
Pretences never want Partizans. The Number cf 
the Magiftrates of this Province, who fided with him, 
were equal, atleaft, to the other*, and cou'd he have 
maintain'd the Power he had ufurp'd, till he had 
procur'd Remonftrances and AddrefTes, to be fent 
from them to England, he doubted not he mould be 
able to get his Authority confirm 'd. His Hopes, in- 
deed, feem'd vain and chimerical. For no Prince 
will ever think that Perfon worthy of Power, who 
affumes it without his Confent, let his Caufe, or his 
Merit, be what they will. Mr. Jacob Mllburn was 
his great Friend in this Affair, and very inftrumentai 
in fecuring the Fort. But when Col. Slaughter arriv'd 
with the King's Commiffion, he got into the Fort by 
a Stratagem, feiz'd Lefley the Governour, and Mllburn, 
and order'd them to be try'd for High Treafon, for 
holding the Fort out againft him, and killing one of 
his Men •, he being the King's Lieutenant. The 
Judges and Jury made no great Difficulty of condem- 
ning them, and they were accordingly condemn d, 
and executed as Traytors. The Governour, Slaugh- 
ter, proceeded a little too haftily in this Affair, and 
no doubt would have been fent for to England, and 
"perhaps ferv'd as Lefley was, had he not dy'd in New* 

Tork 7 



128 The Hiftory of New- York. 

York, where his Faction was but too much encourag'd, 
efpeciaUy after the Lord*?— 's Arrival. Slaughter dying, 
Jofeph Jofeph Dudley, Efq-, of New-England, held thisGovern- 
Dudley merit till the Arrival of the Earl of Bellomont, whom his 
Govcnour. Majefty, King William, had madeGovemour ofiV<?n?- 
Engtand and New-York. The Lord Bellomont intended 
to refide at New-York, it being the pleafanteft City in 
the English America ; but when he arriv'd at New- 
England, the Affairs of that Province requir'd his Pre- 
fence, and he appointed Col. Dudley to be his Deputy 
at New-York, and after him Mr. Nanfan. 

In the* Year 1700, the Deputy-Governour fet up a 
Poft-Office in Long I/land, which runs twice a Week, 
form Northfleet to Nettlebed, Egerton, Afford, Hun- 
tington, Oyfter Bay, Flufljing, Newton and Bedford^ 
Mr. Nan- where the Mail is carry'd over in the PafTage-Boat 
fan* De-to New-York. He alfo appointed a Packet-Boat, 
putf Go- to go from Northfleet to Stcniton, in New-England, ye- 
vernour. ry convenient for the Trade and Correfpondence be- 
tween the two Colonies. About the fame Time, 
1000 of the Scots, who had fettled at Darien, put 
into New-York, and took their PaiTage Homewards, 
after they had abandon 'd that Settlement, but the De- 
puty Governour refus'd to aflift them, pretending he 
cou'd not do it in the Abfence of the Earl of Bellomont^ 
who was then at Bofton. A Library was ere&ed, this 
Year, in the City of New-York: And the Dutch Inha- 
bitants built Mills to faw Timber *, one of which 
wou'd do more in an Hour, than 50 Men in 2 Days. 
The Earl of Bellomont fent over a very Loyal Addrefs, 
from this Province, which wasprefented to the King, 
by Col. Byard, their Agent, in London, who had the 
Honour to kifs the King's Hand. His Majefty, in 
June, 1700, appointed William Atwood, Efqj to be 
Chief Juftice of the Province of New-York ; and he 
held that Office till the Arival of the Lord Cornbury % 
Son of the E.of Clarendon, who was made Governour 
of this Province, on the Death of the Earl of Bellomont. 
In the Year 1701, His Lordfhip remov'd thither, 
with his Lady and Family, and has refided there ever 
fince. He remov'd Mr. Atwood from being Chief 
Juftice, and made other Alterations in the Govern- 
, rnent. The Party that efpous'd Col. Lejley's Caufe 
continn'd (till, and Mr. Atwood fell in with them, as 


The Hiftory of New- York. 129 

indeed did many good Englifimen. They were charg'd 
with favouring the Dutch, and they charp'd their 
Enemies with the fame Partiality for the French ; but 
we will not enter into this Difpute, which caus'd a 
great deal of Trouble both in New-York and Eng- 
land, The Lord Cornbwy treated all LeJIeys Friends 
roughly enough, and carry'd it with a high Hand. 
This Lord was akerwards Governour of New- 
Jerfey, for he had not been long at New-York before 
he receiv'd Advice of King William's Death, and Let- 
ters from the Lord Commiffioners of Trade, with 
one inclos'd from the Privy Council, containing Di- 
reaionsto$roclaim her prefent Majefty, which was 
done with great Solemnity, the nth of June, 1702. 
His Lordihip was, on this Occafion, attended by the 
Mayor, Aldermen and Common Council •, the Clergy^ 
Gentlemen and Merchants of New-York ; and the next 
Day having alio receiv'd a Com million from Queen 
Anne, to be Governour of the Jerfey s, he went over 
the Water to fee the like Proclamation made there. 
My Lord continues in the Government of thefe Pro- 
vinces to this Day. 

It was impoflible at this diftance from the feve- 
ral Places we write of, to keep exa&Iy to the Me- 
thod we propos'd to our felves •, and having, fince 
the Writing the above Account of New-York, re- 
ceiv'd further Information from a Gentleman of 
good Credit, we now communicate it to the Rea- 

The City of New-York is thought to contain near 
idoo Houfes, molt of them very well built. The 
Great Church was built in the Year is 9 5. Col. 
Fletcher being Governour, by the charitable Con- 
tributions of himfelf, Col. Nichoifon, Governour of 
Virginia, and other well-difpos'd Chriftians. This 
Church is dedicated to the Holy Trinity. There 
are alio a Dutch Church, a French Church, and a Lu- 
theran Churchy and a Free-fchool procur'd to be erect- 
ed by the prefent Governour. The Minifter of the 
Englijb Church is the Reverend Mr. William Fefey, The 
City has a County belonging to it. For the whole 
Province of New-York 1$ divided into io v Counties , five 
of them, viz,.Aibany y VlJ}er,Dutchefs,Orange,md King's 
County, are inhabited by the Dutch* and Perfons 
K of 




L l 

130 The Hiftory of New- York. 

of Butch Extra&ion. The five other Counties are, 
Queen's County, Suffolk County, Chefier County, 
Richmond County, and New-Tork. 

The Walls before-mention'd in the Defcription 
of this City were {landing when 'twas call'd New 
Amflerdam, but its chief Defence now is Anne Fort, 
and two new Batteries, one on each Side of the 
Narrows, to fecure the Place by Sea. The Fort is in 
good Order:, and there are now two Companies of 
Foot in Garrifon in it, the Governour's and Captain. 
Jeter Matthcws's. 

We have before made mention of the^ Town of 
Albany. There is a ftrong Stone Fort begun by the 
Lord Cornbury, in the room of the Old Fort, which 
was only ftockado'd. The Town of Albany is moft- 
ly inhabited by the Butch ; it is near 150 Miles from 
New-Tork. The Province being above 170 Miles in 
Length, our former Computation was too fhort. 
Her Majefty has been graciouily pleas'd to fend a Mi- 
nifter here *, and the Reprefentatives for this Coun- 
ty in the Affembly, defir'd they might have a Church 
of England Paftor there, tho the Inhabitants are ge- 
nerally Butch. Here the Governour often has Con- 
ferences with the Indian Kings ; and a famous one 
was holden in the Year 1 702. my Lord Cornbury being 
prefent, as alfo Col. Peter Schuyler, Major Birk 
Weffels, Commiffioners for treating with the Indians, 
John Bleecher, Efqj Mayor of New-Tork, J. Abeel, 
Efqj Recorder, John Roofeboom, E%, Alderman, 
Bavid Schuyler, Efq", Alderman, John Schuyler, Efq-, 
Alderman, and Mr. Richard Levingfton, Secretary for 
Indian Aixairs. Hilletie van Olinda, an old Butch 
Woman, was Interpreters. The firft that had Audi- 
ence were 2 Sachems of the Canada Indians, five Sa- 
chems of the Iwightwights and Tionondade Indians, then 
the Sachems of the five Nations, in Confederacy with 
the Englijfj, the Omydes 7 the Qnontages, ths Cayouges, 
the Sinnekes, and the Maqua&s , where mutual Prefents 
were made, and Affairs of Trade fettled. Here are 
two Companies in Garrilbn, Lieutenant Governour 
Richard Ingoldsby's, and Captain Wcems's ; and the 
Garrifon is often reinfore'd by Detachments from 


The Hiftory cf New- York. 

At Scheneftada, of which we have already fpoken, 
is an old Fort, out of Repair, and the Pallifadoes ve- 
ry rotten. The Garrifon here is Part of that at 
Albany- This Place is much more populous than be- 
fore the French deftroy'd it. Other Forts are oft 
the Frontiers, as the Halfmoon y Nefligaun^ and 

- Indeed the Englifl) cannot be too careful of the 
Defence of their Frontiers here, confidering what a 
powerful Enemy they have at Canada 7 and 'tis faid the 
Expedition lately undertaken by Monfieur Herber- 
ville againft Nevis 7 &c. was intended againft New- 
York: For when Mr. Nanfan was Deputy Go- 
vernour, a French Man of War, as we are inform'd, 
was fuffer'd to enter the Harbour, which the Captain 
order'd to be founded, and gave Information of it 
to the Court of France. The Stores at New-Tork 
were in fuch a Condition, that the Inhabitants were 
very glad they had no want of any } for had they 
been put to the Trial, they doubted whether they 
fhould have been able to have made fo good a Defence, 
as they would otherwife have done. 

We muft defire the Gentlemen of New-Tork not 
to ex-pett that we mould efpoufe their Factions : If 
we have been betray'd by fome Perfons to fpeak too 
favourably of Le/le/s from their Mifrepfefent'atibris-, 
we fhall not rake into the Aflies of the dead, and 
affront my Lord Bellomont's Memory, out of Com- 
plaifance to others. 

We have been inform'd, fince the firft Part of this 
Account of New-Tork was written, that Col. Lejley's 
Ufurpation happen'd before Col. Fletchers Govern- 
ment, and confequently that my Lord Bellomont fuc- 
ceeded Col. Slaughter •, but the Fact is true, and as 
to Chronology, if we fometimes err, 'tis the Fault 
of fuch as undertook to furnifh us with Memoirs : 
We fpard no Pains to have the beft } and the 
World will fee, by the Names of the Gentlemen, 
from whom we had our Informations, that we could 
not have better Authorities. 

Kingfion lies between Albany and New-Tork, on 

the Weft-fide of the River. The Houfesare ftragling, 

except about ioo, which compofe the main Town. 

Iti the County of Weji-Chefler 7 we muft note one 

K 2 Parife 





s * £ The Hiftory of New- York. 

Parifh at leaft, that of Decham, is not yet laid out, 
and perhaps the Name is miftaken. There's but one 
Church in this County, at Weft-Chefter Town, but 
there's a fettled Maintenance for two Ministers, at 
5.0 /. yearly each •, one for Weft-Chefter, of which 
Mr. Barton is Rector, and one for Rye. 

We have .nothing more to fay of Richmond Coun- 
ty and Town, but that it has an Allowance for a Mi- 
nifter at 40 l. a Year. 

If we take another View of Long-Ifland, we muft 
correct an Error in its Situation, which is a Print- 
Fault, for 'tis South-Eaft from New-York, as New- 
England is North- Eaft. The Ifland is ijo Miles 
long, and contains Queens County, Suffolk County, 
and Richmond County, 'Tis fometimes call'd Naffau- 
Ifiand. In Quern's County are two Churches, fup- 
jily'd with incumbants. Jamaica, of which the Re- 
verend Mr. William Vrquhart is Miniiler, he has 50 /. 
a Year, by Subscription, from the Yorljhire Clergy^ 
and 15 /. for Books. The Town conlifts of about 
40. Houfes. The other jShurch is at Hempftead, of 
which the Reverend Mr. Join Thomas is Rector, 
who has the fame Income from England, rais'd by 
the Society for propagating the Golpel, as Mr. Vr- 
qvhart has, and both of them are allow'd 60 I. a 
Year apiece in New-York. 

'Tis in the Plain near this Town, call'd thence 
Hempftsad Plain, that the Races are generally run } 
and the Breed of Horfes being famous here, the 
Militia Regiment in this County is Horfe. 

Suffolk County has two Towns in it. Oyfter 

and in Huntington as 
There are abundance 

Bay, where are jo Houfes ■ 
many, but no Church built. 
of Diflenters, Jndcpendants and Quakers. 

Having nothing more to lay of rhe Hiftory of New- 
York, we mail proceed to that of the Jerfeys, having 
frrft given a' Lift of the Chief Officers, Civil and 

The Right Honourable Edward Lord Vifcount 

Cornhury^ Gcvernour, 


The Hiftory of New -York, 



$> Counfellors, 

Peter Schuyle t 
William Lawrence, Efq} 
Gerardus Beekman, Efq} 
Rip van Dara, Efq} 
Caleb Heathcot, Efq} 
Thomas Wenham, Efq} 
Willian van Ranflau, Efq} 
Roger Mompeffon, Efq", 
John Barbaric, Efq:, 
Adolphus Phillips, Efq} 

Chief Juftice and Judge Advoate^Roger Mompefon,E^ 
Second Judge, Robert Milward, Efq', 
Attorney General, Sampfon Shelton Broughton, Efq} 
Secretary, George Clark, Efq} 

The Names of the ASSEM B LY. 

William Nicolls, Efq} Speaker. 

Stephen de Laucey, Efq} 
Henry Beekman, Efq} , 
Thomas Gar ton, Efq} 
Mynderp Schuyler, Efq', 
Thomas Codrington, %£q, 
John Jackfon, Efq} 
Matthew Howe I, Elq} 
JohnAbeeJ, Efq} 
Evert RankeP, Efq} 

Clerk of the AiTembly, Mr. Gabriel Ludhm). 

Daniel Whitehead, Efq*, 
John van Cortlandp, Efq} 

The Militia Regiments are commanded by the follow- 
ing Colonels. 
New-York County, Col, ^P^m^Mayor of the City, 
Suffolk County, Col. Smith. 
King's County, Col. Beekman. 
Albany County, Col. Schuyler. 
Queens County, a Regiment of Horfe, Col. Wiliet. 

Regular Troops, 4 Companies, 100 Men each. 

1 Company, commanded by the L,ord Cornbury. 

2 Company, by the Lieut. Govern. Ric. Ingoldsby, E% 
I Company, by Cap. We ems. 

% Company, by Cap- Peter Matthewu 
Engineer j Mr. Reldknap. 

Kilian van Renfalaer, Efq} 
\gphn Stillwell, Efq} 
■Abraham Lakeman, Efq} /" 
Jofiah Hunt, Efq}^ 
Jofeph Purdy, Efq} ' 

William milet,E(q, 












THIS Country, before the Surrender made by 
the late Proprietors of the Government, in- 
to Her prefent Majefty's Hands, was divided 
into two diftinft Provinces, but as 'tis now under one 
Governour, and one Council j fo we give it but one 

The firft Difcoverers of this Country were the Eng- 
Hj/j \ and the firft of them Captain Hudfon. Tis in- 
cluded in Nova-Belgia, by Mr. Delaet. The Indi-. 
gent) or firft Inhabitants of this Territory, were the 
Naratkongi, on the North Side of Raritan River : 
The Mlnquaas, the Capitanaffes, the Gacheos, and the 
Senneaas on the South. The latter inhabited the 
Country up almoft as high as the Falls of the River. 
The firft Europeans that fettled here were the Swedes, 
who had three Towns, Chrijiina, call'd by Indians, An- 
doftoka, Elfimhurgh and Gottemburg. Their Settle- 
ments were chiefly on the South fide of the River, and 
on the Frontiers of Penfylvanla, oppofite to 
which Province there's a Place, to this Day, call'd 
Fort Fjfmburgh. But the Swedes made very little of 
their Plantation. And the Dutch, always induftrious 
in their Trade, work'd them fo fir out of if, that 
Merghen, the Northern Part of New-Jerfey 7 was almoft 
entirely planted by the Hollanders. King Charles II. 
who, like his Predeceflors, look'd upon the Continent 


The Hifiory of New-Jerfey. 

of America, from Canada to Florida, to be his Right, 
incerted this Traft in the Grant he made to the Duke 
of York, the 12th of March,i6G\. Butthe Englijh never 
fettled to the South of Hudforis River, on that fide 
Maryland, till feveral Years after the Duke had in- 
verted this Province in John Lord Berkly, and Sir 
George Cartarett, by the Name of Nova Cafarea \ their 
Charter bears Date the i\th of June, 166 4 : The 
Lord Berklys Afiignee, Sir George Cartarett agreed to 
divide the whole Country into two Parts. Eaft New- 
Jerfey, or that Part which borders on New-York, fell 
to^vi George Cartarett \ md Weft- Jer fey, or that Part 
which borders on Penfylvania, to the Lord Berkly. 
But before we enter farther into the Hiftory of thefe 
two Provinces, it will be convenient to give a Geo- 
graphical Defcription of them, that the Reader may 
have a better Idea of the Places we fpeak of. 

New-Jerfey contains all that Country, to ufe the: 
Words of the Patent, lying to the Weflward of Long- 
I/land and Manhattas-Ifland, or New-York, and bound- 
ed on the Eaft, Van by the main Sea, and part by Hud- 
fonV River, and extended Southward to the mam Ocean, 
as far as Cape May, at the Mouth of Delaware River 1 
and to the Northward,as far as the Nor thermvfl Branch of 
thefaid Bay or River of Delaware, which is 41 Degrees 
and 40 Minutes of Latitude, and chjjing over thence in 
a ftreight Line to Hud!on\f River, in 41 Degrees of La<? 
titude j which faidPTracl of Land was then caWd Nova 



Gefaria, or New-Jerfey, by all , and thus we fee it 
has the main Sea on the South Eaft, the KiverDelaware 
to the Weft, Hudforis River to the Eaft, the main 
Land to the North, and lies between 39 and 40 Degrees 
of North Latitude : It extends it felf in Length ori 
the Sea Coafts, and along Hudforis River about 120 
Miles •, and isalmoft as broad as long where 'tis broad- 
eft. We mail now take fome Notice of the two Pro- 
vinces diftinftly. ■ r 

Thebiggeft and beft inhabited of theie was Eaft- 
Jerfey, which extended Eaft ward and Northward, all 
along the Sea Coaft and Hudforis River, from Little 
Egg Harbour to that Part of Hudforis River, which 
is in 41 Degrees of Northern Latitude •, and Soutn- 
ward and Weftward is divided from Weft-Jerfey by a 
Line of Partition, paffing from Egg Harbour to Cro{i- 






< 3 6 


Eiiex , 



T^ Hiftory of New- Jerfey. 

wick River, Stony Brook, and the South Branch of Ra- 
man River. It extends in Length along Hudfon's Ri- 
ver, and on the Sea Coafts ioo Miles. In Breadth 
Mr V « y unec J ua1 ' bein g in r ° m e Places crowded by 
Weft-Jerfey •, but 'tis however the moft valuable Part 
of this Country. It was divided into Counties \ as 
Bergen County, on Hudfonh River \ Ejfex County, 
M.ddleftx County, on the North Side of Raritan Ri- 
ver ; and Monmouth County on the South. We fhall 
begin with 

Berghen County. It lies on Hudfon\ River over a- 
gamft New-York, and was the fir ft planted of any part 
of this Traft. This, as well as the other Parts of the 
Jerfeys. is extremely well water'd with Rivers : befides 
thztotHudfon, there are Hackinfack River, Pafaick Ri- 
ver, and feveral lefs Streams. The chief Town is 
Berghen, and indeed the only Town in the County, 
lor the reft of it is Oar-Plantations. Within the 
Precincts of this.Townfhip, are 10000 Acres of Land 
caft out ; that is, afiign'd over by the Proprietors to 
Tenants in Fee :, and in the County are ioooo Acres 
caft out. The Town is not very large, however it has 
3 50 Inhabitants, moft of them Dutch, who have been 
fettled there' above 40 Years. In the County are 
reckon'd a like Number of Inhabitants, by which we 
tmderftand Men, Worn en, and Children. BerghenTown 
ftands on the Weftern Point of the Neck of Land, 
which, with Staten Ifland, forms a tovnd, 

Ejfex County is of Note for Elizabeth Town, which 
llss three Miles within a Creek, oppofite to the Weft 
End of Staten Ifland. Here the Englifh fettled firft, 
and this Place has thriv'd moft, notwithftanding the 
Endeavours that have been us'd to make a Capital of 
Terth. It has 250 Families in it, and ;oooo Acres of 
Ground caft out- Here the Proprietors have 1 a Planta- 
tion, which goes by the Name of their Farm, the 
Government of the Provinces manag'd, Courts kept, 
Affemblies held, and the greateft Part of the Trade 
of the Colony carry 'd on. 

Newark is the moft com pa ft Town in the Jerfeys-^ 
it lies 6 or 7 Miles Northward from Elizabeth Town, 
confifts of about 100 Families, and has 50000 Acres of 
Land laid out to be cultivated. The Weftern Part 
of this County is water'd by Raw ay River j upon 


The Hifiory of Ne w- Jerfey. 137 

which is a Saw-Mill •, and Northward is a Ridge of 
Mountains, call'd the Blew Hills. The next Coun- 
ty, is 

Mlddlefexy the moft populous and flourifhing for Middlefex 
its Out Plantations, tho the Capital of the Country, County, 
Perth City, which ftands in it, does hardly yet deferve 
the Name of a Village. In this Divifion of the Pro- 
vince are two Towns : 

Pifcattaway, which lies about 6 Miles up Raritan 
River. It has 80 Families, and 40000 Acres of 
Land caft out. Seven or eight Miles from hence is 

Woodbridge^ goodTown on aCreek within theSomd^ 
form'd by Staten Wand and this County. It has 120 
Families, and 30000 Acres of Land laid out for Plan- 
tations. The Weftern Part of Middlesex County is 
water'd by Milftone River, which runs thro' a very 
pleafant and fruitful Country, belonging to Mr. Will. 
Vockwra of London^ to whom that City owes the ufe- 
ful Invention of the Penny-Poft. The Proprietors 
confidering the happy Situation of Perth City, or- 
der'd their Agents to ufe their utmoft Endeavours to 
procure Inhabitants to remove thither *, but Elizabeth 
Town kept them, as we ihall hereafter again ob- 

Perth Amboy takes its Name from James Vrummond y 
Earl of Perth , and Amboy Point, on which it ftands. 
Tis a fweet, wholefome, and commodious Place, at 
the Mouth/ of the River karitan^ which runs into San- 
dyhook Ba^, able to contain 500 Ships, and is never 
frozen. According to the Proprietors Project, they 
were to fet out fuch a Spot of Ground there, and di- 
vide it into 150 equal Shares, for Purchafers to build 
upon. They referv'd 4 Acres for a Market-Place, and" 
three Acres for publick Wharfage. A Town was 
accordingly fet out 5 and the Scots Proprietors were 
very induftrious to have it built. The Governour's 
Houfe was one of the firir, and there are now about 
40 Houfes more fcatter'd up and down •, to which is 
given the pompous Name of Perth City. Two or 
three of thefe are Stone Houfes. The whole Plan of 
the Town confifts of 1070 Acres :, and there are two 
good Roads from it to Pifcattaway and Woodbridge. 
But notwithstanding 'tis fo commodious for Trade, 
that Ships in one Tide can come up to the Port 3 and 





138 T£<? Hiflory of New- Jerfey. 

lie at the Merchants Doors, tho of 500 Tun Burthen^ 
yet we do not find that Perth City deferves that 
Name better than St. James City in Virginia, which 
is not fo big as Kentijb Town in Middle/ex, in £?7g- 
to^. Twas intended there mould have been a Mar- 
ket here, but there is now no Occafion for one. AH 
along the River Raritan, the Country is thick of 
Plantations •, the chief of which were let out to two 
of the Proprietors, Mr. Robert Barclay, and Mr. Will. 
Jjochcra. From hence we crofs the River, and come to 

Monmouth County : Where we firft meet with 
Middleton, a pretty good Town, confiding of 100 
Families, and 30000 Acres of Ground, in what they 
call here Out Plantations- 'Tis about 10 or 12 Miles 
over Land, to the Northward of Shrewsbury , and is 
Miles to the South ward of Pifcattaway. Not far off, the 
Shoar winds it felf about like a Hook*j and,, being 
fandy, gives Name to all the Bay. 

Shrewsbury is the moft Southern Town of the Pro- 
vince, and reckon'd the chief Town of the Shire. It 
contains about itfo Families, and ?oooo Acres of Out- 
Plantations belong to its Divifion. Tis fituated on 
the Sideof afrefli Water Stream, thence caft'd Shrews- 
bury River, not far from its Mouth. Between this 
Town and Middleton is an Iron Work \ but we do 
not underftand it has been any great Benefit to the . 
Proprietors. Col. Morris is building a Church at the 
Falls. There's a new Town in this County, call'd. 

Freehold, which has not been laid out, and inha- 
bited long. It does not contain as yet above 40 Fa- 
niilies *, and as to its Oztf-Plantations, we fuppofe they 
are much the fame in Number with the reft, and may 
confift of about 30000 Acres. 

We have not divided the Counties into Parifhes, 
and that for a very good Reafon, there being none, 
nor indeed a Church in the whole Province, worthy 
that Name. But there are feveral Congregations of 
Church of England Men, as at Shrewsbury, Amboy, 
Elizabeth Town, and Freehold, vrhok Minifter is Mr. 
John Beak, his Income is 6 j /. a Year •, and a Church 
is building at Salem. As for, 

• Weft Jerfey, We can only give a general Account 
of %t -j for it is not divided into Shires, as Eafi-New- 
Jerfh is ; fao Dr. Qx 9 when he was Proprietary, or- 
der a 

The Hiftory of New- Jerfey. j j 9 

der'd feven Counties to be laid out ; as Cape-May 
County, Salham County, Gloucefter County, &c. bud 
his SuccefTors did not go on with his Project. Tho 
Weft~Jerfey has not fo many Towns, nor is fo well 
planted and inhabited, the Number of its navigable 
Creeks renders this Province as commodious for Trade 
as the other. They lie at a convenient Diftance, and 
fome of them run up a good way into the Country. 

The raoft Eafterly Point of Land in Weft-Jerfey, is 
Cape-May , at the Mouth of Delaware Bay, and over 
againft Sutfex County, in Penjyhania. The Tra£t of 
Land between this and Little Egg Harbour, which di- 
vides Eaft and Weft New-Jerfey, goes by the Name of 
Cape-May County; but we do not underftand, that 
there is now any other Divifion of this Province ho- 
nour'd with the Name of a County. 

Here are feveral ftragling Houfes on this Neck of 
Land, the chief of which is Cox's Hall ', but there's 
yet no Town. Moft of the Inhabitants are Fifher- 
jrnen, there being a Whalery at the Mouth of the 
Bay, on this as well as the oppofite Shoar. Next to 
Cape-May is Maurice River, between that and Cohen* 
zy : 'Tis the biggeft in all the Country. Next to it 
is Cohenzy, a fmall River, but deep and navigable for 
fmall Craft. Ten or twelve Miles up this River, is 
Cohenzy Town \ where are about 80 Families. From 
Maurice River, the next Stream to Cape-May, the 
Bay and River of Delaware waters all the South-Eaft, 
South, and South- Weft Part of Wejhjerfey. The 
Plantations, fome of which are fo clofe, that they 
have aflum'd the Name of a Town, lie all along on 
that Bay and River, and moft of them on Creeks. 

Antioch is a fort of a Town, and has a little Creek 
belonging to it. Next to it, nearer the Mouth of 
Delaware River, is Gibbon" % Creek -, next, ARoway\ 
Creek •, and then YortElfwtburgh, at trie River's Mouth, 
and over againft New-Caftle County, in Penfylvania i 
It formerly belong 'd to the Swedes. Near it the Ri- 
ver Salham falls into the Delaware. There's a Town 
about half way up this River towards its Head, from 
whence it takers its Name. Tis 20 Miles from Cohen- 
zy, and contains about 120 Families. One of the 
Counties, laid out by the former Proprietary, was 
from this Place call'd Salem, 




140 The Hiftory of New-Jerfey. 

Fttts's Point and Town, if it may be fo caJl'd, lies 
over againft New-Caftle Town. Next to it is Namen 
Creek, then Racoon Creek, then Almon Creek, Low 
Ifland, and Wafs Creek *, the latter oppofite to Chefier^ 
in Penfylvaitia ', then Great Manto Creek, then Wood- 
berry River,Grmz Bank,and then Gloucefler Creek } and 
Cooper's Point,over zgainhPhiladelphia on theDelaware, 
Gloucefler is a good Town, and gave Name to a Coun- 
ty in the above- men tion'd Proprietary's Divifion of the 
Province. It contains near 100 Houfes \ the-Country 
about it is very pleafant. Above this is Panthakin 
Creek, then Northampton or Rancocos River j and then 
j Burlington Town, the Capital of this Province*, above 
thirty Miles from which there are few or no Planta- 
tions. In this Town the Courts and Affemblies of Wefl- 
Jerfey us'd to be kept. It contains about 200 Fami- 
lies, and has an anfwerable Number of Acres laid out 
by the Proprietary to the Under-Servants. The Hou- 
fes here are well built, and almoft all of Brick. The 
Market affords Plenty of all forts of Provifions. It 
gave Name to one of the feven before-mention'd 
Counties. Above this Town is another, call'd Mai" 
denhead, below the Falls alfo, containing 40 or jo 
Families •, 'tis built on Dr. Cox's Lands : And there's 
another finall Town above the Falls. About 40 Miles 
higher is the Country of the Minifincks, an Indian 
Nation. T/ie Soil being very fertile thereabouts, 'tis 
expected this Tract will be next inhabited, it border- 
ing upon New Tork, and has Communication with it, 
by Means of the River zs£fopm *, which having wa- 
ter'd it, flows into Hudfons, River, near Kingfton* 
Xhis Province has alfo an eafy Communication with 
Maryland, there being a River within its Limits 
which runs not above eight Miles from the Bottom of 
Chefe apeak Bay *, and there was once a Project on Foot 
to cut thro' that eight Miles, but Virginia and Mary- 
land oppos'd it fo vehemently, that it did not fac- 

' The Trade of V/efl New-Jerfey, and . Eaft-Jerfcy, as 
alfo the Soil and Conveniences of Rivers and Creeks, 
lire much the fame*, except that Wcft-Jerfey, by its 
Situation on Delaware River, abounds more in the 


The Hiftory of New-Jerfey. 141 

Both thefe Provinces, as to the Soil and Air, 2^ Soil, 
have a near Relation with that of Penfylvania ^ Tiwfc, &c 
as alfo to its Trade and Produ&s. The Coun- 
try yields Plenty of all forts of Grainy and the 
Inhabitants are faid to have been fo fcrupulous, 
that they would not enter upon it, before they 
had given the Indians fome Satisfaction : But 
there needed not fo much Nicety •, for 'tis cer- 
tainly very lawful for any Man to pofTefs him- 
felf of any Land that is defart and uninhabited, as- 
this was towards the Sea-Coaft efpecially. The few 
Indians that are to be met with in the Jerfeys, are ra- 
ther a Help than an Injury to the Inhabitants, who 
wifh their Number was much greater. The Englijh 
are fo numerous in comparifon of the Indians, that 
if it was in the Nature of the latter, they 
durft not offer the leaft Injuftice to the New-Comers* 
for they might foon be extirpated by them, it being 
computed, that jhsre are 10 or 12000 Souls of the 
Englijh in this Province, and of thefe about 2000 
Men fit to bear Arms, and not 200 Indians in 

'Twill be needlefs to enter into the Particulars of 
the Produces of thefe Provinces, fmce, as we have 
faid, it has fo much Relation to Penfylvania. Pro- 
vifions are the chief Trade here, which are thence 
exported to the Sugar Iflands. They have alfo fome 
Furs, Skins, and Tobacco, for an Englifh Market j 
and Oil, Fifh, and other Provifions for Portugal) 
Spam,' and the Canaries. Ships may be built here 
cheap and conveniently at Perth Amboy\ But New- 
England carries away that beneficial Trade from all 
the reft of the Englijh Colonies, on the Northern 
Continent of America. This , Place was at firft as 
likely to be foon inhabited as any, but its Pro- 
grefs has not been as promifmg as its Begin-' 

New-Tork and Penfylvania have much the Advan- 
tage of it for Populoufnefs and Trade ; and in- 
deed New York is its bcft Market, for buying or 
felling any confiderable Quantities of Goods of any 

We have already hinted concerning the Smith- 
ing,, Forge that is let up near MiddUtw, Tis cer- 


142 The Hifiory of New-Jerfey. 

tain, Iron has been made there •, but that Project 
has lately fail'd *, and notwithftanding all that is 
(aid of the Iron and Copper of New-England, and 
the Minerals all over that Continent, we do not 
find that any of the Mines of America have been 
worth working, except thofe of Mexico and Peru, 
"We fhall now return to the Hiftorical Events relating 
to the Beginning, Progrefs, and prefent State of New- 

tiiftory. The lord Berkley, about twelve Years after the 
Duke granted this Province to him and Sir George Car- 
tarett, affign'd his Right to 

The firft Proprietary in Jerfey, under the Lord Berkley^ 
who were, 

Will. Pen, Efq* 

Mr. Gawen Laurie, of London, Merchant^ 

Mr . Nicholas Lucas, and 

Mr. Edward Byllyng, 

Thefe not long after agreed upon the Partition of the 
Province with Sir George Cartaretl : And this Proprie- 
tary dying, the Earl of Bath, and others his Execu- 
tors, with the Confent of his Widow, -the Lady Car- 
tarett, aflign'd over his Share, which was the Northern 
Divifion, Feb. 2. itfSi. to 

Firft Pro- The Firft Proprietaries of Eaft-New-Jerfey. 


in Eaft- 


* Will. Pen. Efq-, 
Jerfey. Rob. Weft^Etq, 

* Mr. The. Rudyard. 
Mr. Samuel Groom. 

* Mr. Tho. Hart. 

* Mr. Rich. Mew* 

Mr, Thomas Wilcox. 
Mr. Ambrofe Rigg. 
Mr. Hugh Hart/born. 

* Mr. Clement Plumfted. 

* Mr. Tho. Cooper. 
Mr. John Hayward. \ 

And from this Time the two Provinces have had 
their diftina Governours. The Proprietaries foon af- 
ter fold Shares of Eajl-New-Jerfey to the Perfons fol- 
lowing, viz. 


The Hifiory of New- Jerfey. 


James, Earl of Perth. 
John Drummond, Efq-, 
Sir George Mackenzy. 
Rob. Barclay , ? of Vry± 
David Barclay, 5 Efqrs. 
Robert Gourdon, Efq*, 
® Mr. Robert Burnet. 
Mr. Peter Sonmam, of Lon- 
don, Merchant 
Mr. James Braine, 

Mr> Gawen Lawrie. 
Mr. Edward Byllyng. 
Mr. Will. Gibfim. 
Mr.lho. Barker, ?Mq& 
Mv. Walter Benthall,\ch*s. 
Mr. Rob. Turner,} of Dub- 
Mr. Tho. Name, \ I'm, Mer* 
Mr. Thomas Cox y 
Mr. Will. Dockwra. 

Who, with the fix Proprietaries diftin^uifh'd in 
the fecond Lift by the Aflracifms, procur'd a. Confir- 
mation of their Patent by another from the Duke of 
Tork, dated the 14th of March, 1*82. by which they 
were inverted with all the Powers and Privileges, 
which the Duke had granted to Sir George Cartarett :, 
or indeed, which the King had granted to his Royal 
Brother himfelf. And we by thefe Lifts perceive, 
that all the Pattentees of the Lord Berkley's Divifion, 
or Weft-New-Jerfey^ were Proprietaries of Eaft- 
New-Jetfey, except Mr. Nicholas Lucas}) yet they did 
not procure any Conjunction of the two Provinces \ 
on the contrary, feparate Governours were appointed! 
over each of them ', and the firft Governour of Eaft- Mr. Bar* 
New-Jerfey was Robert Barclay, Efq:, by Commiflion, clay Se- 
dated the 17th of July. His Deputy was Gawen vernour* 
Laurie, Efq*, 

The Scots were at that time as much perfecuted for 
their Religion as the Englijh ; and Mr. Barclay, the 
Head" of the Quakers in that Kingdom, and alfo in 
England, thought fit to remove hither with his Fa- 

• We muft note, that moft of the firft Englijb lnh& Fir a En ~ 
bitants in this Country were Dijjenters, and moft of ^ j.^ 
them Quakers and j4nabaptijls. Thefe People are g$-bhams. 
nerally induftrious : Be their Hypocrify to themfelves 
if they are Hypocrites:, but we muft do them the Ju- 
ftice to own, that they are the fitteft to inhabit a 
new-difcover'd Country, as profeffing Induftry, and 
fhunning thofe publick Vices which beget Idlenefs and 
Want. Their Enemies drove great Numbers of them 
out of England, and the Jerjeys. had their Share of 

them ; 


1 44 The Hiflory of New- Jer fey. 

them : The People here are for this Reafon Dijfenters 
to this Day, there being but two Church of England 
Minifters in both the Provinces •, and this may be one 
Reafon why there are no Parifh Churches? which 
the Inhabitants may be afraid to build, leaft it might 
be a Temptation for more Orthodox Divines to come 
among them. 

A Gentleman asking one of the Proprietaries, /jf £ 
there were no Lawyers in this Country ? Was anfwer'd, 
No : And then, If there were no Phyficians ? The Pro- 
prietary reply 'd, No : Nor Parfons, adds the Gentle- 
man ? No? fays the Proprietary : Upon which the o- 
ther cry'd, What a happy Place muft this be? and how 
worthy the Name of Paradice ! We do not perhaps 
differ more from this Gentleman than we agree with 

The Proprietors, in the fame Year, made Mr. Geo, 
LockharfM^tihz.]? and Mr. William Dockwra Regifter 
and Secretary, in which Office he continues to this 
Day •, and 'tis to him the Writer of this Hiftory owes, 
in a great meafure, the Memoirs relating to this 

The Proprietaries made a Deed amongft themfelves 
to prevent Survivor fhip, and agreed upon Conft it ut ions, 
or general Concejfions? for the Management of the Pro- 
vince, as to laying out Land for Counties? Tribes^ 
Towns? and Parijhes. They referv'd one part in feven 
for themfelves, and refolv'd to difpofe of the reft on 
the following Terms : Every Mafter of a Family was 
to have 50 Acres of Land fet out? and 25 for his Wife^ 
and each of his Children and Servants? paying 1 2 d. 
a Head to the Regifter? or his Deputy? for regiftring 
them as foon as landed. Servants? when their Times 
expir'd? were to have 30 Acres. All Perfons to 
pay 2d. an Acre, Quit-Rent? or pur chafe their Free- 
holds at 50 s. for every Lot of 25 Acres fo taken up? and 
fo in proportion for a greater or lefs Number of Acres, 
All Perfons were bbligd to fettle in fome Townjlnp? and 
to have Land affignd there for Houje and Garden? every 
one being oblig d by the Conceffions to build a Houfe 
in feven Tears tune. The Rate of any Parcel of Land 
was ten Pounds for 100 Acres? and none were to pur- 
chafe above 1000 Acres: But this Part of t\it Gonfti- 
tution has not, we ibppofe, been punctually kept 5 


The Hiftory of New-Jerfey. f 145 

neither has Land always continu'd at 10 /• the 100 
Acres *, for 'tis certain, Land has been fold here for 
20 s. an Acre, and very often for 60, 70, and 80 /. 
the 1 00 Acres, as it lay convenient for Townfhips and 
Trade, and as it was in Goodnefs. 

Mr. Barclay, the fir ft Governour of Eaft-New- 
Jerfey, had made his Name famous among his Bre- 
thren the Quakers by his Writings : he did not go 
over immediately, fothe Government was exercis'd 
by his Deputy, Gavoen Lawrie, Rfq-, who had a Com- Gawen 
cil nominated by the Proprietaries to ailifthim: But^^^ 
it feems he did not pleafe his Principals ', whether _p e p Ut yGo^ 
or not it was, that being a Proprietary of Weft-New- vernor* 
Jerfey, he was not willing the Province he govern'd 
ihould thrive too faft, or whether he did not think . 
the Orders he receiv'd from the Proprietaries were 
for the Advantage of the Colony, is not determinable 
by us \ but fure we are he difobey'd them in an Ar- 
ticle,which was of the laftConfequence for the Good of 
the Province. September 14. 1^83. the Proprietaries 
wrote to Mr. Lawrie and the Council, to remove the 
Seat of Government, and the Courts from Elizabeth 
Town to Amboy Point, and there to fettle, that by 
their Prefence °Pebple might be encourag'd to build 
Perth City, which was then laid out, and great Ad- 
vantages propos'd to all fuch as would inhabit it. It 
lay fo commodious for Shipping, that the Concern'd 
did not doubt, if their Orders were obey'd, they 
ihouldin a few Years fee a City there, which would 
at leaft have been a Rival to New-Tork and Philadel- 
phia, Mr. Lawrie, by difobeying the Proprietaries, 
gave thofe two Cities an Opportunity to get the x 

ftart of Perth- Amboy fo far, that the Inhabitants of 
Baft- New-Jerfey defpairing ever to come near them, 
have difcontinu'd their Building j and this Town, 
which w r as intended to be the Capital of this Colony 7 
lies now among the Number of its Villages, 

We find Mr. Barclay continu'd Governour till the 
Year 1 6%$. when the Right Honourable the Lord Nealrhs lord 
Campbel, Uncle to his Grace the prefent Duke of -^r-Neal 
gyle, was appointed Governour : In whole time George Campbel 
Keith came over to Eaft- New-Jerfey, and taught ^Governor* 
School there. He was alfo appointed Surveyor Gene- 
ral, on Account of his Skill in she Matheiaaticks. 

i He 




J 46 


£*>?« Ha- 

7> Hi (lory of New- Jerfey. 
He {hid there two or three Years, and then went to 
fome other American Colony : This is the Man, who, 
when he return'd to England, renounc'd his Enthufi- 
afiick Errors, and embrac'd th^ Orthodox Religion 
of the Anglicane Church : After which he became a 
regular Minifter, was preferred to a 'Benefice'-,, and 
lias made himfelf taikt off by his Difputes with the 
Quakers, and theirs with him -, for they have not 
ftuck to'charge him with deferting them for a world- 
ly Interefr. When he left Jerfey, Mr. John Reed was 
' made Surveyor General. Since this he was fent over 
by the Society for propagating the Gofpel, as. a Miiil- 
onary to convert the Indians, and make Profelytes to 
jtjle "Church of England : 'Tis faid in the Society's 
/aper, That he has brought great Comfort to the Church. 
There is now a Minifter of St. Marys Burlington, wh© 
is Mr. John Talbot, Affiftant to Mr.. -Keith m his Mil- 
lion : He has 6q I. a Year from the Society. 

In the Year 1696. .Col. Andrew Hamilton was ap- 
pointed G.overnour of this Province : In which Poft 
he did not continue long-, for in 1697. we find Je- 
remy BaffbyrlLfch was fent from England with that 

Col- An- 

Baffe, £% Character, which he alfo kept but a little while" # 
Governor, for Col. Hamilton procur'd Mr. Bajfe* to be recali'd^ 
Col, Ha- and himfelf re-inftated in his Government ; which 
mikon W as of as fhort Duration as Mr. Bojje's, for the lac- 
*M* /7 'n a- r ^ r * n a Y ear ' s Time or lefs was reftor'd. 

His Succefior, and the laft. Governour of Eaft-New- 
Jerfey, was Col. Andrew' B own e, who continu'd in 
that Poll as long fcs thQ Proprietaries Power lafted. 
This Office, coniidering the Cheapnefs of the Coun- 
try, was as good as the lame in fome other Colonies, 
where the Saliery and Advantages are greater, for the 
Governour cannot here, make fairly above 500/. a 
Year of his Government. 

This Colony continu'd to thrive under all thefe 
Goverhours-, and nofwithftanding the Majority of 
the Proprietaries and Proprietors were Quakers, a Peo- 
ple who affect a peculiar Tameneis of Spirit, and de- 
clare againft Fighting, yet a Militia, has been form'd, 
and at a late Mutter 14.0a ftout Men appear'd in 
Arms, Col. Thomas Cox, Son of Dr. Cox, commanding 
thciTu The dumber of Souls in this Province is 
computed to be 12000, and Wejt-New-Jcrfey 8000, 


The Hi fiery, of New-Jerfey. 1477 

.We muft now take fbme Notice of # thole Events Weft- 
that relate to the latter: Tis true, we' do not meeijerfey. 
with many, and thofe not very important:, butfuch 
as they are, we ihall communicate them to thQ 

Govemours were fettled, in this Province much 
about the fame time that th<^ Proprietaries of the o- 
ther appointed Perfons to govern Eafi-New~Jerfey.T\vz 
fir ft Governour of 'Weft- New-Jerfey vtdLsEdwardBy/Zyng, Edward 
Efqjonepf the Proprietaries, -who, was put into thatByllyng, 
Office, AD. 16-83. and contina'cf in it feveral Years. E M Cq ~ 
After which. t y he Vreatelt part, of -the Province was vefnor * 
fold to Dr. Daniel Cox, one of. the* Members of the -p r . Da- 
College of Phyfitians, who took' tfye^Government into n iei Cox 
his own-Hands - , but bfing then in^'ery great Bu fin efc Governor. 
in his Profeffion, he dip not tliink fit to leave it for 
the Profits of his Province, and govern-d the Colo- 
ny always by a Deputi In; the Year .1^0. his,Pra- 
&ice dimiriiihing in England, he refoj v'd on a Voyage 
to his American Territories, and : was actually gone 
as far as Salisbury, in . ? his- way 10 'Plimouth, to era- 
bark there for this Qountry, but lie- was diiTwaded ■ 
by a Friend from his intended Voyage - n and. returning 
to London., fold the belt part of his Propriety to Sir 
Thymus Lane, and others, for above 9060 /.- a Sum of 
f^oney whichlias not often beer) known to be given in 
London Tor an Eftate in either of the Englifl) Colo- 
nies on faQ Continent of America. What thefe Pur- 
chafers did withthW Province, we' have nor heard } 
but we find they .thought it convenient, for the Good 
of the Colony, to make a Surrender of their Pattent^p iWBt 
to the Queen, referving all their Rights to them (elves, furnndreh 
except the Sovereignty, which was reftor'd -to the 
Crown. The Proprietaries of Eafi- New-Jerfey did 
the fame*, for on the 11& of April, 1702. Mr. Will. 
Dockwra, in their Name, and Sir Thomas Lane in the 
Name of the Proprietaries of IVefi-New-Jerfey, waited 
on her Majefty, and made a formal Surrender of the 
Sovereignty to her. The Queen immediately ap-j^^^j 
ponted my Lord Cornbury to be Governour, and this cprnbiiry 
Lord made the late Governour, Mr. Jeremy Bajfe. Gavem&r. 
his Secretary. 

The Two Provinces, which had been diviled 2«f 

Years, became united^ and now go es by the Nam of 

3L 2 Jsew- 



1 4B The Hifiory of New-jerfey. 

New-jerfey j the Government being by a Governour, 
Council, and Affembly : The Governour choofes 
his Council out of each, and appoints a Lieutenant- 
Governour. In the Year 1703. Mr. Sergeant Hook 
made a Pui chafe of 3 750 Acres of Land, in Wjl-Jerfey, 
upon Delaware River, and gave the 1 oth part of it as 
a Glebe to the Church. The Karnes of the prefent 
Officers are, 

The Right Honourable the Lord Vifcount C^tt^ry, 
Richard Jngoldsby, Efq-, Lieutenant-Governour. 

Lewis Morris, Efq} "J 

Col. Andrew Bowne, J 

Thomas Revet, Efq-, 
Francis Davenport, £fq*, 
William Vinhorn, Efq', 
. George Deacon, Efq', 
Daniel Leeds, Efq^ 
William Sandford, Efq*, 
Co]. Robert Quarry, and 
Peter Sonmans, Merchant, j 

'Tis remarkable, that CoL Robert Quarry, is not 
only a Counfellor here, but alfo at New^Tork, Penfyl; 

vania, Maryland, and Virginia, 

Secretary and Regifter, Mr. William Doclwra. 
Secretary to the Governour, Mr. Jeremy Bajfe. 

J> Counfellors. 







THIS is nottheleaftconfiderableofour^f- 
merican Colonies *, and for the few Year's 
tjiat the Trad of Land, which goes by this 
Name, has been inhabited, we believe 
none has thriv'd more, nor is more rich and po- 

The Proprietary, William Pen, Eiq*, is the Son or The Vroyb 
Sir William Pen, who commanded the Englifl) Fleet, mctvy. 
Conjunaion with other Admirals, in the time of the 
Rump ; whom Oliver fent with Col. Venahles to Hifpa- 
niola i and tho that Expedition fail'd through the ill 
Conduft of Venahles, Mr. Pen, for he was not then 
Knighted, was generally faid to have behav'd himfelf 
with equal Wifdom and Courage. He afterwards 
fell in with the Royalifis upon the King's Refioration, 
and commanded the Fleet under the Duke of Tor*, 
in the firft Dutch War, having fometime before re- 
ceive the Honour of Knighthood c, and dying not long 
after, was bury'd in Redclif -Chmch in BriftoL For 
the Services he had done the King and Nation, his Son, 
the ingenious William Pen, E% follicited a Grant of 
this Provinces but having declar'd himfelf the Head 

of the People in England^ call'd Quakm, 
l> 3 

he met with 



T5° The Hifiory of Penfylvania. 

great Difficulties in obtaining this Pattern *, which he 
at laft procur'd, bearing Date the 4th of March, i^8f. 
' and gave.- his fcfaane to the whole- Country, which- is 
from him calTd Peafvlv ania in the Original Grant, 
By the King's Authority. Bat before we proceed fur- 
ther in its Hifiory, we maft give the Reader fome 
Idea of the Province. 1 1 f 

Penfylvania conlifts or zltthat TraB of Land in Ame- 
rica, with all -I/lands thereunto belonging ', that is to fay, 
frcvi the Begfauing'vf 'the fortieth of ■> North Lf- 
thude^ vnto the tyrty third Degree of -'North Latitudes, 
vchsfe Eaftern Mmt&£s, from 1 2 EngUfh Miles abo\e 
Newcajftle (alias Delaware-Timw) runs all along upon 
the Side of utlwvzxt-Rifter* ■ So that 'tis bounded on 
the Eaft by. the River and fey of Delaware, and the 
Eaftern Sea ; on the North, by Weft New-Jerfey, or 
rather... NewTor^ for it goes..a-.great way above the 
Jm&\ oja the Weftyjby the Indian Nations about the 
Heads of ' Sufqiiahanaugh and Delaware Rivers \ and on 
th^ South by Maryland , and reaches from Pensherry, 
near the Falls of Delaware River,- to Cape Hinlope, 
at .the Mouthof 'Delaware 'Bay, -near : 150 Miles : But 
it runs .along 'like-a Strip, of Land, being very much 
crowded in; Breadth by Maryland ] 
! ."'We' fhoald' have- made mention of She'firftlnhabi- 
, . feints of ffflfel Country^ and the ■ fttfft E)ifcoverers y but 
what we have particularly to fay of either the one or 
the other, we' ft all' relate in the further Profecution of 
this Kiltory, and continue our Geographical Defcrip- 
tionofit. ' \ . ' • x 

' The River Delaware is navigable 500 Miles at leafr, 
in fmall Veffels { fo.nigh Mr/?V# has' gone up it him- 
felf, as he was pleas'd to acquaint the Writer of this 
Treatife. It rifes in the Mountains^ in the We(tern 
Parts of this Continent, near the ' Iroqvoife, and runs 
parallel with Sufquahanaugh River in Maryland', t\z 
Movers* latter falling into the Bay of Chcfeapcak^ not far from 
where Delaware River difchavges it (elf into the Bay 
that bears if&Ba#%.c : Some Ships bound for Penf 
ma -fail through Chefeapeak Bay, the Head falling with- 
in this Latitude', ' ; They both divide them Pelves, nerit- 
• the Falls, into t^'b great Brandies,-, and between them 
fjows-the Schoolkftlj which runs into the Delaware at* 
Philadelphia, Thefe are the only, Rivers of Note in- 
■ y -.. - ; this 

The Hifiory cf Penfyl vanla. I ? t 

this Province •, the reft are rather Ch?e fo than Rivers, 
the Southfide of the Delaware abounding with them, 
as well as the North } of which we have ipoken in the 
laft Article. 

. We do not find any Counties in the Weftern Part of 
this Country •, the firft Town we come to below 
the Falls, is Newton ', and next to it isPensberry, over 
againft Burlington, \ m Weft New- J erf ey. Here's * 
feiall Creek, but never a one at Newton. This part or 
th^ Delaware is call'd the F re floes. The next Creek is 
Ncfmmcnck, then Portquejfm, then Pemmapeka;^ be- 
tween which and Towcauny-Crsek, is Franlifardy 
which feems to be a Dzifd? Village, or &Swedijh\ 
kt both Swedes and D/tfri£» inhabit ieveral Places in 
Penfylvania, The 1 Siposkf feated themfeives moftly in 
the ^Creeks I have been fpeaking of, about the Frefles. 
The ibrf^ planted near the Bay. This'Place is alfo 
call'd Oxford^ and here is a Church of England Con- 
gregation, fupply'd by the Miniflers of Philadelphia? 
there being none yet lent to the. Town, which confids 
of about 150 Houfes. From Towcaimy, having paft 
,M//-Creek, we come to 

. Philadelphia, the Capital of this Colony, dignify'd Philadd* 
with' the Name of a Gty. Tis indeed moft commo-phja, 
dioiifly fituated between two navigable Rivers*- the ( 
Delaware, and SchoolkilL It has two Fronts on the 
Water, one on the Eaft-fide, facing the Schoolkill', 
and the other on the Weft, facing the Delaware. 
The Eaitern Part is moft populous on account of th« 
Schoolkill, which isboatahle 100 Miles above the Falls, 
Each Front of the City, as k was laid out, was a Mile 
long, and two from River to River. The Street that 
runs along the River Schoolkill is three Quarters of a 
Mile in length. The Houfes are very ftately, the 
Wharfs and Warehoufes numerous and convenient. 
And as Philadelphia flourifh'd fo much at firft, that , 
there were near- 100 Houfes and Cottages within left 
than a Years time, fo fince the Foundation of this City, 
yi. D.16S2. it has made anfwerable Progrefs*, the 
Number of Houfes being computed to be 1200 noW? 
They are generally well built, and have large Or- 
chards and Gardens, The Land on which it ftandsis 
liigh and firm, and the Conveniency of Coves, Docks 3 
and Springs, has very much contributed to tlieCoiii* 

152 The Hiftory of Penfylvania. 

merce of this Place, where many rich Merchants now 
live ; and we have been inform'd, Tome of them are 
fo wealthy, that they keep their Conches. The Town 
was laid out, and a Draught taken of it by fMr. The. 
Holme , Surveyor General of the Province, which lies 

• now before me •, it feems to be a very fair Plan, and, 
if it was all built, would make a great and beautiful 
City •, the Streets being broad, and fo long all of them, 

• that they reach from River to River ; a Compafs or 
Ground which is large enough to make a City for all 
the Inhabitants of the Northern Colonies, perhaps 
not excluding New-England. Ships may ride here in 
€ or 7 Fathom Water, with very good Anchorage. 
The Land about it is a dry, wholefom Level. All 
Owners of 1000 Acres of Ground and upwards, have 
their Houfes in the two Fronts, facing the Rivers, 
and in the High-ftreet, running from the Middle of 
one Front to the Middle of the other, -, Every Ow- 
ner of 5000 Acres has about an Acre in Front } and 
the fmaller Purchafers, about half an Acre in the 
backward Streets. By which means the leaft has 
Room enough for a Houfe, Garden andfmall Orchard. 
The High -fire et is 100 Foot broad - , fo is the Broad- 
ftreet, which is in the middle of the City, running 
from North to South. In the Center is a Square of 
10 Acres, for the State-houfe, Market- houfe, School- 
houfe, ano chief Meeting-houfe for the Quakers - The 
Lord Fropietary being of that Profeflion, 'tis not 
ftrange, that mod of the firft £ffg///Z> Inhabitants were 
of the fame Opinion. - The Perfecution rais'd by the 
Fopijb Faction and their .Adherents in England, a- 
gainft Protefiant Dijfenters, was very hot when Mr. 
fen obtain'd a Grant of this Territory, and the 
Quakers flock'd to it, as an Jkylwn, from the Rage of 
their Enemies. But fince the glorious Revolution, 
people have tranfported themfelves to the Plantations, 
to enrich, and not to fave themfelves from Injuftice 
and Violence at home. 

Men of all Principles have fettled in this Place, as 
well as others ; and there are fo many Orthodox 
profeffors, that there's a great Church in Philadelphia, 
for the Exercife of Religion, according to the Difcn 
plane of the Church of England; and fome of them 
have clamour'd lately very much for an Organ, to the 


The Hiflory of Penfylvania. i $} 

great Offence of the Brethren. We do not ufe this 
Word out of Contempt, but to avoid that otDiftinEli- 
t>n, which is too fcandalons for a ferious Hiftory. The 
Church here is cali'd Chrift-Church, and the Congre- 
gation is very numerous. His late Majefty was pleas'd 
to allow the Minifter 5° /• P™ Annum, befides the vo • 
luntary Subfcriptions of the Inhabitants. The School- 
mafter has alfo an Allowance of 3 o /. per Annum. The 
Pattent for them was taken out at the Charge of the 
Society before-mention'd. Here are befides this leve- 
ral Meeting-houfes, as a Quaker's, Presbyterian, A- 
nabaptift, and a SwediJI; Church. The Reverend Mr. 
Evans is now Minifter of Philadelphia. His Affiftant 
is Mr. Thomas 5 School mafter, Mr. Club. There are 
atleaft 700 Perfons of the Orthodox Church. 

In each Quarter of this City is a Square of 3 Acres, 
to be for the like Ufes as Moorfields in London : And in 
the Plan there are Eight Streets, that run from Front 
to Front, parallel with High-ftreet, and Twenty 
Streets, that run crofs the City from fide to fide •, both 
of which are 30 Foot broad. But we cannot fuppofe 
that near a tenth Part of this Ground is taken up, con- 
sidering all the eight Streets are 2.Miles, and the 
Twenty, one Mile long, 5 ? befides the Fronts, and 
High-ftreet and Broad-fireet. The Dock is form'd by 
an Inlet of the River Delaware, at the South Corner 
of the Front, and has a Bridge over it at its Entrance. 
Several Creeks run into the City out of the two 

Here the AiTemblies and Courts of Judicature are 
kept, and the Trade and Bufinefs of the Province is 
chiefly manag'd, as in all Capitals. Here is a beautiful 
Key, above 2oo.Foot fquare •, to which a Ship of yooTun 
may lay her Broad-fide. Here are molt forts of Trades 
and Mechanicks, as well as Merchants and Planters; 
and considering 'tis the youngeft Capital in our Eng- 
iifl) America, 'tis far from being the leaft confide- 
rable. It gives Name to the Country about it *, for 
the remaining part of Philadelphia is divided into 
Shires, there being 5 more befides Philadelphia Coun- 
ty, as Buckingham, Chefter, Newcaftle, Kent, and 

At a little Diftance from Philadelphia, is a pleafant 
Hill 3 very well Wood?d 3 on the Banks of tjie School- 

' kilL 


154 The Hiftorj of Penfylvama. 

Hll, Cali'd Fair Mount. Wioco, half a Mile from the 
Town, is a Swedift) Settlement \ where the People of 
that Nation have a Meeting-houfe for religious Wor-? 
fhip : They have another at Tenecwn. But whether 
thefe Places are inu Buckingham or Philadelphia Coun- 
ty, we have not learn'ch Indeed where there are fo 
few Inhabitants,- there's more Vanity and Qftentatif 
on in dividing the Country into Shires, than real Ufa 
and Neceffity :, and if we do it, 'tis purely ©ut of Com- 
plaifance to the Humour of the People. 

Within Land lies Radnor ox Weljh Town, finely fi- 
ttfated, and well built, containing near 50 Families. 
In this "Place is a Congregation of Church of Eng- 
land-Men , but-, no fettled Miniiter.. In . thefe 
two Counties are feveral other Creeks*, as Darby 
Creek, &c. Amorfiand lies between that and another 
namekk Creek. .From whence, pa (Tin g by Ridloyer^ 
we come to Chcfter Town," which alfo gives Name to 
a County. The Number of Families in this Divifion* 
as well as in the others, I have not heard \ but by the 
Computation of the Number of Souls in all the Pro-- 
vince, they cannot exceed 200. This Place is alio, 
cali'd Uplands, and has a Church, dedicated to S f ^ 
Paul,, with a numerous Congregation of Orthodox" 
Pr'ofeffors, whofe Minifler is Mr. Hen. Nicholls, hi$ 
Income paid by the before-mention'd Society, 50 /. a 
Year.- .They are -about erecting a School here, de-. 
pendent on . the Minifter. There's another little 
Town at the Mouth of a Creek, cali'd Chichejier. 
Below that is a great Creek, which we may be fu re 
beiang'd, to the Dutch, by- the Name that is given it, 
Brandpvjne. Here's Room enough to lay up the 
whote>Navy Royal of England, there being- from four 
to. eight Fathom Water in this Creek. Between 
$randyrt>im and' Chrifiind, is an Iron. Mil: What Ad-< 
vantage- >it- has been to , the Proprietors we know not* 
and fu-ppofe we mould have heard of it, had it been 
cdnOderabie. • ^ 

< ■■• Nest to Brandyvoine is Chrifrina Creek *, wher*^ 
when the Swedes .inhabited this and the other Side of 
the. Ijclatiarf, they <M, a Town which ferv'd them 
infteacl of a Capital, and the Governour^ refuted, 
if we may' give Credit to Monfieur Robbe, in his Ac- 
count oL. La Notivelk Swcde 7 which included part of 
- " fhi ? 

The Hifiory of Penfylvania. 1 5 5 

this Country, and part of the Jerfeys. This is a very 
large Creek ', but the Village is inconfiderable. The 
Swedes had however' a Chnrch- here not long ago. 
Between this and the next Creek is Newcafile Town y 
froni' whence the adjoining County takes its Name. 
'Tis inhabited hyEnglifi and Dutch, and is the next 
Town for Bignefs and Trade to Philadelphia, contain- 
ing j 00 Families. Here's a Church built, and a Con- 
gregation, moft of;whichareW^/A ; Mr. Rcfs was 
lately Minifter. The Dutch have a Church in this 

Next to it is St. George's, then Blackbird Creek*, 
and over againft it lies a little Iflaai& caJl'd Road Ifland, 
in the Delaware, where there is in that Place 10 Fa- 
thom Water. Apaquamany Creek is honour'd with! - 
the Name of a River. There's another Creek, fo call'd, 
and they are diftinguifti'd from one another ly the 
Name of North and South. The Inhabitants have built a 
Church, but 'tis not endow'd or fupply'd with a Mi- 
nifter- Palling by Bombay s Point, and Duel Creek, 
we come to Kent County ; in which are Cranebrook, 
Dover, Murdtn, 2lM Mifpellivin Creeks. At Do- 
veris a Church ox England Congregation-, the Mini- 
fter, Mr. Thomas Crawford, who has 50 /. a Year, 
paid' by the Society. In the Bay of Delaware, which 
is here about 7 Leagues over, Cedar Creek is by fome 
dignify'd with the Name of a River. 'Tis the firft 
in Sitjfex County, where we find Plum Point and Lew- 
is Creek. ' ; 

The Villages hereabouts are very -thin, the Enghfi 
inhabiting that part of the Province that lies on the 
upper Rivers v and their Settlements in Penfyl- 
vania, the Dutch and Swedes have made very little or 
no Progrefe" in their Plantations, whereas the Englijh 
Have encreas'd fo much, that there are now above 
25000 Souls of that Nation in this Colony ', and their 
Numbers are yearly augmented. About three Miles 
below Lewis s Creek is the Line of Partition, which di- 
vides Penfylvania from Maryland. The Society of Ad- 
venturers we mall have Occafion to fpeak of hereafter, 
had a Whalerysmr Lewis's Town, but this will more 
properly be meniion'd, when we come to treat of the 
Trade of the Place, " ; 



1 $6 / Tfe Hiftory of Penfylvanla. 

We mall avoid needlefs Repetitions ; and when we 
have given the Reader an Idea of the Indians in any 
one Part of America, of the Soil, Climate,- and Trade, 
if that Idea will ferve for any other, we fhall be 
1 glad to fave him the Trouble of reading it under an- 

other Article. But tho 'tis probable, the New-Tork 
and Virginian Indians have a great deal of. Agreement, 
as to their Language, Manners, and Cuftoms, with 
thofe of Fenfylvania, as the Climate and Soil of the 
latter agree, with thofe of Virginia and New-York ', yet 
we having a very- particular Account of thsfc things 
written by Mr. Pen himfelf, in a Letter, dated the 
1 5th of Augufi, 1^85. at Philadelphia, 'twill' not be 
unwelcome to the Curious, to fee what he has faid of 
this Country. To which we fhall add, what others 
have alfo written, or told us, as far as we could de- 
pend on their Authority. 
Climate We fhall begin with the Climate and Soil, and treat 
and Soil, firft of the Climate. We fee by its Latitude that 
'tis at a like Diftance from the Sun with Naples in Ita- 
ly, and Montpellier in France. The Air is Tweet and 
clear, the Heavens ferene, and Mr. Pen, who had teen 
thQ Southern Parts of France, compares the Face of 
them in Penfyhania to that in thofe Provinces. The 
Fall begins about the 24th ofOtlober, and lifts till the 
Beginning of December, being like a mild Spring in 
England. Frofty Weather and extream cold Seafons 
have been known there, as in the Year 1681. but the - 
Sky was always clear, and the Air dry, cold, piercing, 
and hungry. The River Delaware was then frozen 
over, tho it is near two Miles broad at Philadelphia. 
From March to June the Spring lafb, without Gvfis of 
Wind, refrefn'd with gentle Showers, and a fine 
Sky *, but the Weather there, as well as in England, 
is more inconftant than in the other Seafons. The 
1 Heats are, extraordinary in the Summer Months, July, 
Auguft, and September, but mitigated by cool Breezes. 
TherWind is c South-Weft during the Summer, but 
generally North- Wefterly, Spring, Fall, and Winter. 
If Eafterly or Southerly Winds raifes Mifts, Foggs, 
or Vapours, in two Hours tjme they are blown 

The Soil of this Tratt of Land is various : In fome 
Places 'tis a yellow and black Sand s poor and rich \ 


the Hipry of Penfylvania. i $f 

in others, a loomy Gravel j in others, a faft fat 
Earth, like the Vales in England, efpecially by Inland 
Brooks and Rivers, where the Lands are generally three 
to one richer than thofe that lye by Navigable Rivers. 
There's alfo another Soil in many parts of the Pro- 
vince, as a black Hazel Mould on a Stony bottom. 
The Earth is not only fruitful and fat, but eafy to 
be clear'd, becaufe the Roots of the Trees lye almoft 
on the Surface of the Ground. \ 

We have already obferv'd how Penfylvania abounds Xivcrh 
in Rivers, the Waters of which are good, both the 
Rivers and Brooks having gravelly and ftony Bottoms. 
There are alfo Mineral Waters, that operate in the 
fame manner with thofe of Barnet and North-baa. 
Thefe Springs are about two Miles from Philadel- 

The Natural Produft of the Country, of Vegetables, Produft* 
are Trees, Fruits, Plants, Flowers. The Trees of Trees. 
moft Note are the Black Walnut, Cedar, Cyprefs, 
Chefnut, Poplar, Gumwood, Hickory, SafTafras, Am, 
Beech, and Oak of feveral forts, as Red, White and 
Black, SpaniJI) Che'ftnut, and Swamp, the moft dura- 
ble of all. Here are fome excellent Shrubs, as Shu- 
mack, Snakeroot, SafTaparella, Calamus Arramatktu % 
Jallop and Spruce Cranberries. 

The Fruits that grow naturally in the Woods, are Frmtsi 
' the White and Black Mulberry, Cheftnuts, Wall- 
nuts; Plums, Strawberries, Hurtleberries, and Grapes 
of feveral kinds. The great Red Grape, call'd the 
Fox-Grape, is commended by Mr. Pen \ and he thinks 
it would make excellent Wine, if not fo fweet, yet 
little inferior to Frontiniac *, it rafts like that Grape, 
but differs in Colour. There's a White kind of Muf- 
cadel, and a little Black Grape, like the Clufter-Grape 
in England. Peaches are prodigioufly plentiful in this , 
Province, and as good as any in England, except the 
JSfcmngton Peach. ' ' r 

The artificial Produce of the Country is Wheat, <■"». 
Barley, Oats, Rye, Peafe, Beans, Squames,Pumkins, 
Water-Melons, Muf-Melons, Apples, , Pears, Plums, 
Cherries, Apricocks, Carrots, Turnips, Parfnips, 
Cabbiges, Colworts, Potatoes, Radifties as bigg as 
Parfnips, Onions, Cucumbers •, as alfo Quinces, Cur- 
rants, Indian ^Corn, Hemp, Flax, and Tobacco, ct 
Which more hereafter, As 




*5 § 

The Hiftwj of Penfylvania. 

As to the Fertility; of the Soil, this Inftance of it is 
fufficient to prove it : One Mr. Edward Jones , whofe 
Plantation, was on the Schoolkill in the Infancy of the 
Colony, had, with ordinary Cultivation, for one Grain 
CifEnglijb Barley, feventy Stalks and Ears of that Corn. 
'Jis common from one Bumel fown here. to reap 
m 40, often 50, and ibmetimes 60. Three Pecks of 
*" Wheat fovvs an Acre. \ 
'Animals. Of Living Creatures, Fifh, Fowl, and Beafts of 
• • ihQ Wood, there are divers forts, fome for Food and 
Profit, and fome (or Profit only. For Food as well as 
Profit, are the.Eik, as big as a fmall Ox,- Deer bigger 
than ours in .England, Beaver, Racoon, Rabbits, 
Squirrels j and fome eat young Bear, and commend 
it,; but 'tis likely their Tafis are as barbarous as their 
Food. Here's Plenty of Oxen, Cows, and Sheep, in- 
;fomu,ch that fome Farmers have 3 and 400 int at 
tlpck. The Creatures for Profit only, by Skin or 
Fur, or for Carriage; and Sale, are the Wild-Cat, 
Panther, Otter, ,Wol£, Fox, Fimery Minx, Musk- 
Rat •, and, o to 'name the nobleft laft, Horfes, fome 
very good and fhapely enough, which are exported to 
Barbadoes , and is one of the befl Merchandife 
fhip'd off from hence for that, or the other Sugar 
Fowl. Of Fowl. Here is; the LandTurtle, (40 or $d 

Pound Weight) PBeafants, Heath-Birds, Pidgeons, 
Palridges, and Black- Birds in fuch "Flocks, that they 
See Will, even darken the' Air. A certain Inhabitant of the 
Bradford'** Province writes,, JhatPidgeons fettle in fuchprodi- 
Letter, gious Multitudes, wey make the large Arms of 'Frees 
prmted in bend ready to break, and more have been kill'd at a 
I< ^^5» Shot, than there .were Corns of Shot ' in the-Veice. Of 
Water-Fowl, here, are Sw^ns, Geefe, White and Grey, 
Brands, JQucks, and Teal, Snipe, and Curleus in 
great Numbers j but tliQ Duck and Teal excel any of 
their kind in other Countries* 
PJh. . This, as well as other American Provinces, abounds 

with Fifh, which the Bay and River of Delaware 
-moft plentifully iupply them with. Sturgeon, Her- 
rings, Roch, Shat, Catshead, Sheepshead, Eles, 
Smelts, and Pearch are caught in Abundance 
in the Bay, and in the River below the. tirefbes y and 
Trout in the Inland Rivers. Qyfters, Qrabbs,Cockl es, 


The Hiftory of Penfylvania. 1 59 

Conks, and Mufcles are plenty here. Some Gyfters 
are 6 Inches long, and Cockles as big as Stewing- 
Oyfters,, with which a rich Broth is made •, but we 
hope the Labour, Temperance, Continence, Health 
and Virtue of this People render the ufe of fuch Broths . 
very rare. ' Whale-Y'iftmg has been attempted here 
by the Society, of which I fhall lay more in its due 
Place : A Company of Whalers were employ'd,Whales 
caught, and Oyl made •, but that Trade was of no 
long Continuance, it being found to be expenfive and 

There are divers Medicinal Plants to cure Swel-Ptow. 
lings, Burnings, Cuts, &c. and feveral that fmeJl 
very pleafantly, as the Wild Mirtle and others. 

The Woods .-are adorn'd with Flowers, excel- flowers* 
lent both for Colour, Greatnefs, Figure, and Va- 
riety. . 

■1 The aneient Inhabitants of this Territory comelndians. 
next to be treated of. The Indians are generally 
tall, ftreight, w r ell-built, and of lingular Proportion. 
Of Complexion black, but by Defign, as the Gypfies 
in England- They anoint themfelves with Bears Fat 
clarify 'd:, and ufing no Defence againft the Sun "or 
Weather,- their Skins are fwarthy. Their Eye is 
little and black. As to their Fates, Mr. Ten fays, 
The thick Lip and flat Nofe 7 fo frequent with the Eaft- 
Indians and Blacks, are not common to them *, for J have 
feen as comely European-//^ Faces among them of both 
Sexes, as on cur Side the Sea j and truly an Italian Com- 
plexion has pot much more of the White, and the Nofes 
of feveral of them have as much of the Roman. 

Their Language is lofty, yet narrow \ the Accent 
and Emphafis of fome of their Words are Great and: 
Sweet, as Oclorockon, Rancocas, Orifton, Shakameron, 
Poquejjm, all Names of Places, and very foundings 
Then for Sweetnefs, there are their Anna Mother, 
JJfimus Brother, Netap Friend, Vfque Oret very good,* 
Pone Bread, Metfe Eat, matt a no, hatta to have, pay a - 
to come. Tamane, Secane, A4enanfe, Secatereus, the 
Names of Perfons. Their Phmfe -for / have kok is. 
Mm a ne hatta, not I have. 

* As to their Manners and Cuftoms, they warn their" 
Children in Water as ibon as born, and plunge them* 
pften in the Rivers while they are young, to hardens 




160 The Hiftorycf Penfylvania. 

them. They wrap them up in a Clout, and lay them 
on a (height thin Board, a little more than the 
Length or Breadth of the Child, which they fwaddle 
faft on the Board to make it ftreight : This is the 
Reafon that all Indians have flat Heads. Thus they 
carry them at their Backs. At nine Months End 
the Children commonly go. They wear only a fmall 
Clout round their Waft, till they are big. The Boys 
' fiih till they are fifteen, then they hunf, and ha- 
ving given fome Proofs of their Manhood by a good 
Return of Skins, may marry, elfe 'tis a Shame to 
think of a Wife. The Girls live with their Mothers, 
help hough the Ground, plant Corn, and carry Bur- 
thens-, and, fays my Author, They do well to ufe them 
to that youngy which they mujl do when they are old ? 
for the Wives are the true Servants of the Hmbandsy 
otherwife the Men are very affectionate to them. Wo- 
men marry at 13 or 14? Men at 17 or t3. Their 
Ho'ufes are Matts, or Barks of Trees fet on Poles, like 
an EngliJIi Barn, out of the Power of the Winds, for 
they are hardly higher than a Man. They lye on 
Reeds or Grafs. When they travel, they lodge in 
the Woods, about a great Fire, with the Mantle of 
Duffil's they wear by Day wrapt about them. Their 
Food is Indian Corn, which they drefs feveral ways, 
Beans- and Peafe, Fleih and Fifh out of the Woods 
and Rivers. They treat the Europeans, who come 
among them, very civilly, and give them the bed 
. Place and firft Cut. They fit moftly on the Ground, 
' clofe to their Heels, their Legs upright ', and after 
having faluted their European Vifiters or Vifiter with 
an Itahy or Good be to you 7 perhaps fay not a Word 
more, but obferve all Paffages. They are pleas'd if 
you give them any thing, but never beg *, and it 
they are not ask'd to eat, go away fullenly. 

They conceal their Refentments as much as they 
can, and are fuppos'd to do it on Account of the Re- 
venae that has been praftis'd among them •, for in both 
their Refentments and their Revenge they are not ex- 
ceeded by the Italians •, an Inftance of which happen'd 
while Mr. Pen was in the Country : A King s Daugh- 
ter thinking her felf flighted by her Husband, in luf- 
fering another Woman to lie down between them, 

role up, went out, pluck'd a Root 

out of the' 

The Hiftory of Penfylvank. 
Ground, and eat it, upon which (he immediately 
dy'd. Her Husband made an Offering to [her Kin- 
dred according to Caftom, for an Atonement, and 
Liberty of Marriage. At the fame time two other 
Husbands did it to the Kindred of their Wives that 
dy'd a natural Death : For till Widowers have thus 
aton'd, they muft not marry again. Some of the 
young Women fell their laft Favours before Marri- 
age, to raife Money for a Portion \ but after they 
are marryd, they remain chaft, and never admit 
their Husband's Embraces when they are with Child* 
In the Month they touch no Meat, and eat with a 
Stick, left they fhould defile it, nor admit their Huf- 
bands till that Time is expir'd. 

May not (omQEuropean Wives learn of thefe Barbd- 
rians \ and is it not Vanity in any one People to call 
another barbarous, becaufe their Cuftoms differ;? 
They are very liberal, infomuch that if an European. 
gives any of them a fine Gown or Coat, it may pafs 
twenty Hands before it flicks. They are the merri- 
eft Creatures living, feafting and dancing perpetu- 
ally. Wealth circulates like Blood among them; 
all Parts partake; yet they are exaft Obferversof 
Property. They covet little, becaufe they want but 
little. If they are ignorant of our Pleafures, they 
alfo know nothing of our Pains. Their Hunting, 
Fifhing, and Fowling feed them, and their Sports are 
their Subfiftance. They eat twice a Day, Morning 
and Evening. Their Seats and Tables are on the 
Ground. They have learnt Drunkennefs of the Eu- 
ropeans, and are wretched Obje&s when drunk. 
When they are fick they drink a Teran, or Decocti- 
on of fome Roots in Spring- Water ; and if they eat 
Flefh, it muft be of the Female of any Creature. 
They have a great Opinion of Cold Baths and Sweat- 
ings : An Inftance of which we mail report, it being 
very extraordinary, and the Truth of it is not to be 
queftion'd \ for the Gentleman who told it to us, 
was the very Perfon that faw it. Mr. Pen, in the 
Year 1683. travelling into the Back Countries, to 
make Difcoveries, came to a Wigwam, where the 
Captain General of that Nation liv'd -, for they have 
fuch an Officer, befides their Sachem or King, who 
commands the Army, and leads them to Battle; 
M The 



1 62 The Hiftory of Penfylvania. 

The Captain General kappen'd to be at that time ill 
of a Fever, and was about to try their ufual Remedy 
to cure himfelf. His Wife to that end had prepar'd 
a little Bagnio upon the Ground, without Doors, 
into which he crept. This Bagnio was like an Oven ' 7 
and his Wife, to heat it, put leveral great hot Stones 
on each fide of it, which gave the Man an extream 
Sweat, while he fat or lay along in this Oven or 
Bagnio. She made a Hole through the Ice of the Ri- 
ver, it being frofty Weather, and the Bagnio on the 
River's Bank. This Hole or PafTage fhe dug with an 
Axe, the Ice being very thick. When the Paffage 
was prepar'd, the Man came out of his Oven, the 
Drops of Sweat running down his Face and Body, 
leapt into th@ River, and duckt himfelf twice. He 
then crept through his Oven, and (o went to his 
Wigwam, where laying himfelf down by a Fire, 
he gradually cool'd himfelf, and was afterwards as well 
as ever. 

Thus far we have told this Story, to fliew what O- 
pinion the Indians have of Sweating and Cold Baths : 
The remaining part of it is to give the Reader 
an Idea of their Manners and Underftanding •, and 
Being afTur'd by Mr. Pen himfelf, that tile following 
Relation is true, we recommend it as fuch to the 
."World, for we cannot have better Authority. 

Wliile the Captain General was in the Bagnio, he 
JSrft fang all the Acls of thz Nation he was of, to divert 
him from the Troublefomenefs of th* Heat j then 
thofe of his Anceftors, who were Nobles and Gene- 
rals in the Country } and laift of all, his own. After 
which he fell into this Rhapfody : What is the Matter 
with its Indians^ that we are thus fick in our own Air y 
and thefe Strangers well i "Its as if they were Jent hither 
to inherit our Land in our fleeds •, but the Re of on is plain, 
they love the great God, and we do not. A Reflecti- 
on very furprizing in a Barbarian *, but Mr. Pen 
heard it, and atteiled it to be Matter of Facl: to the 

If they die, rhey are bury'd, Men or Women, 
with their Apparel } and ins neareit of Kin throw 
fome valuable Thing into their Graves, as Tokens of 
their Love. Their Mourning is blacking of their 
Faces, which they continue a whole Year. They 


The Hiftory of Penfylvania. 
are nice in the Choice of the Graves of their Dead \ 
for, left they fhould be loft by Time, they pick off 
the Grafs that grows upon them. They believe a 
God and Immortality, faying, There it a great King, 
who made them, who dwells in a glorious Country, to the 
Southward of them', and the Souls of the Good Jb all go 
thither, where they /hall live again. 

Their Worfhip confifts of Sacrifices and Songs, 
They feaft one another in Harveft-Time, and invite 
the Europeans fometimes. Mr. Pen was at one of their 
Entertainments, on a green Bank by a Spring, un- 
der fhady Trees. There were 20 Bucks kill'd, with 
hot Cakes of new Corn, Wheat and Beans, which 
they make up in a fquare Form *, then they dance. 
Thofe that go to thefe Feafts muft carry a fmall Pre- 
fent in their Money *, it may be fix Pence, which is 
made of the Bone of a Fifh : The Black is with them 
as Gold, the White as Silver *, and they call it all 

Their Government is by Kings or Sachems, and 
chofe by Succeffion, but always of the Mother's fide, 
yet no Woman inherits. The Reafon they render 
for this way of Defcent, is, that their Iliuemay not 
be fpurious. Every King has his Council, confifting 
of all the old and wife Men of his Nation, which per^ 
haps is two Hundred. Nothing of Moment is under- 
taken, be it War, Peace, felling of Land, or Traf- 
fick, without advifing with them j and which is more s 
with the young Men too. y Tis admirable, fays my 
Author, to confider how powerful the Kings are, and 
how they move by the Breath of their People. And in 
thofe Monarchies where the true Ends of Govern- 
ment are maintain'd, no Power will be thought too 
much for the Prince, nor no Privileges too great for 
the People. The Simplicity of thefe Indian Monar- 
chies give us a better Idea of the Origin of Power, 
than all that the Filmers, the Lejleys^ and the infa- 
mous Supporters of Tyranny have fhewn us in their 
Sophifiical A r gu m e n ts. 

Their Juftice is pecuniary ^ in cafe of any wrong or 
evil Fa&, be it Murder it lelf, they atone by Feafls 
and Prefents of their Wampum \ which is prooortion'd 
to the Quality of the Offence, or Perfon injur'd, or 
of the Sex they are of: For in cafe they kill a Wo- 
M 2 man, 

6 3 


164 The Hifiory of Penfylvania. 

man, they pay double •, and the Reafon they render, 
is, That Jhe breeds Children, which Men cannot do. 
This Argument is as falfe as Ample , for fhe could not 
breed them if a Man did not get them, and his Life is 
therefore as valuable as the Woman's. They feldom 
fall out if fober , and if drunk, they forgive it, fay- 
ing, It was the Drink? and not the Man that abus'd 

Mr. Pen believes them to be .of Jewijb Race, but 
that Suppofition is too chimerical, and we mould not 
much mend the Matter, if we repeated the Argu- 
ments that fome make ufe of to vindicate this Conje- 

Their Way of living is fimple, butnafty •, and we 
fhould wonder if they had learnt any Delicacy of the 
New Comers. They have been very civil and friendly 
to the Englifo, who never loft Man, Woman, of 
Child by them ; which neither the Colony of Ma- 
ryland nor that of Virginia can fay, no more than the 
great Colony of New-England. This Friendfhip and 
Civility of the Penfylvanian Indians are imputed to" 
Mr. Fen, the Proprietary's extream Humanity and 
Bounty to them, he having laid out fome Thoufands 
of Pounds to inftr utt, fupport and oblige them. There 
are 10 Indian Nations within the Limits of his Pro- 
vince } and the Number of Souls of thefe Barbarians 
are computed to be about 5000. 

We have met with very few Events relating to this 
Colony : They have had no Wars either with the 
Indians or French, and confequently little Action has 
happen'd here. Mr. Pen having obtain'd the before- 
mention'd Pattenr, invited feveral Perfons to pur- 
chafe Lands of them, as he, itfeems, purchas'd of the 
Indians. The Swedes? who had eneroach'd upon the 
Dutch, thefirft Planters here, as well as at NewTork, 
fettl'd upon or near the Freftjes of the River Delaware, 
The Finns, or Inhabitants of Finland, were part of 
the SwedijJ) Colony, and they apply'd themfelves 
chiefly to Husbandry: The King of Sweden, to pro- 
tect his Subjects in thele Parts, appointed a Governour 
here, who had often Difputes with the Governour 
that prefided over the Dutch. The latter apply'd 
themfelves moftly to Traffick, living upon or near 
the Bay - 7 and by the Neighbourhood of Ncw-Tork 


The Hifiory of Penfylvania. 165 

were too powerful for the Swedes, who finding they 
cou'd not maintain their Ground, fubmitted to their 
ftronger Neighbours. Accordingly John Rising the 
Swedijh Governour made a formal Surrender of the 
Country, A. T>. 1*55. to Peter Styrefant, Governour 
for the States of Holland. After which this Province 
continu'd Cubjea to that Republick till the Engliih 
drove the Dutch out of New Amjierdam, or New 
Tork, and made the PofMion of thefe Territories 
eafy to Mr. Pen, when he had obtain'd a Grant of 
them : For both Swedes and Dutch are under his Go- 

There were a few Englifli here before this Gentle- 
man fent over the firft Adventurers under his Pat- 
tent ', their Governour was Col. William Mark- 
ham his Nephew, to whom both Dutch and Swedes Col. Wil. 
fubmitted •, and when the Lord Proprietary came M irkham 
thither himfelf, he fent this Character of them to D.pmyG^ 
England, ' They are a plain, ftrong, induftrious v ' rfJ0ur - 

* People, yet have made no great Progrefs in Culture 
''or Propagation of Fruit-Trees, as if they defir'd 

1 rather to have enough, than Plenty or Traffick. 

2 The Indians made them the more carelefs by fur- 

* niftiing them with the means of Profit, as Skins and 
c Furs, for Rum, and fuch ftrong Liquors. As they 
fc are a People proper and ftrong of Body, fo they 

* have fine Children, and almoft every Houfe full \ 
1 'tis rare to find one of them without three or four 

■* Boys, and as many Girls •, fome have fix, feven,and 

* eight Sons, and few young Men are more fober 
c and laborious. The Number of thefe Inhabitants 
of Swedijh or Dutch Extraction, may be about 3000 
Souls. Mr. Pen, before he went over to Penfylvania^ 
fold 26000 Acres to a certain Society, Mr. Nicholas 
Jlioor, Mr. James Claypool, Mr. Phillip Ford, and 
pthers ', who had a whole Street, and one fide of 9. 
Street, laid out for them in Philadelphia, and +00 
Acres of Land in the City- Liberties. This Society 
erected a Tannery, a Saw-Mill, a Glafs- Houfe, and 
a Whalery. They had a Prefident in London : Their 
Officers were a Prefident, Deputy, Treafurer, Agent, 
Secretary, Surveyor, 12 Committee-Men, Chirur- 
gions, Fadors, Clerks, Overieers, Meflengers, Por- 
fcers. Butchers, Water-men, Car-men, and other in- 
' r ? • ' Mi ferior 




The Hifiory of Penfylvania. - 

ferior Mechanicks and Labourers. And having men- 
tion 'd this Sale of 20000 Acres, 'twill not be impro- 
per to report what were the Proprietary's Conditions 
of Sale: Buyers purchas'd after the Rate of 20/. for 
a thoufand Acres, and 1 s. or the Value of it yearly, 
for 100 Acres. Renters were to pay 1 s. an Acre 
yearly, not exceeding 200 Acres ; and Servants were 
to have 50 Acres when their Times were expir'd, 
whether Men or Women. The Owner was alfo al- 
lowed 50 Acres a Head for fuchServants. 

We have hinted before, there were few Engli'fh 
When Mr. Ten went over to take on him the Govern- 
ment of his Province, which was in the Year i<r8i. 
He carry'd along with him, and there came to him 
in the firft Year near 2000 Souls, and before the New- 
Comers built Houfes, they ran up Huts for their Re- 
ception. Thefe Huts were generally 30 Foot long, 
and 1 8 Foot broad, with a Partition near the Mid- 
dle, and another to divide one end of the Houfe into 
two fmall Rooms. For this ufe they took eight Trees 
of about \6 Inches fquare, cut off ten Potts of about 
1 5 Foot long, upon which the Houfe flood, and 4. 
Pieces, 2 or 20 and 2 of 18 Foot long, for Plates to 
lay a-top of thole Pofts. They had 10 Giefis of 20 
Foot long, to bear the Lofts, and 2 falfe Plates of 30 
Foot long to lie on the Ends of the Giefls, for th&Eaf- 
tsrs to be fix'd upon. There were 12 Pair of Raf- 
ters of about 20 Foot, to bear the Roof of the Houfe, 
with Windbeams, Braces, Studds, &c. They us'd 
Clapboard for the Covering of the Houfe-Ends and 
Sides, and for the Loft ^ this Clapboard is riv'd 
Feather edg'd 5 k Foot long, and if well drawn, lies 
clofe and fmooth. They lin'd the Lodging- Room 
with it, and fill'd it up between, which made it very 
warm. The Lower Flowr was Earth, the Upper 
Clapboard. But thefe mean Dwellings ferv'd only till 
the Fenfyhanians were fettled a little : And then ha- 
ving fell'd their Trees, clear'd and cultivated their 
Ground, rais'd Stocks, and planted a great part of 
their Purchafes, they began to leave their Cottages 
for {lately as well as convenient Houfes, and to imi- 
tate the Inhabitants of the other Colonies in the 
Grandeur of their Buildings. As foon as Mr. Ten 
arriv'd, he enter'd upon Treaties with the Indian 


The Hiftory of Penfylvania. 

Kings to buy Land. The Natives being few, and not 
able to cultivate or defend a great Country, wmch 
the Englifh cou'd eafily have taken from them, were 
willing enough to part with their Lands for a (mail 
Confideration : Twenty Miles of Ground might have 
been purchas'd for a Trifle. But when the Er.glifli 
flock'd thither, thefe Indians were not fo ignorant, 
but they knew their Intereft, that :he Land would be 
wanted, and confequently worth more •, accordingly 
they rais'd the Price ten times as much as it was at 
firft. The Proprietary, in the Letter before-men- 
tioned, gives us an Account of the Audience he had 
of the King, which 'tis probable the Reader will be 
defirous to be acquainted with, there being tome- 
thing in it worthy his Curiofity : l I have had Occa- 
c fion, fays Mr. Pen, to be in Council with them, 

* upon Treaties for Landj and to admit the Terms 
1 of Trade, their Order is thus; The King fits m 
■ c the middle of an Half-Moon, and Was nis Council, 
s the Old and Wife, on each hand •, behind them>or at 
« a little diftance fits the younger Fry m the lame Fi- 

* gure. Having confulted and refolv'd their Bunneis, 

* the King commanded one of them to fpeak tome | 
c Heftood up, came to me, and in his King's Name 
1 fainted me, taking me by the Hind, and telling me, 
c He was ordered by his King to fpeak tome, and that 

* now it was not he, but the King that [poke, bee auje 
£ what he fhould fay was the Kings Mind. Hehrit 
c pray'd me to excufe them, that they had not com- 
1 ply'd with me in a former Meeting. He fear A there 
£ might be fome Fault in the Interpreter, being neither 

< Indian nor Englifh', be fides it was the Indian Cufrom 

< to deliberate before they refolve; and that if the young 

< People and Owners of the Land had been as ready as 
<■ he, I had not met withfo much Delay. Having taus 

< introduced his Matter, he fell to the Bounds ol the 
« Land they had agreed to difpofe of, and to the 

* Price. During the Time this Perfon fpoke, not a 
« Man of them was bbferv'd to whifper or .mile. 
c The Old were Grave, the Young Reverend in their 
« Deportment. When they fpoke, which was bud 

* feldom, 'twas warmly and elegantly, i havene- 
« ver feen more natural Sagacity, confidermg them 
.' without the Help of Tradition •, and he widde- 
" ■ ■ ■ ■■ M 4 • l *jE?f «? 






168 The Hiftory of Penfylvania. 

* fcrve the Name of Wife that is too hard for them in 
any Treaty about a Thing they under/land. When 
the Purchase was agreed, Great Promifes pajf fa* 
Ween us of Kmdnefs and good Neighbourhood, and 

* that the Indians and Englifl? muft live in Love as long 
as the Sun gave Light. After which another made a 
Speech to the Indians, in the Name of all the Sa~ 
chems or Kings, firft to tell them what was 
done, next to charge and command them, To love 

- the Chriftians, and particularly to live in Peace with 
me, and the People under my Government •, That ma- 

J ny Governours had been in the River, but that no Go- 
vernor had come himfelfto live and flay here before \ 

■ and having now fuch an one that had treated them 
well, theyjhould never do him or his any wrong. At 

* every Sentence of which they fhouted, and faid 
« Amen in their way. By Govemour living himfelf 
among them, they meant Proprietary ; For they had 
hadfeveral Dutch and Swedijfj Governours in Dela- 
ware River. The Land thus bought was enter'd up- 
on by the Under-Purchafers, who purchas'd by the 
ioo or the iooo Acres what the Proprietary bought by 
Miles. When the Country began to be a little plan, 
ted, almoft as far as the Bay's Mouth, 'twas laid 
out into the fix Counties we have ipoken of, which 
with the chief Towns or Villages chofe Reprefenta- 
tives in the AfTembly. For we muft obferve that by 
theConftitutiom in the Pattent, the Proprietary was 
impower'd, with the Con fen t of the People, to make 
any Laws for the Publick Good. Thefe Conftituti- 
ons were, That the Govemour and People have a Le- 
gijlanve Power, fo that no Law can be made, nor Mo- 
ney rats' d, but by the Confent of the Inhabitants i 
That the Rights and Freedom of England be in Force 
there ; That making no Law againji Allegiance, the Go- 
vernourand People might enaEt what Laws they pleas' d 
for the Good, Profperity and Security of the Province y 
&c. All the Inhabitants, as well Swedes and Dutch, 
as Englifl), were very well pleas'd with Mr. Pen's co- 
ming thither in Perfon, and the Foreigners receiv'd 
him with as much Joy and Refpeft as his own Coun. 
try-men. He held two General AJfemblies, and with 
loch Unanimity and Difpatch, that tho they fat but 
fhree Weeks, they part 7 o Laws without one DiG 

'• Ent 

The Htfiorj o/Penfylvania. 

fent in any material thing. They prefented the Pro- 
prietary with an Import on certain Goods imported 
and exported, which Mr. Pen very generoufly remit- 
ted to the Province, and the Traders to it : People 
now went from all Parts of England to Penfylvania - 7 
as from London, Leverpool, and Briftol efpecially. For 
the Weft of England abounding with DifTenters, and 
with a lewd Herd of Perfecutors, more than other 
Counties, they fhipt them felves in that Port in great 
Numbers for Philadelphia. In the Year 1^82. Mr, 
Thomas Goldney and Mr. John Duddleftone, two Tra- 
ders in that City, fitted out the Vnicorn, a Ship of 
300 Tuns for this Voyage, to carry Pa fTengers and 
Goods to the new Colony. The Enemies of which 
reported, Mr. Pen was not only dead, but that he 
dy'd a Jefuit, in his Government. Upon which Mr. 
Ford his Agent in England, gave publick Notice in the 
Gazette, of his being alive and in good Health. The 
Anfwer Mr. Pen wrote to his Friends when he heard 
what was reported of him, is very ingenious* / find 
fome Perfons, fays he, have had Jo little Wit, and fo 
much Malice, as to report my Death \ and to mend the 
Matter, dead a Jefuit too ! One might have reafonably 
hop'd that this Diftance, like Death, wou'd have been a 
Protection againft Spite and Envy ; and indeed Abfence 
being a kind of Death, ought alike to fecure the Name 
, of the Ab fent as the Dead, becaufe they are equally una- 
ble as fuch to defend themfelves. But they that intend 
Mifchief, do not ufe to follow good Rules to effect it. 
However to the great Sorrow and Shame of the Inventor s 9 
J am ft ill ahve^ and no Jefuit ; I perceive many frivo~ 
jous and idle Stories have been invented jince my Depar- 
ture from England, which perhaps by this time arena 
more alive than 1 am dead. He was vifited by the 
Kings, Queens, and Great Men of the Country, and 
fettled the Affairs of the Province with equal Wifdom 
and Difpatch. He eftablift'd Courts of Juftice in 
every County with proper Officers, as Juftices of the 
Peace, Sheriffs, Clerks, Conftables, &c. Which 
Courts were to be holden every two Months- But 
to prevent Law-Suits and Debates among this peace- 
able People, there were three Peace-makers chofen, 
by every County- Court, in the nature of common 
Arbitrators^ to hear and end Differences between 

• Mm 


I K" 


*'. II 


1 70 2%? Jf//?<?ry of Penfilvania. 

Man and Man *, and every Spring and Fall there's an 
Orphans Court in each County, to infpeft and regu- 
late the Affairs of Orphans and Widows. 

Things being thus fettled, the Colony thriv'd apace, 
and Merchants came thither to drive on a Trade with 
the Sugar Iflands, which is very advantagious \ for to 
thofe Iflands the Penjyhanians fend Corn, Beef, Pork, 
Fifh, Pipe-Staves, take their Growth, and carry it 
for England, and return with Englifl) Goods. Horfes 
and live Cattle they alfo export to the Southern Plan- 
tations, and fend their Furs to England, where, or in 
other Parts of Europe, they find a quick Vent. Here 
are other Commodities, as Hides, Tallow, Sheep, 
and Wool!, all in Demand in the Sugar Iflands. The 
Indians help them to their Furs, as Peltry, Minx, 
Racoons, and Martins •, with which profitable Trades 
this Colony flourinYd as much as any ♦, and Mr. Pen, 
before he came away, might mufter 2joo Fighting 
Men, there being above 6000 Souls in all, A. D. 1^84. 
lb much was the Colony encreas*d in his Time. Tis 
true, he carry'd over with him 2000 Souls in 18 or 
20 Ships, which was a noble Foundation for a Settle- 
ment, and fome of them were Perfons of Eftates, who 
fled from the Perfecution at home, to enjoy the Peace 
of their Confciences, and the Privileges of the 
Laws of this Province •, the Government of which 
was then a fort of Republick j and an excellent Form 
was drawn up by that Great Lawyer, Sir Will. Jones^ 
and other famous Men of the Long Robe. The Go- 
vernment was indeed, as that of other Colonies, 
by Governour, Council, and AfTembly ; but the 
Council was not nam'd by the Proprietary ', the In- 
habitants of every Shire chofe two or more for each, 
as they did Knights of the Shire : Neither had the Af- 
fembly Power to debate Laws, but the Conftitution 
gave them the negative Voice. The Governour and 
Council drew up what Laws they thought were for 
the Good of the Colony, and having drawn them up, 
affix'd them in a public k Place, where all the People 
might fee them, and judge of them, as to their Ne- 
ceflity or Convenience •, and the AfTembly, whom 
they chofe, pafs'd or rejected them arbitrarily, as the. 
Governour in other Provinces rejects or pafies Laws 
there ; fo that fee Conftitution of Penfylvania was at 
• ■■." & rft 

The Hiftory of Fenfylvania. 

firft Democratic al. Mr. Ten had all the Laws fo fram'd, 
that no Difference was made in Opinion^ where Property 
made no Difference. All Elections were by Ballot, 
and the Form of this Government, which was found- 
ed on what was excellent in the beft German and o- 
ther foreign Constitutions of Common-Wealths, was 
fuch, that every Man's Property, Privileges, and Li- 
berties, Spiritual and Temporal, were perfe&Iy fe- 
cur'd : But fuch is the Weaknefs of Human Nature, 
that being it felf imperfea, it cannot relifh Perfe&ion j 
and the nearer any thing approaches to it in this 
World, the more likely it is to difguft People. This 
Form was too fine for the heavy Intel) efts of fome of 
the grofs Vulgar. They valu'd themfelves, and with 
good Reafon in the main, on being EngUJbmen, and 
fcorn'd, as they faid, to give their Opinions and Votes 
in the dark ; they would do nothing which they durft 
not own, and their Fore-heads and Voices ftiould al- 
ways agree with one another. Thus they clamour'd 
againft that Part of the Constitution which feeur'd 
the reft, the Eleaion by Ballot, and never gave over 
clamouring till it was abolifh'd, and the firft Order 
of Government broken in upon in the moft efTential 
Parts of it. Upon which Fa&ions of courfe com- 
menc'd, and Difcontents and Tumults follow'd, to 
the great Difturbance and Detriment of the Colony : 
But this happening afterwards, ftiould alfo have been 
reported in a later part of this Hiftory, if we had 
not been defirous to give one View of this Constitu- 
tion, and of the Fate that attended it. 

Mr. Pen ftay'd in Fenfylvania two Years, and would 
not then have remov'd to England, had not the Perfe- 
ction againft the DifTenters rag'd fo violently, that 
he could not think of enjoying Peace in America^ 
while his Brethren in England were fo cruelly dealt 
with in Europe; He knew he had an Intereft in the 
Court of England, and was willing to employ it for 
the Safety, Eafe, and Welfare of his Friends 5 fo ha- 
ving made a League of Amity with 19 Indian Na- 
tions, between them and all the Enghfi) in America^ 
jiaving eftablilh'd good Eaws, and feen his Capital 
fo well inhabited, that there were then near 3 00 
Houfes, and 2500 Souls in it, befides 20 other Town- 
!hips 3 he return 'd to England^ leaving William Mark- 
;■'■ . 1 ■■ '•'■ « ■' r i i •:'•;;' •"*• •:'■' ham* 

Efa Pre* 


72 The Hifiory of Pcnfylvania. 

ham, Efg«, r Secretary ; Mr. Thomas Holmes, Surveyor 
General -, and the Adminiftration in the Hands of the 
Council, whofe Prefident was Thomas Lloyd, Efq", 
who by Virtue of his Office held the Government 
feveral Years, tho he had no Commiflion then to be 
Peputy or Lieutenant Governour •, Mr. Pen kept 
the chief Government always himfelf, as Lord Pro- 

What Service this Gentleman did the Quakers^ in 
King James's Reign, and how far that Prince gave him 
ins Ear, is well known to all that are acquainted with 
the Hiftory of thofe times, ftill frefli in our Me- 

Mr. Pens Enemies were very free of their Scandal, 
and ftuck at no Calumny to blacken him after the Re- 
volution. There was great Appearance of his having 
been a Favourite in the preceding Reign, and 'twas 
not likely; he mould be one in the next *, however, 
whether he was not too feverely dealt with to be treat- 
ed as an Enemy, let the impartial Reader judge. His 
Prerogative of appointing a Governour in Penfylvania 
was taken from him, and his Majefty King William 
Colmd the Hid gave a Commiflion to Col. Fletcher, to be 
Fletcher, Governour of this Province, about the Year 1690. 
Govenour which Poft he en joy 'd two Years, and then Mr. Pen, 
whofe Innocence of the things laid to his Charge 
began to be better known, , recover'd his Right of 
nominating a Perfon to govern his Colony, and he 
accordingly appointed Capt. Blackwell, who had been 
formerly Pay-Mafter of the Army in England, to be 
Deputy Governour of Penfylvania. This Gentleman's 
Son, Sir Lambert Blackwell, was lately Envoy ex- 
\ ! traordinary from her Majefty to feveral Courts in 

Captain Capt. Blackwell govern'd the Province with equal 
Blackwell, Prudence and Succefs*, it now thriv'd apace, itsCom- 
Covernow nierce and Inhabitants increas'd, and about this time 
ih& fenfylvanians began to fall a little into the To- 
bacco Trade, which is fo confiderable at prefent, 
that 1 4 Ships have been loaden with that Commodity 
from Penfylvania to London, and other Parts of Eng- 
land. ' 


The Hiftory of Penfylvania. 

i 7 j 

To Capt. Blackwell fucceeded Thomas Lloyd ',Efqy as Thomas 
Deputy Governour, and his Adminiftration prov'd as L l°y d >£/25 
fuccefsful as his Predeceflors. It had been doubtlefs deputy 
for the Intereft of the Colony, as well as for Mr.Pw's 6wrMSfj 
own Advantage, if he had refided upon the Place, and 
govern 'd the Colony himfelf. Factions perhaps would 
not have got to fuch a Head fo foon as they did. The 
Authority of a Proprietary might have reftrain'd the 
Iofolence of fome Bigots, and others, whofe Zeal is 
as blind as 'tis furious. 

Mr. Lloyd dying, Mr. Pen appointed his Nephew William 
Col. Markham to be again Deputy Governour of the „ 
Province, and he held the Government till the Lord Governour 
Proprietary arriv'd himfelf the fecond time at Pen- will. Pen, 
fylvania, which was in the Year 169$. Efqi G<h 

The Perfecution ceafing in England, the Quakers vernour, 
here found the Country began to be fettled by People, 
who came thither to mend their Fortunes, and not 
to enjoy the Liberty of their Confciences, for that 
they had at home. Thefe Men being of the Orthodox 
Religion of the Church of England, Presbyterians, and 
Anabaptifts, would have had a. Militia fettVd, but the 
Quakers beiftg the Majority, were againft it, their 
Principles not allowing them the ufe of Arms : How- 
ever, fuch as were of another Opinion, were allow'd 
to train themfelves, and take fuch Military Care, 
for their Defence, as confifted with the Peace of the 

Mr. Pen ftay'd here two Years, and then return'd 
to England, leaving the Colony in an extraordinary 
fiourifhing Condition. We muft not omit that he 
had a long Suit with the Lord Baltimore, for the 
South Eaftern Parts of his Province, call'd, 77* Three ' 
Lower Counties, New Cafile, Kent, and Sujfex, tf£it that 
Lord could make nothing of it. The Proprietary no- Co \ And 
urinated Col. Andrew Hamilton to be Deputy Gover- Hamilton! 
nour, and return'd to England in the Year 1 700. Deputy 

We have fpoken of this Gentleman in the Article Governour 
of the Jerfeys: Tis certain his Government gave 
Difcontent to feveral Leading Men in Penfylva- 
nia, all Parties there were in a Ferment, and 
Matters ran fo high, that we have been in- 
form'd they came to Executions •, but not ha- 
ving been able to learn the Particulars, we ftall be 




ijf The Hiftory of Penfylvania. 

filentt Whether this Man, by favouring the Ortho- 
dox, and thofe that Tided with them, provok'd theo- 
thers, who were the Majority, we cannot decide, 
but he feems to have difcharg'd his Truft unhappily, 
and not to have been very much lamented when he 
dy'd, which happen'd in the Year 1704. 

By thefe Diftra&ions, all Mr. Peri's firft and fine 
Conftitution was deftroy'd ; and this Province, like 
others, became govern'd by a Governour, Council, 
and AfTembly, each having much the fame Powers and 
Privileges with the Governours, Councils, and AC 
fern Mies of the other Colonies. 
On the Death of Col. Hamilton, Mr. Pen fent over 
Col. John Col. John Evans to be Deputy Governour, and he 
Evans, 2?e- was approv'd by the Queen ; for the Lords Proprie- 
ty Go- taries, all over America, are by a late At"l of Parlia- 
vcnmr. ment oblig'd to have rhe Royal Approbation for all 
the Governours they fend to America. 

We fhall not enter into any Enquiries into the Cau- 
fes of the Trouble that has been given Mr. Pen lately 
about his Province of Penfylvania \ it appears to us, 
by what we have heard of it from others, for from 
himfelf we had never any Information concerning it, 
that he has been involv'd in it by his Bounty to the 
Indians, his Generofity in minding the publick Affairs 
of the Colony more than his own private ones, his 
Humanity to thofe that have not made fuitable Re- 
turns, his Confidence in thofe that have betray'd him, 
and the Rigor of the fevereft Equity \ a Word that 
borders the near eft to Injuftice of any. 'Tis certainly 
the Duty of this Colony to maintain the Proprie- 
tary, who has laid out his All for the Maintenance 
of them, in the PoiTefiion of his Territory, and the 
Publick in Gratitude ought to make good what they 
reap the Benefit of. This is all faid out of Juftice to 
the Merit of this Gentleman, without his Know- 
ledge, otherwife 'twould have been without his Con- 

In the Geographical Defcription of this Province we 
have made (ome Omiflions, which from better Infor- 
mation we fhall now correct. 

The Province properly call'd Penfylvania confifts 
only of the three Upper Counties, Buckingham, Phi- 
ladelphia, and Cbejier 7 for no more are within the 


The Hifiory of Penfylvanial 
Grant made by King Charles to Mr. Pen \ and the 
Length of that Country is about iyo or 200 Miles, 
as we have faid already ; but then there are the Three 
Lower Counties, Newcajlle, Kent, and Sufiex? 
which Mr. Pen enjoys by a Grant from the Duke of 
Tork, for they were within his Pattentofivw-2or£, 
the Jerfeys, &c. But being granted to the Proprieta- 
ry of \Kq Upper Counties, he includes them within 
the fame Government. Neverthelefs he has a Right 
to make them a feparate Government if he jtfeates, 
holding them by a feparate Charter. 

The three upper Counties, or Penfylvania, proper- 
ly fo cali'd, end at Marcus Hoot, 4 Miles below Che- 
ften The Three Lower Counties run about 12a 
Miles along the Coaft, and are about 30 Miles deep 
towards Maryland. 

The Marines "on the Bay of Delaware are as com- 
modious and fertile as any in the World, notwith- 
ftanding this Diftin&ion of Upper and Lower, fince 
all fix Counties are under one Government, have 
the fame Lord Proprietary, and the fame Gover- 
nour, they are commonly cali'd by the fame Name, 
and are known to the World by the general Appellati- 
on of Penfylvania. We fhall treat of them in Order, 
in this Addition to our other Obfervations, as they 
ftand from Weft to Eaft, beginning with the Falls 

The whole Country within Mr. Pen's Grants, 
from the Falls Towr:Jhip, and higher, to 20 Miles be- 
low Cape Hinlopen, or Cape William, is in Length 
about 330 Miles, and in Breadth 200. The firffc 
County we come to, travelling from the Falls to the 
Mouth of the Delaware, is, 

Buckingham-County, where the firft Town is cali'd, 
the Falls Townjbip, and confiftsof 20 or 30 Houfes. 
Next to it is, 

Brijioll, the Capital of the County, confifling of 
about 50 Houfes, lying over againft Burlington, in 
Wefi New-Jerfey. ' Os famous for the Mills there of 
(everal forts, built by Mr. Samuel Carpentar, an emi- 
nent Planter in the Country, formerly a Barbadoes 
Merchant It lies about 20 Miles from Philadel- 



i 7 6 The Hifiory of Penfylvank. 

Tennsberry is a Manner belonging to William Ven y 
Efq* the Lord Proprietary, who has built a very fine 
Seat' there, both in its own Nature and Situation, as 
well as in its Improvement. The Ld. Cornbury, when he 
was Governour of New-Tork, (he being remov'd from 
that Government fince our writing the Hiftory of 
that Province, and the Right Honourable the Lord 
Lovelace put in his Place) vifited this Mannor, and 
was extreamly pleas'd with the Houfe, Orchards and 
Gardens. Tis feated in a treble Wand, the Delaware 
running three times about it. The Houfe is built 
with Brick, and ftandshigh and dry, having it A- 
cres of very good Orchards, producing better Pare* 
mam and Golden -Pippins than any in England, by 
the Confeffion of good Judges here-, for Mr Pen 
brought fome of them with him to England. There 
are 10 or 12 Townjbips more in this County, 
which fends 6 Members to the Aflembly •, one of 
whom, Jofeph Crowded Efq', is at this time their 
Speaker. He has been very mftrnmcntal in 
planting and fettling this County V for which, and 
many Sther things, it is very much indebted to his 
Care and Services. Next to it is, 

Philadelphia County, where the firft Town we 
come to, is EranZlford already mention d. Tis as 
big as Briftol, and well kilt. As to the City of, 

Philadelphia, we have in the former Part of this 
Chapter or Head, difcours'd of it at large •, to which 
we have only to add, that the Streets there are very 
broad, and their Names denote the feveral forts of 
Timber that are common in Penfylvama : As Mulber- 
rv-fireeu Saffafrasfireet, Chefnut-ftreet, Walwt-ftreet, 
Bach-ftreet, ' ' Ajb-fireet, Vine-fireet Cedar-ftreet 
There are others * as, King-fire et, Broad jheet, Htgh- 

fir The Court-Houfe is built of Brick, and under it is 
a Prifon* There are feveral Houfes on the Keys, 
worth each 4 or 5000 Pounds, and 15 Ships have 
been on the Stocks at a time. Tis fuppos d 1 00 Ships 
have been built in this City. The Cellars or Ware- 
houfes upon the Keys are made into the River with 
great Induftry, and fome of them are 3 ^ Stones high 
This City is now in a flounlhing State Here :are 
two Fairs a Year, and two Markets a Week The 

The Hi /lory of Penfylvania. 

Buildings encreafe Yearly, and it has the Honour to 
[end Members to the AfTembly, which meets here, as 
has been elfewhere obferv'd. 

Abington and Dublin are two pretty little Towns 

2 »i -V"? , Count y h b «t the moft confiderable next to 
Philadelphia, is, 

German Town, a Corporation of High and Low 
Dutch. There are above 200 Houfes in it. Peach- 
Trees are planted all along before the Doors, which 
in the time of Bloom make a beautiful Road for a 
Mile together. The Town is very pleafant and airy, 
being wonderfully clear'd from Trees. In this 
County, and on the other fide of the River Schoolkill 
is the 

WelJb-TraEl, con/ifting of about 40000 Acres of 
Land, planted by Weljhmen, or at leaft laid out to 
them. This Traft is thick of Town (hips : as Radnor 
before-mention'd, Haverford Weft, Merioneth, and 
others. Tis very populous, and the People are very 
indufrrious } by which means this Country is better 
clear'd than any other part of the County. The In- 
habitants have many fine Plantations of Corn, and 
breed Abundance of Cattle, infomnch that they 
are look'd upon to be as thriving and wealthy as 
a u y r£ the Province: And this muff always befaid of 
the Weljh, that where-ever they come, 'tis not their 
Fault if ; they do not live, and live well too •, for 
they leldom fparefor Labour, which feldom fails of 

Mountjoy, in this County, is a Mannor belonging 
to a Daughter of Mr. Pen, the Proprietary, and in 
this Mannor the firft Lime-Hone was dug that ever 
was found in America. 

The County of Philadelphia is remarkable for its 
excellent Gravel, which is very rare to be met with 
on all the American Continent. It fends 6 Members 
to the AfTembly. The next County to it is 

Chefier-County, fo call'd, becaufe the People who 
tirlt iettl'd here, came for the moft part from Chejhke 
in England. The firft Town in it is Newton: Tis 
fmall, and confifts not of above 20 or S o Houfes. 
There are others a great deal bigger, as, 




■ I 

178 The Hiftory of Penfylvania. 

Chefter, the Capital of the County, confifting 
of above too Houles. Here's a very good Road 
for Shipping : , the whole Navy Royal might ride 
here-, the Delaware, on which it (lands, being 
in this Place three Miles over. Here is aCourt- 
Houfe and a Prifon, but neither of them com- 
mendable for the Finenefsof the Struaure. Here's 
alfo a Church, as has been already obferv'd. Next 

Chichefter, built on a navigable Creek, fo call'd. 
It confifts of about 100 Houfes. Concord is another 
Town in this County, where are feveral other Town- 
fhips, and the Country is well planted. Four Miles 
below Chefter is Marcus Hook, the Boundary of the 
Three Vpper Counties, properly call'd Penfylvania, 
becaufe foterm'd in Mr. /Wsfirft Grant. But the 
Three Lower Counties go alfo by that Name. The 
County of Chefter fends * Members to the Affembly. 
The next to it is, 

Newcaftle County, m which is a Hill , call d 
Iron Hill, from the Iron Ore found there. 
The Mill before-mention'd is a Miftake, there be- 
ins none ereded for that life, as we can under- 
ftand upon later Enquiries. The Capital of this 

°Newcaftle, is finely feated and built upon the Dela- 
ware \ it ftands high. The Dutch were the hrit 
Planters in this Neighbourhood, and the firft Inhabi- 
tants of this Town, which they call'd Amftel-, from 
Amftel, the River that gives Name to Amfteldam, or 
Amfterdam, the Capital City oith^Vnlted Provinces. 
Here is a Court-Houfe, and 2500 Souls are computed 
to inhabit here. , e 

Philpot Creek is fo large, that the Royal Fleet or 
England might ride there. St. George's is a pretty 
Village, 10 Miles below Newcaftle. There s ano- 
ther Townfhip, call'd Apaquamany. The Country 
within 12 Miles about the Capital of this County, 
North and Weft, is the proper Signiory of New- 
caftle. There are 6 Members chofen in this County 
for the Affembly. The next is, 

Kent County, very fruitful, but not fo well plan- 
ted as the others. , Dover is its Capital. Twas for- 
merly call'd St. Johns. Tis thin of Houfes, and 

The Hifiory of Penfylvania. 
itf n &. C °^ ft even now of ab °ve 30 or 40 Fami 

Bay isVl* iSw* " the Mouth of Afaw» 
S's'UoC tfafe % C ^ ***** * nd " 
Bounds ofThe Provbte ifT/v ^ fa »» e ™°ft 
this Cape takes SmL/ f*^* T» faid, 

Firfti in ^okt^ZknoZ fefr the 
not well difcover'd Kn °wn, but the Country 

was at Cape William Whalery we fpoke of 

Members to the Aflenibly " fends fix 

cou^Vwet^ £!»*« J*.*' * Ac 
Penfylvama, which m« U 'M Inf °™»tion of 

^ 1 ^ a SSi r isl^ , for " ci " Shire 
adminiftred. Thi fa ro,?„? eqaentIy and «®>l«iy 
Miles upon the^S^dft? run along 20 S or ,J 
fir as they are oE • ^ an <* backwards, as 
Miles. y Panted ' m <° nie "aces above jo 

« te P-tic^opriet^^ lY^ County, 
fiftof Aople of anX , y Wj he Inh i bitt "ts con! 

W 2 they 




igo The Hiftory of Penfylvania. 

they are by much the Majority, as the Englijh are 
of all the other Nations. And the Englifa Dutch, 
Swedes. French, Indians, and Negroes in the Pro- 
vince of Penjylvania, may modeftly be computed at 
35000 Souls. c , 

Tho we have already made fome mention of the 
Climate and Soil, yet having fomething to add by 
further Enquiry, we (hall do it in this Place. 

The Summers here are not much hotter than 
in England, at leaft not for above one Week -, when 
the Heat is fenfibly more violent. The Earth a- 
bounds in Mines, Samplers of moft forts of Ore 
having been taken up in every County, and no Coun- 
try in the World is better ftor'd with Rivers and 
Creeks, moft of them navigable for Ships of Bur- 
then, and all of them for fmallGraft. 

Tho not above a thirtieth Part of this Province is 
inhabited or planted, yet 'tis clear'd every where 
more than the other Parts of America m Pofleffion ot 

We^maii conclude what we have to fay on this 
Head, with a fhorr, but clear Account of it, abitra- 
£led from a Letter the Proprietary, Wtlham Ven, 
Efq*, did the Kiftorian the Honour to write him. 

' We confume about 18000/. yearly oiEn^iJb 
<• Growth, and return of our Produaions diredtly, 
« and bv way of the Iflands, what augments the Ke- 
* venue of the Crown 50000 Pound. The High- 
< lands of Virginia md Maryland are very prohtabie 
one*, having moderate Hills, and large Vales, 
full of Springe and little Rivers, emptying them- 
felves into the two great Rivers, Safquebanagh and 
Delaware ; where Ships of the largeft Burthen 
may ride. Its Length is about 300 Miles; its 
Breadth 200. All Provifions are reafonable, but 
Labour dear, which makes it a good poor Mans 
Country -, Husbandmen and Mechanicks getting 
15 and 20/. Wapes per Annum for their Work, 
befidesDief, fuch as Carpenters, Smiths, Joiners, 
Taylors* Shoe-makers, Cart-wrights, and Husband- 


The Hiftory tf Penfyivania. 


By which the Reader may fee, that the Tempta- 
tion for People to go thither, to mend their For- 
tunes, to live pleafantly and plentifully, is fo great, 
that 'tis not to be doubted but this Province will get 
the ftart of all the other Englifh Settlements on the 
Continent of America. 

We fhall conclude this Hiftory and Account of 
Penfylvania, with a Lift: of the chief Officers of this 

The Proprietary of PenfyhanU, William 
Pen, Efquire. 

The Lieutenant-Governour, Col. John Evans. 

Edward Shippen, Efq} 1 

Sam. Carpenter, Efq-, 
William Trent, Efq} 
Thomas Story, Efq} 
Richard Hill, Efq} 
William Rodney, Efq: 
KaUhPeufy, Efq} 
James Logan, Efq} 

Speaker of the AfTembly, Jofeph Growden, Efq} 
Mafter of the R6Us, Thomas Story, Efq} 


> Members of the 
i Council. 

William Clark, Efq} 
Edward Shippen, Efq} 
Jofeph Growden, Efq} 
William Guejt, Efq} 

£ Judges. 

Judge of the Admiralty, Col. Robert Quarry, 
Treafurer, Samuel Carpenter, E(q} """ 
Secretary to the Government, James Logan., 

Attorney General, R,Lowther, Efq} 
Regifter, Peter Evans, E% 




182 The Hifiory of Penfylvania. 

* Surveyor General lately, Mr. Edward Terming* 

Clerk of the Peace for the } 
Town and County of >Robert Afljton, Efqj 
Philadelphia. J 

I i. 

* This Office is novo manag'i by the Vnder-Surveyors , aceowr 
tdle to the Secretary, 

T H t 

M : 



o F 




Containing an Account of its Difcovery^ 
Settlement, Progrefs, andprefent State. 

THIS Province was always reckon'd a Part of 
Virginia, till the Year 1531. when King 
Charles made a Grant of it to George Cal- 
vert, Lord Baltemore, of which we have 
made fome mention in the Hiftory of Virginia ; when 
and by whom 'twas difcover'd, will there be feeru 
George Lord Baltemore not living to fee his Grant 
made out, his Son Cecilim Calvert, Baron of Baltemore 
in the Kingdom of Ireland, took it out in his own 
Name, and it bears Date the 20th of June, r6$2. 
We cannot better afcertain the Bounds of this Coun- 
try, than by making ufe of the Words of the Pattent. 
-Tit all that Part of a Peninfula, lying between the Ocean, 
m the Eafi, and the Bay of Chefeapsak on the Weftl 
N 4 am 


l0 4 The Hifiory of Maryland. 

and divided from the other Part by a Right Line drawn 
from the Cape called Watkins Point, (fituate in the afore- 
J aid Bay near the River of Wighco) on the Weft, unto 
the mam Ocean on the Eaft, and between that Bound on 
the South, -unto that part of Delaware Bay on the North, 
which lies under the ±oth Degree of Northern Latitude, 
&c. And all that TraB of Land from the aforefaid 
Bay of Delaware, in a right Line by the Degree afore- 
faid , to the true Meridian of the firfi Fountain of the 
River Patowmeck, and from thence tending towards 
the South, to the farther Bank of the aforefaid River, 
and following the Weft and South Side of it to a certain 
Place call'd Cinquaek, fituate near the Mouth of the 
faid River, where it falls into the Bay of Chefeapeak, 
and from thence by a fir eight Line to the aforefaid Cape 
calVd Watkins Point, &c. 

The King himfeif, when he fign'd the Pattent. was 
pleas'd to give this Province the Name of Maryland, 
in Honour of his belov'd Wife Henrietta Maria, 
Daughter of Henry the IVth of France, The Lord 
Baltimore held it of the Crown of England, in com- 
mon Soccage, asofhisMajefty's Honour oi Windfor, 
holding and paying yearly for ever two Indian Ar rows 
of thole Parts at the Caftle of Windfor. The Power 
of this Proprietary is as Sovereign as that of any in 

Maryland lies between 3 7 and 40 Degrees North 
Latitude, is bounded on the North by Penfylvania, 
Eaft by Delaware Bay and the Atlantick Ocean, 
South by Virginia, from whence 'tis divided by the 
River Patowmeck, and Well: by the Indian Na- 

The Lord "Baltimore having obtain'd this Grant, 
refolv'd to go thither in Perfon ', buf afterwards 
changing his Mind, he appointed his tocher i>o- 
nard Calvert, Efq-, to goGovernour in his Head, with 
whom he join'd in Commiilion Jeremy Hawley, Efq} 
and Thomas Cornwallis, Efq^ The firit Colony that 
was Tent to Maryland, was in the Year 1^33, and 
confifted of about 200 People. The Chief of thefe 
Adventurers were Gentlemen of good Families, anc| 
Roman Cat ho licks ; for Perfon s of that Religion bdng 
made uneafy in England, as well as Proteftant Dif- 
^enters, they tranfoorted themfelves to this Province s 
* • ' ' ' ' v ' k°ping 

The Hifiory of Maryland, 
hoping to enjoy there the Liberty of their Confiden- 
ces, under a Proprietary of their own Profeflion, as 
the Lord Baltimore was. Thefe Adventurers fail'd 
from Cowes in the Ifle of Wight the 2 2d of November, 
and having ftop'd at Barbadoes a.nd St. Chrifiophers 
fometime, arriv'd at Point Comfort in Virginia, the 
24th of February following. The Names of the prin- 
cipal Perfons among them were as follows : 

Leonard Calvert, Efq*, Governour. 

fc&, } MR 

Geo. Calvert, Efqy Brother to the Governour. 

Richard Gerard, Eiqj 

Edward Winter, Efq", 

Frederick Winter, Elqj 

Henry Wife man, Eiqj 

Mr. John Saunders. 

Mr. Edward Cranfield. 

Mr. Henry Green. 

Mr. Nicholas Fairfax, 

Mr. John Baxter, 

Mr. Thomat Dorrel. 

Capt. John Hill. 

Mr.JohnMedcalfe, and 

Mr. William Saire. 

They carry'd Letters in their Favour from his Ma- 
jefty to the Governour of Virginia, who treated them 
in his Province with great Humanity. On the 3d of 
March they left Point Comfort, and came to Patowmeck 
River, which is about 24. Leagues diftant. The Go- 
vernour caii'd the South Point of the River St Grego- 
ries, and the North Point St. Michaels. Sailing up 
Patowmeck 1 4 Leagues, they came to Heron Ifland, 
and anchor'd under a neighbouring Ifle, to which they 
gave the Name of St. Clements. Here Mr. Calvert? 
in his fuperftitious Way, let up a Crols, and took 
PofTefiion of the Country for our Saviour, and for 
our Sovereign Lord the King of England. Me went 
4 Leagues higher up the River, with two Pinnaces, 
to make Difcoveries *, and landing on the South Side ? 
found the Indians were fled for Fear. Thence he 
fail'd 9 Leagues higher^ and came to Patowmeck 





86 The Hiftory of Maryland. 

Town, where the Werowance being a Child, Ar- 
ehihau his Uncle govern'd his Territories in his Mi- 
nority, and receiv'd the Englijh in a friendly manner. 
From Patowmeck the Governour went to Pifcattaway, 
about 20 Leagues higher, where he found many In- 
dians afleinbled, and among them an Englijh- 
man, Captain Henry Fleet, who had liv'd there feve- 
ral Years in great Efteem with the Natives. Capt. 
Fleet brought the Werowance or Prince aboard the 
Governour's Pinnace, to treat with him. Mr. Cal- 
vert ask'd him, Whether he was willing he and his 
People fhould fettle in his Country, in cafe they found 
a Place convenient for them. The Werowance re- 
ply 'd, I will not bid you go, neither will I bid you ftay y 
but you may ufe your own Dtfcretion. The Indians find- 
ing the Werowance ftay'd aboard longer than they 
expected, crowded down to the Water-fide, to look 
after him, fearing the Englijh had kill'd him, and they 
were not fatisfy'd till he fhew'd himfelf to them to 
appeafe them. The Natives who fled from St. Cle- 
ments Ifle, when they faw the Englijh came as Friends, 
return 'd to their Habitations :, and the Governour not 
thinking it advifeable to fettle fo high up the River, 
in the Infancy of the Colony, fent his Pinnaces down 
ths River, and went with Capt. Fleet to a River on 
the North Side of Patowmeck, within 4 or 5 Leagues 
of its Mouth, which he call'd St. George's River. He 
went up 4 Leagues in his Long-Boat, and came to the 
Town of Toamaco j from whence the Indians of that 
Neighbourhood are call'd Toamacoes. The Governour 
landed, and treated with the Werowance there, ac- 
quainting him with the Occafion of his Coming •, to 
which the Indian {aid little, but inviting him to his 
Houfe, entertain'd him very kindly, and gave him his 
own Bed to lie on. The next Day he fhew'd him the 
Country •, and the Governour determining to make 
the firft Settlement there, order'd his Ship and Pinna- 
ces to come thither to him. To make his Entry the 
more fafe and peaceable, he prefented the Werowance 
and Wifos, or principal Men of the Town, with fome 
ILngVJh Cloth, Axes, Houghs, and Knives, which they 
accepted very kindly, and freely confented that he 
sind his Company fhould dwell m one Part of their 
iown, referving the other for them felves. Thofe 


The Hiftory of Maryland. 
Indians, who inhabited that Part which was affign'd 
th e Englijh, readily abandon'd their Houfes to them, 
and Mr. Calvert immediately fet Hands to work to 
plant Corn. The Natives agreed further to leave the 
whole Town to the Englijh as foon as their Harveft 
was in, which they did accordingly, and both Indians 
and Englijh promis'd to live friendly together. If any 
Injury was done on either part, the Nation offending 
was to make Satisfaction. Thus on the 2 7th of March, 
i6$±. theGovernour took PofMion of the Town, 
and nam'd it St. Maries. 

There happen'd an Event, which very much facili' 
tated this Treaty with the Indians. The Safquehanoch, 
a Warlike People, dwelling between Chefeapeak Bay 
and Delaware Bay, were wont to make Incurfions on 
their Neighbours, partly for Dominion, and partly 
for Booty, of which the Women were rnoft defir'd by 
them. The Toamacoes fearing thefe Safquehanocks, 
had a Year before the Englijh arriv'd refolv'd to defert 
their Habitations, and remove higher into the Coun- 
try *, many of them were actually gone, and 'the 
reft preparing to follow them. The Ship and Pin- 
naces arriving at the Town, the Indians were amaz'd 
and terrify'd at the Sight of them, efpecially when 
they heard their Cannon thunder, when they came 
to an Anchor. 

The firft thing Mr. Calvert did was to fix a Court 
of Guard, and erect a Store-houfe •, and he had not 
been there many Days, before Sir John Harvey, Go- 
vernour of Virginia, came thither to vifit him, as did 
feveral Indian Werowances, and many other Indians 
from feveral parts of the Continent : Among others 
came the King of Patuxent, and being carry'd aboard 
the Ship then at Anchor in the River, was plac'd be- 
tween the Governour of Virginia and the Governour 
of Maryland, at an Entertainment made for him and 
others. A Patuxent Indian coming aboard, and fee- 
ing his King thus feated, ftarted back, thinking he 
was furpriz'd ', he would have leap'd over-board, and 
could not be perfwaded to enter the Cabbin, till the 
Werowance himfelf came and fatisty'd him he was in 
no Danger. This King had formerly been taken 
Prifoner by the Englijh of Virginia. After the Store* 
fooufe wasfinifh'd, ant] the Ship unladsn, Mr. Calvert 





M The Hiftory of Maryland. 

order'd the Colours to be brought afhore, which was 
done with great Solemnity, the Gentlemen and their 
Servants attending in Arms •, feveral Volleys of Shot 
were fir'd a Ship-board and a-fhore, as alfo the Can- 
non, at which the Natives were ftruck with Admira- 
tion, fuch at leaft as had not heard the firing of Pieces 
of Ordnance before, to whom it could not but be 

The Kings of Patuxent and Toamaco were prefent at 
this Ceremony, with many other Indians of Toamaco j 
and the Werowance of Vatuxent took that Occafion 
to advife the Indians of Toamaco to be careful to keep 
the League they had made with the Englifh. He ftay'd 
in the Town feveral Days, and was full of his Indian 
Complements : When he went away he made this 
Speech to the Governour * 7 / love the Englifh fo well^ 
that if they jjjould go about to kill me •, if I had fo much 
Breath as tofpeak, I would command the People not to 
revenge my Death :, for I how they would not do fuch a 
things except it were through my own Vault. 

This Infant Colony fupply'd themfelves with Indian- 
Corn at Barbadoes, which at their firft. Arrival they 
began to ufe, (to fave their Englifh Store of Meal and 
Oat-meal.) The Indian Women perceiving their Ser- 
vants did not know how to drefs it, made their Bread 
for them, and taught 'em to do it themfelves. There 
was Indian Corn enough in theCountry,and thefenew 
Adventurers foon after fhip'd off ioooo Bufhels for 
New England, to purchafe Salt Fifh and other Provi- 
fions. While the Indians and Englifh liv'd at St.Maries 
together, the Natives went every Day to hunt with 
the new Comers for Dear and Turkies, which when 
they had caught, they gave to the Englifh, or fold 
for Knives, Beads, and fuch Trifles. They alfo 
brought them good Store of Fifh, and behav'd them- 
felves very kindly, fuffering their Women and Chil- 
dren to come among them, which was a certain Sign 
of their Confidence in them. 'Twas a great Advan- 
tage to the firft Colony in Maryland, that they took 
Pofleflion of a Town, about which the Ground was 
ready clear'd to their Hands, which gave them an 
Opportunity to plant Corn, and make Gardens, 
where they'fow'd Engl'fj Ss^ds, and they thriv'd 
wonderfully. They were very jnduftrious to build 


The Hiftory of Maryland. 

Houfes, for they found only Huts ^ but before they 
could acconiplifh thofe things to their Satisfaction, 
Capt. Cleybourne, one of the Council oi Virginia^ (who 
had in view to engrofs all the Trade of thofe Parts 
to himfelf) threw out Words among the Indians^ 
which gave them Caufe to fufpecl: that the Adventu- 
rers who came to Maryland were not what they pre- 
tended to be, EngliJJmen, but Spaniards, and Enemies 
to the Virginians. The Natives were fo fimple as not 
to fee he impos'd on them, as they might have foon 
found out by the Liken efs of the Englljh in Maryland 
to thofe in Virginia, as well in their Garb and Cu- 
ftoms, as their Language and Trade •, yet fuch was 
their Stupidity, that they took what Cleyboume infi- 
nuated for Truth, and grew fhy to the Englijh at St. 
Maries. The latter alarm'd at this Alteration in 
their Carriage, thought of being on their Guard, and 
gave over building Houfes to let all Hands to work 
towards erecting a Fort, which was finifh'd in 6 
Weeks time, and mounted with Ordnance. After 
that they renew'd their Labour about their Houfes, 
and in a Year or two's time there were 50 or 60 at St. 
Mary's Town : Butthe Humour of Plantations has fo 
far hinder'd its Progrefs, that there are not many 
more even atthis*Day. 

The new Comers furnifh'd themfelves with Hogs, 
Poultry, and fome Cows, from Virginia, and the 
Country was fettled with fo much Eafe, and fo many 
Conveniences, that it foon became populous and flou- 
rifhing *, for feveral future Companies went thither, 
and chiefly Perfons of the Romiff) Church, as has been 
hinted. The Country of Toamaco being clear'd en- 
tirely of the Natives, the Englijh planted it, and the 
Governour gave the River the Name of St. George's. 
Thofe that fettled here firft were taken with a Di- 
ftemper fomewhat like an Ague, which they call'd 
a Seafoning, of which for fome Years many dy'd, 
for want of good looking to, and through their own 
ill Conduct •, but fince the Country has been more 
open'd, by the cutting down of the Woods, and that 
there is better Accommodation of Diet and Lodging, 
with the Improvement of the Inhabitants Knowledge 
in applying phyfical Remedies, very few dieofthefe 
Seasonings :, and fome that come over from England^ 
or elfewhere, never have them at all, The 





19© The Hifiory of Maryland. 

The Government of this Colony, when it begari 
to grow more numerous, was fram'd much after the 
Model of that in England. The Governour had his 
Council in ths Nature of the Houfe of Lords, and 
Privy-Council in England j and when the Country 
was divided into Counties, each had Reprefentatives 
in theAfTembly of the Province, and thefe Reprefen- 
tatives form'd the Lower Houfe *, the Upper Houfe 
confifting of the Governour and Council, and fuch 
Lords of Mannors, and others, as the Lord Proprie- 
- tary, or his Lieutenant, from time to time fhall call 
thither by Writ. This AlTembly the Proprietary, 
or his Deputy, conveen'd, prorogued, or diflblv'd at 
Pleafure j and their A&s being ratify'd by the Pro- 
prietary, or his Deputy, were of the fame Force 
there, as an A£t of Parliament is in England, and 
cannot pafs, or be repeal'd, without the concurring 
Aflent of the Lord Proprietary, or his Deputy, with 
the other two Eftates. 

Next to this Legiflative Court was erected the Pro- 
vincial Court, which is holden every Quarter in the 
City of St. Mary's, This is the chief Court of Judi- 
cature, where the moft important judicial Caufes are 
try'd , of which, in the Abfence of the Lord Propri- 
etary, the Lieutenant, or Governour and Council, 
are J udges. This Court is for the whole Province - 7 
but for each particular County there are other infe- 
riour Courts, which are held fix times in the Year, 
in each of thefe Counties, for Trial of Caufes not rela- 
ting to Life, nor exceeding the Value of 5000 Weight 
of Tobacco, with Appeals from them to the Provin- 
cial Court. 

Having mention'd the Counties in this Province, 
we muft obferve, that as the Number of the Inhabi- 
tants encreas'd, Mr. Calvert, the Governour, thought 
fit to divide the Country into Shires j of which 
there were at firft but io, as j on the Weft-fide of 
the Bay of Chefeapeak, and 5 on the Eaft-fide. Thofe 
on the Weft fide were St. Mary's, Charles, Calvert, 
Ann Arundel, and Baltimore •, to which has lately 
been added Prince George County, which makes the 
whole 1 1 in all. Thofe on the Eaft fide were, and 
ftill are, Somerfet, Dorchejier, Talbot, Cecil, and 
Kent Counties. There were Tqwns laid out in each 


The Hiftory of Maryland, 
of them, but they never came to Perfection; and for 
the fame Reafon that there are no Towns in Virginia, 
which the Reader will find in the following Pages. 

The Governour built a Houfe in St. Mary's for 
himfelf and SuccefTors, and govern'd the Country 
till the Diftra&ions happen'd in England, when the 
Name of a Papift became fo obnoxious, that 'twas not 
likely the Puritans, who were then uppermoft, 
would leave any Power in the Hands of a Roman 
Catholick. The Parliament aflum'd the Government 
of this Province into their own Hands, and appointed 

■ • Efq^ to be their Governour here*, but 

upon the King's Reftoration the Lord Baltimore re- 
cover'd the Right of his abfolute Propriety *, and a- 
bout the Year 1 662. fent over his Son Charles Cal- 
vert, Efqj the prefent Lord Baltimore, to be his Go- 
vernour *, and Mr. Calvert liv'd there almoft twenty 
Years, a long time after his Father dy'd, and his 
Title and Eftate fell to him. By his Wifdom and 
Prefence this Colony flourifh'd apace, and there were 
computed to be 1 5000 Souls in Maryland, fo long a- 
goasthe Year 1665. 

All the Indian Nations about this Province fubmit- 
ted to the Lord Proprietary of Maryland, and put 
themfelves under his Protection : So that in the Year 
15^3. one JVaocoJfo, who was chofen Emperor of 
Vifcattaway (that is, he was advanc'd to an Office of 
more Authority than the reft of the Indian Kings 
or Werowances) was not thought to be abfolute- 
ly confirm'd, till Mr. Charles Calvert, now Lord 
Baltimore, approv'd of their Choice. 

The Lord Baltimore was at a vaft Expence to bring 
this Province to its prefent Perfe&ion -, and allowing 
for his Partiality to the Roman Catholicks, which in a 
great meafure helpt to lofe him the Government of 
it, he behav'd himfelf with fo much Juftice and Mo- 
deration, while he kept the Power in his own Hands, 
that the Inhabitants liv'd eafily and happily under him. 
They flourifh'd, and encreas'd in Number and Rich- 
es, He procur'd an Aft of AfTembly, for Liberty of 
Confidence to all Perfons who profefs Chriftianity, 
thoof different Perfwafions. By which means Pro- 
tcftant Diifenters, as well as Papifts, were tempted 
to fettle there 7 and that Liberty having never been 

*9 2 



The Hiftory of Maryland, 
infring'd in any manner, is a fevere Refledion on thofe 
pretended Proteftants in other Colonies, where Dif- 
fenters have been opprefs'd •, while here, under a 
Popifh Proprietary, they enjoy'd all the Rights, Li- 
berties and Privileges of Englishmen, as far as the 
Laws permitted them. .X.'.'r* 

Butnotwithftanding all hisLordftup's Care to pre- 
vent any Rupture with the Indians, when they were 
at War with the Virginians, they committed fome 
Hoftilities in the Year 1*77. on the Eaft-fide, and 
kill'd 4. Men and a Woman near Nomam, which put 
the Colony in Fears of further Mifchief; however 
that Cloud blew over, thofe that did the Mifehief were 
punifh'd, and no more Blood was fhed in the Quar- 
rel While the Lord Baltimore hv'd here, he marry d 
one of his Daughters to Col. Diggs, a Gentleman of 
the Country, of great Intereft in it, and a confedera- 
te MercSt or Fatter alfo But when the Lord Pro- 
prietary remov'd to England, he did not appoint him 
to be Deputy, but put in another Gentleman, whofe 
Name we have not been able to learn, nor that of his 
SuccefTor: In whofe Time the Government .of Eng- 
land took from the Lord Baltimore that .of Maryland. 
And we muft obferve, King James II intended to 
take it from him before the Revolution, mftigated to 
it bv Father Peters. What Reafon that Jefuit had to 
do the Lord Baltimore fueh a Differvice, we know 
not, and would have thought the Agreement between 
Father Peters and this Lord in Religion, might have 
irifiuene'd the Prieft more in his Favour. But tis ve- 
rt Certain, that he was the firft Inftrument of the 
Lord Proprietary 'slofing the Government, and per- 
haps the Court might think, that as much as the 
Paoifts. were favoured in Maryland, they might hope 
for more Favour from a Proprietary of their own 
perfecting Principles. The Lovd Balnmre might 
£ve expend more than Juftice from a King of his 
own Religion-, yet his Pattent was then queftion d, 
and 'tis ftppos'd' the Prerogative of naming a Gover- 
nor wouldhave been -ken from him, * Kin|7«£ 
had not abdicated his own Government. After the 
Revolution, this Lord had no Reafon to look for 
any thing but ftrift juftice^ for 'twas known, he 
was not a little zealous in oppofing it. . 

The Hiftory of Maryland. 

King William the Hid, of glorious Memory, being 
fettl'd on the Throne, the Steps that were taken for 
annexing the Government of Maryland to the Crown 
in King James's Reign, were with much more Reafort 
continu'd * ? and after a long and expenfive Difpute at 
the Council-Board, the Lord Baltimore was depriv'd of 
that part of his Power, and the King appointed Sir 
Edmund Andros to be Governour of Maryland, who 
call'd an AfTembly, which in the Year \6gi. paftan 
Aft to recognize King William land Queen Mary's 
Title ', and there having been great Confufion in the 
Courts of Judicature, by Reafon of the Alteration in 
the Conftitution of the Government in Maryland, an 
Acl: part, to make all the Proceedings at Law valid, 
except where there were any Errors in any Procefs 
and Pleas. It provided alfo, that the Year 1 690, and 
1691. mould not be accounted, concluded and meant 
in the Statute of Limitations. 

We find Sir Edmund Andros did not aft Co inoffen- 
fively as might be wifh'd in a Governour : For when 
Col. Francis Nicholfon, whom King William appointed 
to fucceed him, came to the Government, in the 
Aft which paft to eftablifti and ratify all Aftioris, 
Suits, Caufes, and Proceedings in all Courts, &c, 
and all Officers Civil and Military, for, in, or by 
reafon of any legal Afting or Proceeding in their re- 
fpeftive Offices and Stations, from theAccefs of Sir 
Edmund Andros, to the then Governour, Francis Ni- 
cholfon, Efq-, his Arrival, any Claufe, Imperfeftion, 
or want of Authority in the faid Sir Edmund Andros, 
or Jiis Commiffion notwithftanding, there is this Pro- 
vifo ', Provided nothing in this AEhfhalljujlijy Sir Edm. 
Andros\f taking and difpojing of the Publick Revenues, 
or debar the Ajjembly, or any other F erf on, of their Right 
or Claims to the fame. 

The Government of this Province is now the fame 
With that of the other Colonies, which are immedi- 
ately under the Crown *, by a Governour made by 
the King or Queen, a Council nam'd by the fame, 
and an AfTembly chofen by the Eleven Counties. 
The Lord Proprietary ftill enjoys the Profits of the 
Province, arifitig by certain Revenues granted to him 
by feveral Aflemblies -, as a Duty on each Hogfhead 
of Tobacco exported, and other Incomes-, which 
O with 


1 94 The Hijtory of Maryland. 

with the Sale of Lands uncultivated, and unpurchas'd, 
amount to a confiderable Sum yearly j and the Duty 
of Tobacco encreafing, as that Product encreafes, 
'tis probable that Revenue will one Day rife to a very 
great Sum. Befides this, the Lord Baltimore has a 
large Plantation at Mettapany , and in the whole, his 
Eftate and intereft in this Province are very well 
worth his Care to maintain them. 

About the Year 1692. the Lord Bifhop of London 
appointed Dr. Thomas Bray to be his Com miffary in 
Maryland. That Doctor went over thither to fettle 
the Churches, according to the Rites and Worfhip 
of the Church of England. For by an Aft of Aflfem- 
bly in the fame Year, the Eleven Counties were divi- 
ded into thirty Parifhes, fixteen of which arefupply'd 
with Minifters, who have a competent Maintenance 
fettl'd upon them, with Glebes, and other Advanta* 
ges. Libraries are fix'd, and many thoufand practi- 
cal and devotional Books have been difpers'd among 
the People, by the ailiduous Care of Dr. Bray y who 
ftaid there 2 or 3 Years. 

Befides thefe Churches, are feveral Chappels, and 
the Number of Papifts and DifTenters are not incon- 
fiderable. Mr. George Macqueen, and Mr. Robert 
Keith, have been employ'd by the Society for propaga- 
ting the Gofpel in foreign Parts, to advance that good 
Work here •, but 'tis faid the Quakers and Papifts e- 
qually obftruEh it. 

A very ingenious Man, who was in this Province 
in Col. Nicholfras Time, fends this Account of the 
State of it to the Royal Society : c The Inhabitants of 
c Maryland are govern'd by the fame Laws as in En- 
1 glandi except that they have fomeAfts of AfTembly, 
6 relating to particular Cafes, not provided for by the 
c Laws of England. The Church of England is pret- 
4 ty well eftablifh'd among them: Churches are 
£ built, and there's an Annual Stipend allow'd to e- 
c very Minifter. by a perpetual Law j which is more 

* or lefs according to the Number of Taxables in each 
1 Pariih. Every Chrifcian Male 1 6 Years old, and 

* Negroes Male and Female above that Age, pay 40 
1 Pound of Tobacco to the Minifter j which is levy'd 
c by the Sheriff among other pablick Revenues j and 
6 this makes the Revenues of the Minifters, one with 

< ano- 

The Hiftory of Maryland. 

* another, about 20000 Pound of Tobacco, or 100/. 

* Sterling a Year. It has been the Uahappinefs of 

* this Country, that they nad no Proteftant Minifters 

* hardly among them till Governour Nicholfon's time 
' (who has been a great Promoter and Encourager of 

* the Clergy) but now and then an itinerant Preacher 
c come over, of very loofe Morals, and fcandalous Be- 

* haviour : So that what with fuch Mens ill Examples, 
' the Roman Priefts Cunning, and the Quakers Bigo- 
c try, Religion was in a manner turn'd out of Doors. 
c But by Col. Nicholfon's Protection, the Face of it 

* mended, and the Orthodox Churches were crowd- 

* ed as full as they could hold. The People grew 
1 fenfible oftheRomiJb Superftition, and the Enthufi- 
' aim of the Quakers : Infomuch that their Parties, 
1 joining now both together, are very inconfiderable 
1 to that of the Church of England. Indeed the Qua- 
c kers ftruggle hard to maintain their Footing ; and 

* their Teachers (e(pecially of the Female Sex, who 
c are the moft zealousj are very free of their Refle- 
c iftions and Scandal againft the Orthodox Divines 

* and ProfefTors. The People here have not yet found 
c the way of afTociating themfelves in Towns and 

* Corporations, by reafon of the Fewnefs of Handi- 
4 crafts-Men. There are indeed feveral Places alot- 
c ted for Towns, but hitherto they are only titular 
c ones, zxceptj4nnapolis •, where the Governour refides 
1 Col. Nicholjon has done his Endeavour to make 

* a Town of that Place. There are about 40 Dwel- 

* ling Houfes in it, 7 or 8 of which can afford a good 
c Lodging and Accomodations for Strangers. There 
c are alfo a State-Houfe, and a free School, built 
1 with Brick, which make a great Shew among a 

* Parcel of Wooden Houfes*, and the Foundation of 

* a Church is laid, the only Brick Church in Mary- 

* land. They have two Market Days in a Week ; 
1 and had Governour Nicholfon continu'd-therea few 

* Years longer, he had brought it to Perfeaion. 
Col. Nicholfon mightily promoted the Advance- 
ment of Religion in this Province, as did his Succef- 
for Col. Nathaniel Blacliflon, with whom the Coun- 
try, tho healthy in its felf, did not agree, and he was 
forc'd to return to England for the Recovery of his 
health; In whofe ftead her Majefty was pleas'd to 

P 2 make 


ff ' 




196 The Hiftory of Maryland. 

make Col. William Seymour Governour of this Pro : 
vince *, who in Sept, 1 703 . embark 'd aboard the Dread- 
nought Man of War, which, with others, was appoin- 
ted to convoy the Virginia and Maryland outward 
bound Fleet , but being feparated from the reft by 
ftrefs of Weather, the Governour put into Barbadoes 9 
where he arriv'd the 2d of February. The Ship was 
forc'd off the Coafts of Maryland by contrary Winds, 
and did not arrive in the Bay till April or May, \ 704. 
So that Col. Seymour was near 8 Months in his Voy- 
age, which is commonly made in 6 Weeks. This 
Governour has given general Satisfaction to the Inha- 
bitants, and is indeed a Man of Honour, worthy the 
Poft her Majefty has been pleas'd to continue him in 
to this time. 

It cannot be expected that we ihould be able to 
give as perfect an Account of every Colony, as we 
havedone of New-England, Virginia, Carolina, Bar- 
badoes, and fome others. Our Helps have not been 
at all equal, tho our Application has. Thofe Gentle- 
men to whom we apply'd, who could have given' us 
full Information, and negleaed it, are to anfwer for 
what is imperfect in this Hiftory of Maryland', which 
is however the largeft that has been publifh'd ; and 
had we been better fupply'd with Memoirs, we mould 
have given a better Account of this Colony, which 
we confefs deferv'd it. The Gentlemen concern'd in 
it will excufe us, when we tell them we have done 
our beft, and in another Impreflion mail enlarge in 
our Hiftory of Maryland, if they will tranfmit us 
Materials, to enable us to do it. We kept this Ac- 
count backward, in hopes of fuch Afliftance •, and 
perhaps thefe Gentlemen will be as angry with them- 
felves as with us, when they fee how induftrious we 
have been in the Hiftories of thofe Countries, that 
we were fully inform'd about, and what a Figure 
they make in the BritiJI) Empire in America, where 
Maryland is far from being the leaft conliderable 
Portion of it. Tis true it does not encreafe much in 
Towns, and thofe that are honour'd with the Name, 
would not pafs for any thing but little Villages in ci- 
ther Countries. This, as has been hinted in Virginia, 
is the Humour of the Inhabitants, and all Endeavours 
to bring them to build and fettle at Annapolu or 

The Hipry of Maryland. 

Williamftadt, have been ineffe&ual. Thofe two Towns 
are not bigger than they were, if they hold to be fo 
big, and there are Villages in Penfylvania which may 
vie with them for Number of Houfes and Inhabitants. 
The Lord Baltimore difputed at Law with Mr. Pen 
for the Propriety of that Part of Penfylvania, knoWn 
by the Name of the Three Lower Counties, as if it had 
been included within his Pattent for Maryland ; but 
Mr. Pen has maintain'd his Title, and 'tis probable 
will always maintain it again!! the Lord Baltimore's to 
thofe Countries. Penfylvania has lately endeavour'd at 
a Tobacco Trade, but Maryland and Virginia will hin- 
der the Progrefs of any other Colony in this Com- 
modity ', they have been long fettled in it, Ihd can 
make enough to fupply all the Markets in the World, 
and their minding this Traffick wholly, prevents 
their falling into that of Provifions fo much as New 
England, New York, Penfylvania, and Carolina -, 
which Provinces may flourish by that Trade and 
Manufacture, and leave to Virginia and Ma-ryland 
their Natural Trade, for by their long Continuance 
and Perfeftion in it, it deferves that Name. 



Containing a Geographical Defcriftion of 
the Province of Maryland ; an Account 
of the Climate, Soil, Produll, Animals, 
Trade, and Inhabitants, Englilh and In- 

'"pHO' we have given a large Defcription of Virgi- 
•*- nia, and the Bay of Chefeapeak, and have alfo let 
out the Bounds of Maryland, as we find it bounded 
in the Lord Proprietaries Pattent} yet hiving had 
fome Years fince a compleat and diftin£l Account of 
both Provinces from an ingenious Gentleman, an In- 
habitant of the Piace, with whom we have been long 
acquainted, the Reader will be better fatisfy'd to fee 
O 3 what 



, 9 S 

1 ; 

III , 



The Hiflory of Maryland, 
what he fays, than to take it from us : Such then is 
the Description communicated to us by Mr. Philemon 
Lloyd of Maryland \ c The Colony of Virginia and 
c Province of Maryland are fituate upon the Bay of 
e C/?<?/^p^,whofeMouth or Inlet is between the Capes 
c call'd Cape Henry and Cape Charles, and yet fo as 
c neither of the Provinces is plac'd on one particular 
c Side, but are both of them on each Side water'd by 

* that commodious Bay, which divides as it were in 
4 half both Governments •, fo that part of the Colo- 
c ny of Virginia is on the Weft Side of the faid Bay, 

* and the other part on the Eaft Side, the Bay running 
c through the Centre of them. The Colony of Vir- 
1 ginia on the Weft Side of the Bay, is divided from 

* Maryland by the great River Patowmeck, and on the 
€ Eaft by the River Pohmoak, whofe Head lies near 

* the Sea to the Eaftward. The Boundary of the 
c Province of Maryland begins at the River of Patow- 
e meek, and runs along the Bay Side Northwards, till 
c it interfefts a Line drawn Weft from the Mouth of 
e Delaware Bay, fituate in 40 Degrees North Latitude, 
c having for its Bounds on the Weft high Mountains, 
£ and on the Eaft the faid Bay. The° Eaftern Side 
c of the Province of Maryland is bounded on the 
c Weft by the Bay of Chefeapeak, on the Eaft by the 
c Main Ocean, on the North by Delaware Bay, and 

* on the South by the River Pohmoak, which is the 
& Line of Divifion between it and the Colony of Vir- 

* ginia. The Province of Maryland is divided into 
■" Counties, 6 on the Weftern, and 5 on the Eaft- 
c ern Side of the Bay. Thofe on the Weftern Side 
c are St.Maries, Charles, Prince George, Cahert, Arm- 
c Arundel, and Baltimore Counties. Thofe on the 
fi t Eaftern Side of the Bay are Somerfet, Dorchefter^ 

1 Talbot, Kent, and Cecil Counties. This Province 
c has but one City in it, call'd the City of St. Mary's^ 

* from whence one of the Counties took its Name, 
f being coram or! ioufly fituate between the Rivers of 

2 Patowmeck and Patuxent. This was formerly the 
e Seat of Government, and the Place where the Re- 
c ' prefentatives of the feveral Counties affembled, to 
f concert and determine things for the Good of the 
? Colony. There are alio two principal Towns, 
a call'd by the Names of ports, as the Port of Anna* 

■ ••',•■ ..-..-..-■.■ , -' ; . ; ■ fi peiif 9 

The Hiftory of Maryland. 

* polls, and the Port of Williamftadt. There are fe- 
c veral other Towns, but of no Confederation. The 
c principal Rivers of this Province are Patowmech, 
c which divides it from the Colony of Virginia ; Pa- 

* tuxent and Severn on the Weftern Shore ; and on 
« the other Side are Chiptonk, Chefier, and Saffafra*, 
1 of greateft Note. The Extent of the Province of 
c Maryland runs further Northward than the Head of 
c the Bay of Chefeapeak, being fituate on both Sides of 
1 it. . 

In fpeaking of the Counties, we fhall begin with 
thofe on the Weft Side of the Bay. 

St. Mary's is the firft of thefe, and is bounded thus : 
It begins at ?ointLook-out,zn& extends a\ongPatowmeck 
River, to the lower Side of Bud's Creek, and fo over 
to the Head of Indian Creek in Patuxent River. About 
the Year if?8. fome Medicinal Waters were difco- 
ver'd in this County, call'd the Cool Springs* which 
the Government order'd fhould be purchas'd, with 
the Land about it, and Houfes built for the Enter- 
tainment of the Poor. In the City of St. Mary's 
the General Court is holden, for whic h there's a 
State-houfe, and the Council is kept the firft Tuef- 
day in September, November, January, March, and 
June, for Orphans. This City choofes two Citizens 
to reprefent the reft in the Affembly, and the Go- 
vernment is by a Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen, and 
Common-Council -, tho true it is, fo much Magistra- 
cy might have been fpar'd, considering there are not 
above 60 Houfes in it, and fince Annapolis has been 
made the Seat of Juftice, and the publick Offices, 
there's no great Likelihood that the City of St. Ma- 
ry's will encreafe much in the Number of its Houfes 
and Inhabitants. 

Mettapany in this Country is noted only for having 
been the Lord Baltimore's Seat, when he dwelt in this 
Country. Here he built a handfome Houfe, tho more 
for Convenience than Magnificence •, it ftands near 
the Mouth of the River Patuxent. In St. Mary's 
County are the Parifhes of St. John's, S:. Clement\ 
and Hervington, the latter ufurping the Name of a 
Town. . 

Charles County Bounds begin on the upper Side 

of Indian Creek and Bud's Creek, whereat. Mary's 

O 4. County 


■1 11 



500 The Hiftory of Maryland. 

County ends, and extends to Mattawoman CYeek, inl 
eluding all the Land lying on the upper Part of Bud's 
Creek and Indian Creek Branches. In this County 
the chief Places or Parifhes are BrifioUnd Pifcattaway. 

Prince George's County is the neweft in the Pro- 
vince, being laid out, A.D. i6 95 . It includes the 
Land from the upper Side of Mattawoman and Swan- 
forts Creek, extending upwards by Patowmeck in the 
Well, and Patuxent River in the Eaft. In this Coun- 
ty is the Parifh of Mafierkont, and others. 

Calvert County borders upon Charles County, from 
which 'tis divided by the River Patuxent, as alfo from 
Prince George's County. In this County are three 
Towns or Parifhes, Harrington, Warrington, and CaU 

Ann- Arundel and Baltimore Counties are divided by 
3 mark'd Trees, ftanding about a Mile and a Quarter 
from Bodkin Creek, on the Weft Side of Chefeapeak 
Bay, and this Divifion runs thence Weft, till it crofles 
the Road from the Mountains of the Mouth of Maggaty 
River to Rich. Beard's Mill, and fo continues Weft- 
ward to 2 mark'd Trees, one for Ann- Arundel, the 
other for Baltimore .County, and ftiil continues Weft 
from Maggaty and Potopfco Rivers, till it comes to a 
Mountain of white Stone, from thence to the main 
Road to Potopfco Ferry, and two mark'd Pines, writ- 
ten at large on the North Side of the faid Trees BaU 
timore, and on the South Side Ann- A, vndel County i 
from thence Weft North Weft to Ilk Ridge Road to 
two mark'd Trees there, thence to patuxent River, 
and fo up the faid River to the Extent of it, for the 
Bounds of Baltimore County. Ail the Traft of Land 
on the North Side of thefe Divifion-Lines is in Balti- 
more County, and all the Land on the South Side in 
Ann- Arundel County. The chief Town in the Coun- 
ty of Ann- Arundel is 

Annapolis, which was formerly calPd Severn, and 
by an A a oi Affembly, 1 6 9 \. was made a Port Town, 
and a CoIIe&or and Naval Officer were order'd to 
refide_there ; the Name of Annnpdis was then given 
it. The County Court was. remov'd to this Place, 
a Cnurch was order'd to be built within the Port, 
which was made a Parifh •, and in the Year 1 699. the 
Port of Annapolis was made the chief Seat of Juftice 


The Hifiory of Maryland. 

within this Province, for holding Affemblies, and pro- 
vincial Courts, and all Writs, Pleas, and Procefs re- 
turnable to the Provincial, or to the Court otChan- 
eery, were made returnable to the Port of Annapolis. 
All Roads leading through any County to this Port 
were by another Aft of AfTembly order'd to be mark'd 
on both Sides with two Notches in a Tree, and where 
the Road to Annapolis broke off from any other 
Road, it was to be diftinguifh'd on the Face of 
the Tree with the Letters A. A. The AfTem- 
bly about 10 Years ago pafs'd an Aft for founding a 
Free-School here, to be call'd King William's School. 
Other Schools were alfo to be ere&ed under his Pa- 
tronage, and the Arch Bifhop of Canterbury was to be 
Chancellor of them. Truftees were appointed and 
incorporated by the Name of the Rectors, Governours, 
Truftees, and Vifitors of the Free-Schools of Maryland j 
what has been the EffecT: of this good Bill we 
know not, but believe it is very inconfiderable. The 
firft School that was to be built was to be at Anna- 
polis. The County Court for Orphans is kept here 
the fecond Tuefday in September, November, January, 
March, and June. The Records of the County of 
Ann- Arundel were remov'd to this Town, where are 
now about 40 Houfes, but it lately has not flourifh'd 
according to Expectation \ and while the Planters and 
•Merchants in Maryland affect to live feparately, as 
they do in Virginia, there's no great probability of 
this Towns making any confiderable Figure. 

In Baltimore County is a Parifh or Town fo call'd *, 
but the Houfes are fo dii]oin*d in this, and others, 
that the Townfhips are not worth the Name. 

Thus we have given a fhort View of the Counties 
on the Weft Side of the Bay, and muft obferve, that 
the great River Safquehanagh falls into that Bay a lit- 
tle above Baltimore. 

On the Eaft-fide of the Bay are the 5 other Coun- 
ties •, the firft of which, proceeding from Weft to 
Eaft, is, 

Cecil County, thQ Weftem Part of which is fo near 
the Delaware, that the Cut would not be above 8 
or 1 o Miles to join that Bay and River to Chefeapeah 
This County funs along Parallel with Newcaftlc and 
Kept Coun ty in Penfyhania. We have not learnt how 



r 1 


202 The Hiftovy of Maryland. 

many Parifhes are in it, and know nothing more of it, 
fo we proceed to 

Kent County, which runs out like an Ifth- 
mus into the Bay of Chefeapeak. We know not 
the Name of the Parifties in it. The next Coun- 
ty is 

Talbot County, divided from the County of Kent 
by a double Line of mark'd Trees. That part of this 
County that lies on the North Side of Corfeica Creek, 
is the Southerly Bounds of the County of Kent, and 
on the North the County of Cacil. Oxford was for- 
merly the Capital of this County, but by an A& of 
AfTembly in the Year 169s- it was nam'd William- 
fiadt, and made a Port Town. 100 Acres of Land 
adjacent to it was order'd to be purchas'd, for a com- 
mon Pafture for the Benefit of the Town. The fecond 
School that was to be built was appointed for this 
Place, and the Roads to it were to be mark'd out in 
the like manner with thofe o{ Annapolis. A Collector 
and Naval Officer were order'd to refide here. Befides 
Oxford, here are the Parilhes of St. Michael's and Bui- 
lingbrook. The next County is 

Dorchefler County. The chief Parifh is Dorchefter 7 
where the County Court is kept. 'Tis a fmall Place 
of about ioHoufes. The Land here lying on the 
North Side of Nanticofe River, beginning at the 
Mouth of Chickacoan River, and fo up to the Head 
of it, and from thence to the Head of Andertons 
Branch, and fo down to the North Weft Fork, to the 
Mouth of the aforefaid Chickacoan River, was by anAct 
of AfTembly in the Year i<?p8. dedar'd to belong to 
Vanqmjh and Annatouquem,tvto Indian Kings, and the 
People under their Government, their Heirs and 
SuccefTors for ever, to be holden of the Lord Propri- 
etary, under the yearly Rent of one Beaver Skin. 
There are more Indian Towns in this than in any o- 
ther of the Counties. 

Somerfet County has a Parifh of the fame Name 
in it. The Names of the other Parifhes in this and 
the other Counties are not come to our Know- 
ledge -, and we know nothing particularly remark- 
able in them, fo we ihall proceed to our Account of 
theClimate ? &c+ 


The Hiftory of Maryland. 

The Climate of this Province, the Soil, Produfr, 
and all that's mention'd in the Contents of this Chap- 
ter, are the fame, in a great meafure, with thole of 
Virginia : Both here and there the Englijh live at 
large at their feveral Plantations, which hinders the 
Encreafe of Towns ; indeed every Plantation is a 
little Town of it felf, and can fubfift it felf with Pro- 
vifions and Neceffaries, every confiderable Planter's 
Ware-houfe being like a Shop, where he fupplie* not 
only himfelf with what he wants, but the inferior 
Planters, Servants, and Labourers, and has Commo- 
dities to barter for Tobacco, or other Goods, there 
being little Money in this Province, and little Occa- 
fion of any, as long as Tobacco anfwers all the ufes 
of Silver and Gold in Trade. There are few Mer- 
chants or Shop-keepers, who may properly be fo 
call'd, we mean who are not Planters alfo, but live 
wholly by their Trades. The Tobacco of this Pro- 
vince, calPjd Oroonoko, is ftronger than that of Virgi- 
nia, and no Englijhman, who has not a very courfe 
Relifh in his Smoak, will bear it , yet 'tis as profita- 
ble to the Planter, and to the Trade of the Nation in. 
general, being in demand in the Eaftern and Nor- 
thern Parts of Europe, where 'tis preferr'd before the 
fweet fcented Tobacco of James and York Rivers in 
Virginia., The Planters in Maryland finding fo good 
Vent for their Commodity in foreign Markets, have 
cultivated it fo much, that this Province is thought 
to produce as much or more Tobacco than that of 
Virginia. The Soil is here at leaft as fruitful, the 
Country being a large Plain, and the Hills in it fo 
eafy of Afcent, and of fuch a moderate Height, that 
they feem rather an artificial Ornament to it, than 
one of the Accidents of Nature. The Abundance of 
Rivers and Brooks is no little Help to ihe Fer "ity 
of the Soil \ and there's no Grain, Plant, or Tree, 
which grows in Virginia, but thrives as well here. 
The Product, the Animals, and every thing is the 
fame here as there, only the black and yellow Bird, 
call'd the Baltimore Bird, goes by another Name in. 
It had that given it, becaufe the. 1 Colours 


of the Field of the Lord Baltimore's Coat of Asms are 
Or and Sable. 






the Hiftory of Maryland. 
If the Reader has the Curiofity to know more of 
this Country in any of the Particulars mention'd in 
the Title of this Chapter, let him fee the Hiftory ef 
Virginia on the fame Heads, and there's nothing there 
which may not alfo be faid of Maryland, except it is 
added here. 

The Air of the two Provinces has the fame Agree- 
' ment -, and if there's any Difference in the Health of 
the one Country and the other, Virginia perhaps has 
the Advantage. The Province of Maryland howe- 
ver thrives in a greater degree, tho 'tis the younger 
Colony, and that is a plain Proof of the Profit of the 
courfe Tobacco, preferable to the fweet-fcented, or 
rather that which is fold to a foreign Market turns 
to better Account every way, than what is made tor 
a home Confjmption with more Labour and Colt, 
and at laft with lefs Gain. "'* 

The Number of Ships trading hither from England, 
and other Parts of the Englift) Dominions, was compu- 
ted to be ioo, above 3.0 Years ago j andwcmayi- 
maeine how many more there come now, from the 
Increafe of the Inhabitants, who were then calculated 
to be t^ooo, and are now judg'd to be 3000. Souls. 
The Lord Proprietary had a Mint here, to coin Mo- 
ney, but it never was much made ufe of. 

As to the Indians, their Language Manners, and 
Cuftoms are the fame with thofe of Virginia, At the 
firft fettling of Maryland there were feveral Nations 
of 'em, Vovern'd by Petty-Kings* but 'tis thought 
there are not now 500 fighting Men of them in all the 
Province, if the Account Mr. Hugh Jones tranimitted 
to the Royal Society of it be true : For Mr.6/wr, 
who fome Years before fent the fame Society an Ac- 
count of Virginia, fays, The Indians in theh ordm- 
timore'i Territories, at the Head of the Bay, where 
Lowth. the Enpjifo were later featcd, are more numerous, there 
VoL * P' being lo of them ftiUin fome Towns °, but theft '.being 
W° m ?- in continual Wars with each ^l^'tlXll 
reduc'd to a /mail Number , which mAifes > Mr. Jones s 
Relation of their Number in Maryland, Gncc in JUr 
Glover's time there was not above 3000 Indian Souls 
in all Virginia ; out of which one cannot reckon there 
were many more than 500 fighting Men. The lame 
m* <Wc aives us a lame Account of feve.ral things 

with p 

Mr. Jones gives us a larg 


this Province worth notice, 


The Hiftory of Maryland. 

The Bay of Chefeapeak, which rxmsN. byW. about 
200 Miles, or more, divides Maryland as well as Fir* 
gwia, into two Parts, which the Inhabitants of the 
two Provinces call the Eaftern and Weftern Shears. 
The Land is generally low on both Sides } no Hill that 
is to be feen, or is known by them 50 Yards perpen- 
dicular *, but above 1 do Miles Weft of them," towards 
the Heads of the Rivers, the Ground rifes, and ap- 
pears in very high Mountains, and rocky Precipices, 
running North and South •, from the Top of which 
a Man may have a clear Profpect of both Maryland 
and Virginia. 

All the Low-land is very woody, like one continu'd 
Forreft, no part clear'd, but what is clear'd by the 
ILnglifh, who, tho they are feated pretty clofe one to 
another, cannot fee their next Neighbour's Houfefor 
Trees. Indeed 'tis expected that 'twill be otherwife 
in a few Years, for the Tobacco Trade deftroys abun- 
dance of Timber, both for making of Hog (heads and 
building Tobacco Houfes, befides clearing of Ground 
yearly for Planting, 

The Soil of Maryland is generally fandy, and free 
from Stone, which makes it very convenient for Tra- 
velling, and there's no occafion for fhoeing their 
Horfes, except in frofty Weather j and what with 
the Goodnefs of their little Horfes, and the Smooth- 
nefs of the Roads, People, upon Occafion, can tra- 
vel 50 Miles in a Summers Afternoon ^ and fometimes 
100 Miles in a Day •, but then their Miles are notac : 
counted (b long as in England. 

The rich and plentiful Gifts of Nature add much to 
the Happinefs of the Place •, the three Elements affor- 
ding Plenty of Food for the life of Man, as Deer, 
Fowl, both Water and Land •, and for the Preferva- 
tion of Health, many excellent Herbs and Roots, the 
Difcovery of whofe Virtue is chiefly owing to the 

They have Timber of feveral Kinds, good for Buil- 
ding, and of them feveral forts of Oak *, as Red, 
White, Black, Chefnut, Water, Spamfh, and Line 
Oaks (which laft bears a Leaf like a Willow J Cedar 
white and red ^ the latter ferves only for Pofts and 
Groundfills *, the White to rive or fplit into Boards, 
that being the freeft from Knots, and goes under the 




1 1 


13 ; i 

206 The Hiftory of Maryland. 

Name of Cyprefs, tho 'tis falfely fo term'd. There's 
a Tree call'd Cyprefs, which is extraordinary large 
in Bulk, and bears a Leaf like the Senfitive Plant. 
9 Tis foft, fpungy, will not rive, and is fit for no life. 
Their Black Walnut is mightily efteem'd by the 
Joiners for its Grain and Colour. There's a fort of 
Poplar that makes good white Plank. 'Tisalarge 
Tree, and bears a Flower like a Tulip. They have 
Plenty of Pine, and Dogwood, which is a fine Flow- 
er-bearing Plant, SafTafras, Locuft, a Tree of quick 
Growth, and very durable in Building. Hickery, 
of which there are two forts, Red and White *, the 
latter ferves chiefly for Fire- Wood, being the beft 
for that Ufe. There's abundance of Chefauts and 
Chinquapines, another Species of Chefnuts ', a fort 
of Elm like a Dutch Elm j and the Sugar mention'd 
in the Hiftory of Virginia, as well as others nam'd 
here. In Maryland is a kind of Elder, whofe Bark is 
Ciofely guarded, with Prickles, like a Briar. The 
Tulip-bearing-Lawrel and Myrtle of feveral forts, 
one of which bears a Berry that is work'd up in the 
Eaftern Shore to a kind*of Qreen Wax, very proper 
to make Candles with, if mix'd with Tallow. 

The Humming-Bird and Mocking-Bird are the 
moft curious Birds in this Province, as well as in the 
next ^ and the Rattle-fnake in both is the moft noted 
of their Reptiles. 

The Air is now more wholfome than formerly, 
which proceeds from the opening of the Country, 
the Air having by that means a freer Motion. The 
Summers now are not extream hot, as in the firft 
feating*, but their Winters are generally fevere. 
The North-Eait Wind is then very fnarp, and even 
cools the Air very much in the Heat of the Summer, 
when a fudden North- Weftern Blaft too often ftrikes 
theirXabourers with Fevers, if they are not careful 
to provide for it, by putting on their Cloaths while 
they are at work. 

Therms little or no Woollen Manufacture follow'd 
by any of the Inhabitants, except what is done in 
Scmerfet County. Tobacco is their Meat, Drink, 
Qoathing, ^nd Money : Not but that they have both 
Spanijh ana Englijh Money pretty plenty, which ferves 
only for Pocket-Expences, and not for Trade, To- 

The Hiftory of Maryland, 
bacco being the Standard of that, as well with the 
Planters and others, as with the Merchants. Their 
common Drink is Cyder, which is very goocl ♦, and 
where it is rightly order'd, not inferiour to the beft 
white Wine. They have Wine brought from Ma- 
dera and Fyall, Rum from Barbadoes-, Bear, Mault, 
French and other Wines from England. There's 
Plenty of good Grapes growing wild in the Woods, 
but no Improvement is made of them. 

Moft of the Indians live on the Eaftern Shore, 
where they have two or three little Towns : Some of 
them come over to the other fide in Winter-time, to 
hunt for Deer, being generally employ'd by the£ffg- 
lijh. They take Delight in nothing elfe, and 'tis ve- 
ry rare that any of them will embrace the Chriftians 
way of Living or Worfhip. The Caufe of their Di- 
nnnifhing proceeded not from any Wars with the 
Englifc for they have had none with them worth 
ipeaking of, but from their own perpetual Difcords 
and Wars among themfelves. The Female Sex alfo 
have fwept away a great many, infomuch that their 
Number is now very in con finable. 

One thing is obfervable in them, tho they are a 
People very timerous, and cowardly in Fight, yet 
when taken Prifoners, and condemn'd, they will die 
like Heroes, braving the moft exquifite Tortures that 
can be invented, and finging all the time they are up- 
on the Rack. 

If we have at any time mention'd the fame thing in 
two feveral Provinces, we have taken all poffible Care 
not to defcribeit but in one, that the Reader might not 
be tir'd with needlefs Repetitions. But it will be ob- 
ferv'd, that every Nation of thefe Barbarians has 
lome particular Cuftoms, which diftinguifti 'em from 
the reft \ and to make the Hiftory of each Province as 
perfect as lay in our Power, we ha ve,as far as we cou'd, 
clefcrib'd the Manners and Cuftoms ©fall of them. We 
have nothing more to fay of this Colony, and mall 
conclude with the Names of theprefent Governour 
aad Council, ~ / 



B '-iil 


The Hiftory of Maryland. . 
Col. William Seymour, Governour. 

Thomas Tench, Efq} 
SamuelToung, Efq-, 
John Hammond, Efq} 
Francis Jenkins, Efq} 
Edward Lloyd, Efq} 
William Holland, Efq} 
Kennelau Chittleton, Efq} 
William Courcy, Efq} 
Thomas Ennals, Efq} 
Robert Quarry, Efq} 
Thomas Ijrinfeild, 
John Contee, 

, Members of the 
? Council. 

Secretary to the Government, Sir Thomas Lawrence. 
Speaker of the AfTembly, Mr. Thomas Smithfon. 
Naval-Officer at Annapolis^ Mr. WUham Bladeni 




I , 

;. - i 

' <->.,- ■. :.-■•. 




O F 


C H A P. I. 

Containing the Hifiory of Virginia, from its 
Difcovery to the Prefent Times. 

BY the Nameofrir^^, was formerly call'd 
all that Traft of Land which reach d from 
JVorvnbegua to Florida ; and contain d the 
Country, now known to the Engliih by the 
Names of New-England, New-Tor^ New&rfo, 
Penfilvama, Maryland, KrgMiamd Carolina. Them* 
tives call'd it Apelehen; and 'twas, as 'tis faid - fiift 
difcover'd to the Europeans by Sebafiwn Cabot, a Geno- 
efe Adventurer, who liv'd at Briftol s and who in the 
Year i± 97 . wis fent by King Henry VII. to make i« 7 . 
^fcoveri^s in the Wefi-Jndies. Columbus's Succeffes Its Sf* 
?Y^£fe4fca^ng f« all the Trading Nations w a 
in the World upon Expeditions into America, in 
hopes of lharing the Treafures of the New difcoverd 
World with the Spaniards. 

The French, who will never, allow any Nation to 
be before them in any thing, pretend t^Countt* 
was difcover'd by John Fera^an y who took poiiefti- 


If I 



The Hiftory of Virginia. 
on of it in the Name of Francis I. that he call'd it Mo- 
cofa ; and with Canada, to which he gave the Name 
ot New-France, added it to tha French Dominions. 
But this is a Fiction of their own, exploded by all 
Authors who treat of the Difcovery of Virginia : For 
which the Crown of England is certainly indebted to 
the Care and Experife of the famous Sir Walter Raw- 
leigh ; who having, as appears by his admirable 
Hiftory of the World, made ftric"t Enquiries into the 
State of the Unive'rfe *, and hearing of the prodigious 
Profit the Spaniards drew from their Settlements in 
the Weft-Indies, refolv'd upon an Adventure for fur- 
ther Difcoveries. 

His Miftrefs Queen Elizabeth was then too much 

employ'd in Europe, to think of making Attempts for 

Acquifitions in America. She was apprehenfiveof a 

War with Spain ', and was bufy'd in protecting the 

States of the United Provinces, and the French Pro- 

teftants, againft the Tyranny of France and Spain. Sir 

J/VWalter Walter therefore found himfelf under aneceflityof un- 

Rawkigh dertaking the Adventure, on the account of private 

undertakes Perfons, who bearing the Charge of it, were to have 

». the Advantage. 

To this Purpofe, in the Year 1583. he procures fe- 
veral Merchants and Gentlemen to advance large 
Sums of Money towards carrying on the Defign : 
And in the Year following, obtain'd Letters Pattents 
from the Queen, bearing Date the 25th of March-, 
1584. To poffefs, plant, and enjoy for himfelf, andfuch 
Perfons as he fhould nominate, themfelves and their Sue- 
cefj'ors, all fuch Lands, Territories^ &c. as they fiould 
difco'ver, not then in the Poffeffwn of any Chriftian 

In April, the Gentlemen and Merchants, by Sir 
Walter Rawleigh's Direction, fitted out two fmall Vef- 
fels under the Command of Captain Philip Amidas y 
and Captain Arthur Barlow, two of Sir Walter's Ser- 
vants', who knowing no better Courfe, fail'd away 
for the Canaries, from thence to the Caribbee Iflands, 
and crofling the Gulph of Mexico, made the Coaft of 

They were fo ignorant of Navigation, that by 
Computation of able Seamen, they went above a 
thouland Leagues out of their way. Their Yoyage 




and Bar- 


The Hifiory 0/ Virginia. 211 

was however profperous •, and they anchor'd at the 
In-let by Roenoke, at prefent under the Government 
of North Carolina. They landed on certain Iilands on 
the Coaft, between Cape Fear and the great Bay ot 
Chefapeac. They afterwards went afhore on the 
Continent, in a Country call'd Wingandacoa vW 
which there reign'd a King, whofe Name wsWwgt* 
na. They traded with the Indians, and made good 
Profit of their Truck, the Natives parting with their 
Furrs for things of much inferiour Value. With this 
Commodity, Safafras and Cedar, they loaded their 
two Vefiels, and return'd home, carrying with them 
fome Pearl, which was taken for an evident Sign ot 
the great Riches of the Country. Amidas and Bar- 
low had made a very advantagious Voyage •, and to 
encourage their Owners, the ^wWefr-IndiaCompa- 
ny to continue the Trade, they reprefented the Place 
they had difcover'd to be fo plentiful, and fo deiira- 
ble, the Climate fo pleafant and healthy, the Air jo 
fweet, the Sky fo ferene, the Woods and Fields io 
fruitful and charming, and every thing fo agreeable, 
that all that heard it were taken with the Delcription j 
and fuch as had not Conveniences to live pleaiantly 
at home, were tempted to remove to this 1 ara~ 

But the Difcovery was in its Infancy, and the En- 
alifh then could only admire, without daring to at- 
fempt the enjoying the Sweets of fo delicious a Coun- 
try Befides thexPleafantnefs of the Place, and tne 
Profit of the Trade, Barlow and Jmidas highly ex- 
toll'd the Innocence and good Nature of the Indians, 
and the Advantages that might be made by their Igno- 
rance, and their Love of the Englifh. To this they 
added an inviting Account of the Productions ot the 
Soil, the Variety of Fruits, Plants and Flowers there, 
and their Beauty and Excellence. 

They alfo brought over with them tome Tobacco, lobacco. 
the firft that wasfeen in England, and two Indians,^ 
whofe Names were Wamhefe and -Manteo \*£j&*. 

Queen Elizabeth was her ielf fo well pleas d with "**> 
theAcCount thefe Adventurers gave of the Country, 
that Ihehonour'ditwith the Name of Virginia, either 
becaufe it was firft difcover'd in her Reign, a Virgin 
Queen-, or, as the Virginians will have it, becaule lt 

^* ■ 7 J p 2 fillS 





The Hifiory of Virginia. 

ft ill fee rid to retain the Fir gin Purity and Plenty of the 
firji Creation, and the People their Primitive In- 

The Englifh Merchants were the more fond of fur- 
ther Adventures to America at this time, for that her 
Majefty's Ships had lately intercepted a Spanifh VefTel 
bound home from Mexico, which had Letters aboard, 
containing a Defcription of the vaft Treafures that 
were dug out of the Mines there. And the Company 
erected under the Aufpices of Sir Walter Rawleigh, 
who fome affirm gave the Name of Virginia to the 
Country himfelf, refolv'd on a fecond Voyage thi- 

Sir Walter intended to have commanded in this Ex- 
pedition himfelf, and to have carry'd with him a fuffi- 
cient number of Forces, to have compleated his Defign 
of making a Settlement there •, but being at that time 
jealous that his Abfence might be prejudicial to his 
Intereft at Court, which the Earl of Liecefler fought 
all Occafions to leffen, he committed the Conduct of 
this fecond Enterprize to his Lieutenant Sir Richard 
Greenvill •, who on the £th of April tet fail from Pli- 
mouth with feven Ships fitted out by the Company ; 
of which himfelf and feveral other Gentlemen were 
Members : and this Company was the firft of that 
kind that was eftablinYd in Europe. Theie King 
James incorporated by the Name of the Governour 
and Company of the Weft-Indies ■, which for their 
M ale-ad miniftration was diffolv'd by his Son King 
Charles I. 

Sir Richard Greenvill, for want of better Informa- 
tion, faii'd round by the Weftern and Caribbee If- 
lands. He had laden his Ships with Provifion, Arms, 
Ammunition, and fpare Men to fettle a Colony: 
With thefe he took the two Indians, to aflift him in 
his Negociations with their Countrymen : And having 
a profperous Voyage, lie arriv'd at Wokokon on the 
25th of May, being the fame place were the Englifh 
had been the Year before. 

In Augvft following he began to plant at Roenokc, 
an Ifland about 5 Leagues from the Continent, which 
lies in 3 6 Degrees of Northern Latitude. He alfo 
made fome little Difcoveries more in the Sound to the 
Southward j trading with the Indians for Skins, Furrs, 


The Hiftory of Virginia. 21? 

Pearl, and other Commodities -whkh they barter'd 
with him for things of inconfiderable Value. 

He left 108 Met on Rocmle Wand, under the Com- m, Ralph 
mand of Mr. Ralph Lane, and Captain mUpAmdzs, Lane firft 
S keep poffeftion of it -,'and himfelf return'd to En g - Govern. 

lm L foon as Sir Richard was gone, the Men he left 
behind fet themfelves about difcovenng the ; Continent, 
and rang'd up and down 80 Miles Southward, and 
\ o Northward, venturing indifcreetly too high up 
h S and too far info the Country, by which 
the nd ans growing jealous of their Dedgns, began 
firft to be weary of their Company, and cutoff uv-ir 
S "gfers when they fell into their Hands; they alio 
fo3 aConfpiracy todeftroy thereft, but werenap- 

P U re jo e umais of the Colony's Proceedings were 
dulv tranfmitted to the Company m England-, who 
wasnotfocareful as they mould have beer ,,to fend them 
FuppUe of Provifion/And the Englilh not under- 
Sng the Nature of the Climate had neglefted 
to gather Food in Seafon, as the Indians did , by 
which means they were reduc'd to terrible ftreights. 
The NaXes nU after kept Faith with them but 
watch'd all Opportunities to cut them oft. And, as 
Aisoblig'd them to be more wary in their Enterpn- 
• ze on the Main, fo it hinder'd their receiving any 
lupplv from them: However they endurd all with 
incredible Refolution, 
near 100 Miles along the Sea-Coaits. . 

They kept the Indians in awe, by threatmng them 
with the return of their Companions and a deforce- 
ment of Men. But no Ships coming from E^toa 
S all thatWinter, nor in the Spring following, nor 
in Siumer, they 'defpa.r'd of being able to jupport 
themfelves any longer-, the Natives beginning to cfe- 
fcife them, wLnt&y faw them, as it :we^; 
ion'd by their Countrymen and the Engmh ex 
nefted daily to be facrihc'd to their Cruelty. 
P In this Diftrefs their chief Employment was to loos 
ou to Sea, in hopes of finding km« 9 ^fep? 
or Recruit: And when they were almoft fp^vith 
Want and Watching, Hunger and Cold, in jWgujt 
I:; %?A Si. Franc* !>Ws Fleet, who was retunung 


214 The Hifiory of Virginia. 

from an Expedition againft the Spaniards in North- 
America^ and had been commanded by the Queen to 
vifit this Plantation in his way, and fee what Encou- 
ragement or Affiftance it wanted. 

The fight of Sir Francis's, Fleet was the raoft joyful 
one that ever the Eyes of the poor Wretches who 
were left on Roenoh4Vm& beheld. Their firft Petiti- 
on to him, was to grant them a Supply of Men and 
Provifions, with a {mail Ship or Bark to attend them :, 
that in cafe they could not maintain themfelves 
where they were, they might embark in it fox Eng- 

Sir Francis granted their Requeft •, and they fet all 

hands to work to fit the Ship he had given them, and 

furnifh her with all manner of Stores for a long ftay : 

but a Storm arifing, which drove the VefTel from her 

Anchor to Sea, and the Ship fuflfering fo much in it, 

that fhe was not fit for their ufe, they were fo difcou- 

rag'd, that notwithstanding Sir Francis offer'd them 

another Ship, they were afraid to ftay, and earneftly 

An end of entreated him to take them with him home, which 

the firft he did ' 7 and this put an end to the firft Settle- 

§wkmr,%. ment. 

In the mean time, Sir Walter Rawleigh being very 
follicitous for the Prefervation of his Colony, follicited 
the Company to haften their Supplies of Men and 
Provifions, refolving to go with them in Perfon: 
And fearing the Colony would fufFer'by their Delays, 
he fitted out the Ship he was to go in with all poftible 
fpeedj and when it was ready, fet fail byhimfelf : 
A Fortnight after, Sir Richard Greenvill fail'd again 
from PlinwuthJ. with three other Ships for Virginia. 
' Sir Walter fell in with the Land at Cape Hattaras, 
a little to the Southward of Roenoke, where the 1 08 
Men fettled :, whom, after ftricl: fearch, not finding 
there, he return ? d. 

•' The Virginians pofitively affirm, that Sir Walter 
Rawleigh made this Voyage in Perlon, but the Hifto- 
f ies of thofe Times, and the Authors of the Life of 
Sir Walter Rawleigh y which has been twice written, 
make no mention of it. 'Tis more probable, that the 
common Account of it is true, that he fitted out a 
Vefiel of a hundred Tun, loaded it with Neceflaries, 
ind difpatch'd it away to relieve his little Colony. 
' ; ■ . . — ■■■•■ Before 

The Hifiory of 'Virginia. 215 

Before this Ship arriv'd, theEnglifh WabamWd 
their Settlement, and return^ with Sir ^nas^ake. 
And the Mafter'of the Veffel not JgWSfftfiJg 
any Information concerning them, nude the belt of ms 

^Sh the Anthor of The Mm and tig* 
JSl jfluresus Sir Walter Rawlngh went 
fC fiSn. iS? likely a Man ofW^ «4 
Charaaer would hazard his Perfon fofar, »««W. 
teran Employ than the Matter of an Advice Boat or 

T Whe'n Sir Richard arriVd, which was a few days 
after the departure of *e Veffel we have ment.ond 
he found the lOMJhntf* wher e he &teJg9| 
entirelv deferred. He knew nothing of Sir Francis 
1>ahl having been there-, and thought they had 
feef a 1 niilrfer'd by the Indians till »^ Nav , 
tisfy'd him of the contrary, but he could not a™ 
how they got away. However Sir X <cfc «g f M^Lai,. 
Men more (fome Accounts fay but 15) in the lame ft _ 
Wand order'd them to build Houfes, giving them ft/ _ 
Mater ak, and two Years Provif.on •, ^J*|*te**-» 
retur"d, having affur'd them that they mould be 
fpeedily and conftantly fupply d. 
P In the Year following Mr. John Wb*e wte lent 
thither by the Company, with three Ships. He 
rarrv'd with him a Supply of Men, and fome Wo- 
men! as dfo SP bruits of Provif.ons, having 
aCommi(lion P to fettle there, and to over the 

tS? a?XTthe aad of July, .,87. bat 15S7.' 
fou"d noEngUftmen there ■ at which he was very 
much troublli. He enquir'd of Man teo what was 
become of them ; this mfoniVdfiim, dmth , 

Natives fecretlv fet upon them, kill d lome, ana tne 
SHed into the Woods-, where they were never 

^ InfeT^^ Information, th. Fort they 



had built he found demolim'd, their Huts emp 
nlace of their Habitation all grown up with Weeds 
53 lit :the Entrance of the Fort the Bones of a dead 

M This did not diTcourage Mr. John White from ma- A tJj j rd 
^Attempts towards a tod^ttkment : So he£t ^ 

li- I 

216 The Hifiory of Virginia. 

down in the fame place, repair'd the Houfes : And 

when he had put all things in thebeft Order he could 

Mr. John * or tneir Prefervation, he proceeded to cenftitute a 

White Form of Government amo'ig them, confifting of a 

Governor. Governour and twelve Counfellors, incorporated by 

the Name of the Governour and Affiftants of the City 

of Rawleigh in Virginia. 

On the 13 th of Augufi, Manteo the faithful Indian 
77k Indian was chriften'd, and created by the Governour Lord 
Manteo of Dajfamonpeak, an Indian Nation {o call'd, as a Re- 
Cbrijten'd. ward of his Fidelity and Services to the Englilh : And 
on tlie 1 8 th of the fame Month was born the firft Child 
that was the IflTue of Chriftian Parents in that place, 
being the Daughter of Mr. Ananias Bare : She was af- 
ter the Name of the Country chriften'd Virginia. 

'lis from thefe fmall Beginnings that we are to trace 
this Colony, which has encreas'd fo much fmce, that 
'tis now one of the beft Branches of the Revenue of the 
Crown of England. 

Good Government and Induftry foon render'd Mr. 
White and his Men formidable to the Indians, who 
courted their Friendfhip, and made Leagues with 
the Corporation, which they kept or broke as 
they thought themfelves too weak or too ftrong for 
the Englilh ; who, as much as they (eem'd to thrive, 
underwent fo many Hardfhips for want of due Sup- 
plies from Europe, that nothing but the invincible 
Conftancy, which is the diftinguifhing Character of 
their Nation, could have fupported them in fo much 
Mifery : yet fo far were they from repenting of their 
Undertaking, or defiling to return, that they difputed 
for the Liberty of remaining at Roenoke ; and oblig'd 
Mr. White their Governour to return for England, 
and foilidte the Company to fend them Recruits of 
Men and Provisions, 

Mr. White undertook to negotiate their Affairs \ 
and leaving 1 1 5 Men in t\\Q Corporation, fet fail for 
' England, where he arriv'd in fafety, and was two 
Years there before he could obtain a Grant of the ne- 
ceffary Supplies : At lail he had three Ships fitted out 
for him, with Provifions and more Men for the Co- 
He fail'd from Flimouth in the latter end of the Year 
xjfcp. 1585, taking the ufual Courfe round by the Weftern 


The Hiftory of Virginia. 21 7 

and Caribbee Iflands *, for no other was then known. 
Tho they were skill'd in Navigation, and in the Know- 
ledge of the ufe of the Globes, yet they chofe rather 
to follow a prevailing Cuftom, and fail three thoufand 
Miles about, than to attempt a more direft Paflage. 

On the 15 th oiAuguft he arriv'd at Cape Hattoras, 
and landing on .the Ifland Roenoke, found by Letters 
cut on the Trees, in large Roman Chara&ers, tnat 
the Englifh were remov'd, but he could not tell where*, 
They Taw the Letters C. R. O. on feveral Trees j 
and Searching further, on one of the Pallifadoes of the 
Fort which they had quitted, they found cut in large 
Capital Letters the Word Croat an ; one of the I Hands 
forming the Sound about 20 Leagues Southward of 

On this Advicf they reimbark'd in queft of their 
Fellows at Croatan\ but they were fcarce aboard all 
of them before a dreadful Storm arofe, which fepara- -«» ^«* JT 
ted the Ships one from another. They loft their An- *g ™ rA 
chors and Cables, and durft not venture in with the ^ e " 
Shore *, fo they all fhifted for themfelves ', and with 
various Fortunes arriv'd in England and Ireland. 

There were no more Attempts to find and relieve Mr. 
the 1 1 >• Men Mr. White left at Roenoke for fixteen White 
Years following •, and what became of them God only returns* 
knows, for they were never heard of to this Day. 
'Tis fuppos'd the Indians feeing them forfaken by 
their Countrymen, fell upon them and deftroy'd 

This Misfortune was enough to put a flop to any 
further Enterprizes of this Nature for fome time •, 
and 'tis rather a matter of Wonder, that the Englifh 
ever after it attempted a Settlement in Virginia, than 
that they neglected it fo long, this being their third 
Mifcarriage, and the two laft with raoft terri- 
ble Circumftances : Thefe were certainly the Rea- 
(bns that the Defign of fettling a Colony there was 
laid afide for fb long a while, and not Sir Walter 
Rawleigh's Troubles, as the Author of the Hiftory 
before mention'd pretends ', for Sir Walter from the 
Year 15^0. to the Death of Queen Elizabeth, was in 
full Favour at Court, and at the head of feveral fa- 
mous Expeditions, 



>£ ■ 

■ I 

21 S The Hiftory of Virginia, 

*tfo2 s In the Year 1602. in which Queen Elizabeth dy'cf, 

&#**".-, Captain Bartholomew Go/hold fitted out a fmalj VefTel 

GofnoldV at Dartmouth, and fet fail in her from that Port, with 

Voyage. 3 2 Sailors and Paflfengers for Virginia. He had been 

one of the Adventurers in a former Voyage thither, 

was an excellent Mariner, and had found out that 

there muft be a fhorter cut to that part of America 

than had hitherto been attempted :, wherefore he de- 

fign'd a more dirett Courfe, and did not ftand fo far 

to the Southward, or pafs by the Caribbee Iflands, as 

all former Adventurers had done, by which they not 

only fail'd many hundreds of Leagues out of their Way, 

but were expos'd to the difficult Shores and dangerous 

Currents of the Iflands, and the Coafts oi Florida. 

He attain'd his end in avoiding thofe Coafts and 
Currents, and taking a nearer Courfe than any had 
done before him. 

He arriv'd in the Latitude of 42 Degrees T and a few 
Minutes, to the Northward of Roenoke, among the 
Iflands, forming the North fide of Maffachufets Bay 
in New-England \ where not finding the Convenien- 
ces he defir'd, he fet fail again j and when he thought 
he had got clear of the Land, he fell upon the Bay of 
Cod, now part of New-England. 

By his Method of Navigation he morten'd his way 
500 Leagues, and yet went farther about by as many 
more than our Ships do now. 

Captain Gofnold ftay'd fome time on the Coaft, 
trading with the Indians for their Furrs, Skins, &c. 
with which, Safafras and fome other Commodities, 
he loaded his Ship, and return'd, having too few Men 
in his Company to pretend to a Settlement. This 
Voyage was fo healthy, that neither himfelf nor any 
of his Crew were in the leaft indifpos'd in all the time. 
He was the firft that had made it turn to any account 
fince Barlow and Amidas's Voyage ; and gave fuch a 
good Defcription of the commodious Harbours, plea- 
fant Places, and profitable Trade he had met with, 
that the Englifh once more began to talk of a Planta- 
tion in Virginia ; and feveral Merchants, particularly 
the Mayor and fome Aldermen of Briftoll, with 
whom Mr. HacHuit, who made a very good Collecti- 
on of Voyages to America, was concern'd, fet out 
Ships to trade to the fame Places, 

-V Two 

The Hifiory of Virginia. 219 

Two Veflels fitted out by the BrifioU Men, fell in 
wwh the fame Land Captain Gofnold 'had done, fol- 
low'd his Method and Traffick, and return'd with 
a rich Lading. 

The £r/#o// Merchants encourag'd by this Adven- 
ture, continu'd their Voyages thither, and encreas'd 
their Commerce from time to time fo much, that 
for many Years they were the moft confiderable 
Traders to that Colony, and, confidering the Ine- 
quality of their Numbers, out-did the Londoners by 
much, till the Merchants of Leverpooll drove them 
out of the Irifh Trade, and rivall'd them in that to 

The next Ship that fail'd thither from England was 
commanded by Captain Martin Tring, fitted out by Capt. 
the BrifioU Men, who came to Whitfan Bay, anchor'd Pring's 
there, and traded with the Natives to advantage. V~» 

The fame Year Captain Gilbert in the Elizabeth of 
London, made a Voyage to Virginia, but not with the 
like Succefs. He traded with the Savages in the Ca- 
ribbee Iflands, viz, St. Lucia, Dominica, Nevis, St. 
Chrifiophers, and thence proceeded to the Bay of 
Chefepeac in Virginia, being the firft that fail'd up into 
it, and landed there. The Indians fet upon him and 
his Company in the Woods, and Captain Gilbert 
and 4 or 5 of his Men were kill'd by their Ar- 
rows j upon which his Crew return'd home. 

The trading Voyages of Gofnold and the Briftoll 
Men began to put the Englifh on new Attempts 
for a Settlement : But before it could be brought 
to pafs, Henry Earl of Southampton, and Thorns 
Lord Arundel of Warder, fitted out a Ship un- 
der the Command of Capt. George Weymouth, who Capt. 

and found the Natives more affable and courteous than 
the Inhabitants of thofe other parts of Virginia which 
the Englifh had difcover'd ', but the Adventurers be- 
ing gready of Gain, over-reach'd the Indians, impo- 
sing on their Ignorance •, of which they growing jea- 
lous, it occafion'd the many Murthers and Maflacres 
that follow in the Courfe of this Hiftory. 





220 The Hiftory of Virginia. 

Capt Weymouth enter'd the River of Tovohatan<> 
Southward of the Bay of Chefapeac. He fail'd up a- . 
bove Forty Miles, finding the Channel deep and 
broad, being a Mile over, and 7 to 10 Fathom in 
depth, having Creeks on every fide at every half 
Mile Diftance, all deep and fafe -, in which Ships of 
500 Tuns may ride in many places, with a Cable on 
fhore in the foft Oaze. 

As he coafted along this River, he traffick'd with 
the Natives, bartering his Trifles for their Treafures , 
the Indians giving him to the value of 10 or 12/. in 
Furs, Beaver, Otter, and Sable, for five Shillings 
worth of Knives, Combs, Beads and Toyes. 

In one place where he traded, he and his Crew had 
like to have been furpriz'd by the Natives, who invi- 
ting him afhore on pretence of Traffick, plac'd 300 
Men with Bows and Arrows in an Amhufcadej but 
Capt. Weymouth march'd with fo much Caution, and 
fo well arm'd, that they durft not attack him. He 
fent his Boat 70 Miles up the River, in which his Ship 
lay 6 Weeks. While he was there he made trial of 
the Soil of the Country with Englifh Grain, which 
he found thriv'd, as it did in other parts of Virginia 
where the Experiment had been made. 

Having laden his Ship with the Commodities of the 
Place, fuch as Furrs, Safafras, and Tobacco, he re- 
turn'd to England, carrying 3 or 4 Savages whom he 
had taken Prifoners with him. 

The Account he gave of his Voyage when he came 

home, tempted others to adventure thither, but none 

had the Courage to think of a Settlement. They had 

forgot the 1 1 5 Men whom Mr. White had left at Roe- 

noh : Their Pity was too weak for their Avarice, 

Trade and Profit was all they thought of-, and thefe 

private Adventurers would have put the Defign of a 

Colony out of the Peoples head, had not Capt. Gofnold 

fo effectually follicited the Settlement of Virginia in 

the Gout of King James, thatfeveral Gentlemen con* 

trifcuted towards ii\ and the King incorporated two 

Companies in one Patent, bearing date the 1 oth ofji- 

rknfi prili 1 tfotf. for two Colonies. 

The South The firft Company were 'Sir Tho.' Gates, S* George 

Virginia Summers, the Reverend Mr. Richard Hacklmt, 1 re- 

Company. bend of Wefiminlier, and Edward Mana Wmgfedd, 

The Hipry of Virginia. 221 

Efq*, who were the L<wd00-Adventurers, and had li- 
berty by their Patent to feat themselves, and fuch as 
fhou'd join with them at any place on the Coaft of 
Virginia, between the Degrees of 34 and 41 of Nor- 
thern I atitude. They were allow'd to extend their 
Bounds from the place of their Plantation 50 Englifh 
Miles each way, and one hundred Miles up in the 
Country, direaiy from the Sea-Coaft, and none was 
permitted to Plant or dwell there without leave of the 
Company or their Council. ; . 

This Patent included Maryland, Virginia and Ca- 
rolina^ as they are now diftmguifh'd from each other. 
The fecond Company were George Popham,E(q; and 
others, as we ftia.ll mew in the Hiftory of New Eng- 
land, thefe were cail'd the Plimouth- Adventurers. 

They had liberty by their Patent to plant and in- 
habit any Part of the Continent between the Degrees 
of 3 8 and 45 of Northern Latitude, with the like Pri- 
vileges and Bounds as the Firft Company. 

In this Patent was included New-England, New- 
Torh, New-Jerfey and Penfilvania, as they are now 
divided into feveral Provinces ', but the whole Coun- 
try was then cail'd Virginia, That which was granted 
to the fecond Colony, as well as that which was gran- 
ted to the firft. The latter Was the earlieft in their Set- 
tlement : For in the fame year with the Date of their 
Patent, they fitted out two Ships under the Command 1 6q6 , 
of Capt.iVhi^, who fell in with the Coaft near Cape 
Henry, the Southermoft Point of the Bay Chefeapeac. 

With him went the Honourable Mt.Percy, Brother 
to the Earl of Northumberland, Capt. Gojholl, Capt. 
Smith, Capt. Ratclijfe, Capt. Martin, Mr. Wmgfield, 
of whom the 5 laft were of the Council. They took 
a Minifter, and abundance of Handicraft Tradefmen 
with them. Capt. Newport rais'd a Fort at the Mouth Cap. 
of the River Powhatan. Here he left 100 Men, with Newport. 
Provifions, Arms, Ammunition, and other Neceha- 
ries to make a Settlement •, and this was the firft Co- Firft Colo- 
lonv that remain'd on the Place. The firft Company ny that 
refolving to profecute their Undertaking vigoroufly, remain L 
had taken Capt. John Smith into their Service. He 
was a noted Seaman, who from a mean Original 
had acquir'd a great Reputation by his Adventures. 
dp. Smith chearfully undertook the Employment, 


f : 


222 The Hifiory of Virginia. 

and ventur'd his all on that Bottom. The Company 
Were impower'd by their Patent to choofe a Prefi- 
dent and Counfellors to grant Commiffions, and ex- 
ercife judicial Authority. Accordingly they gave a 
Commiflion to the Gentlemen above-mention'd to 
eftablifh a Colony in their Territories, and govern 
it by a Prefident and Council, who were inverted 
with fufficient Authorities and Powers. 

The Gentlemen who went over with Capt. Smith? 
were very unkind to him, and envying his Zeal and 
Experience in Maritime Affairs, they us'd him fo ill, 
that 'twas thought they intended to put him to Death, 
Mr. This was carry'd on by the Prefident Mr. Wing- 
y??£p fcld-i a covetous haughty Perfon, who, while Capt. 
field Pre- Smith was trading and treating with the Indian Kings, 
fident. contriv'd his Ruin : Falfe Witneffes were produc'd 
to {wear ill Defigns againft him, and he was not only 
refus'd to be admitted into the Council, but thrown 
into Prifon, where he lay till all the Forgeries of his 
Enemies were detected. He then was admitted a Mem- 
ber of the Council •, Mr. Wingfield was depos'd from 
Cty^R ad _ his Precedency, an ^ Capt. Radcliff chofen Prefident, 
cliff,' Pre- w ^° knowing Capt. Smith's Ability, left the Admini- 
fident. ftration of Affairs to him. 

The Company gave Captain Newport,' when he 
fet out, orders to Sail to that Part of Virginia, 
where Mr. White left his Miferable Colony, tho 
there was no Security of Harbour there. Captain 
Smith was the Pilot of this little Fleet, and as good 
a Seaman as he was, went the old round-about 
way, by the Weitern and Charibbeelflands, and pad 
his own Accounts in Navigation twice or thrice, in- 
fbmuch that his Companions began to Defpair of 
reaching the Place they were bound for, and to think 
of returning to England. But when they were at the 
Point of returning, Capt. Smith, with two of his 
Veffels, luckily fell in with Virginia, at the Mouth 
of Chefapeac Bay. Some Authors diftinguifh Capt. 
Smith's Voyage from Capt. Newport's ', and affirm, 
that the firft Settlement which remain'd,was made by 
Smith, but others make the Voyage of Capt. New- 
port Prior to Smith's. Leaving this Diipute to be deci- 
ded by the Company's Books, and the Virginians, we 
proceed in our Hiftory. 
r Capt. 

The Hiftory of Virginia. 22} 

Capt. Smithy when he had the Management of Af- 
fairs, ouilt a Fort on the Southern Cape, which he 
nam'd Cape Henry, from Prince Henry King James's 
Eldeft Son : the Northern he calFd Cape Charles, from 
Prince Charles, afterwards Charles I. And the River 
Powhatan he call'd James River, after the King's own 

Before the Prefident and Council proceeded to a fames- 
Settlement,they made a full Search of JamesRiver,md Town 
then they unanimoufly pitch'd on a Peninfula, about built. 
50 Miles up the River to build a Town upon, which 
they call'd James-Town. 

The Soil about it is very good, the place it 
felf two thirds environ'd by the Main River, which 
affords good Anchorage, and the other third by a fmall 
narrow River, capable of receiving Veflels of 100 
Tuns, by which means the Ground the Town (lands 
upon is a fort of an Ifland. Here they built Caftles and 
a Fort, and might have gone on with Succefs, had not 
their own Divifions put a ftop to the Growth of their 
Settlement, and given the Indians an Advantage over 
them. One hundred and eight Men ftaid upon the 

Tis certain that in this year 1607. the Plantation x^o?, 
of Virginia was firft fettled by about one hundred 
Perfons, and that from thefe fmall Beginnings it rofe 
to the Figure it has fince made in the Britifh Com- 
merce. The two Ships were fent back by the Pre- 
fident and Council to fetch Recruits of Men and Pro- 
vifions, and in the mean while thofe that remain'dfeli 
to Planting and Sowing, to Building, Fortifying, 
and Trading with the Indians, making a prodigious 
Profit by their Traffick. But each private Trader 
being at liberty to fell their Goods at what Rates 
he pleafe, the Englifh underfold one another, by 
which means the Natives who had bought dearer 
than their Neighbours, thought they were cheated, 
and fo conceiv'd an Averfion to the Englilh in general, 
which ended in a National Quarrel. 

The Trade was further interrupted by a fort 
of yellow Duft-Ifinglas, which was found to be 
wafh'd down by a Stream in a Neck of Land on 
the back of James-Town. This the Englifh 
miftook for Gold, and all their Hearts were 




The Hiftory ^Virginia, 
fet upon it, to the neglecl: of their real Profit by 
TrafFck, and their Security and Prefervation, by 
making Provifion for a time of Neceffity, which then 
came upon them :, for while they were all running 
mad after this Vifionary Gold \ their Town was burnt, 
their Stores confum'd, and they were reduc'd to the 
laft Extremities of Wants. Many of them werealfo 
deftroy'd by the Indians, none minding their defence, 
fo much were they infatuated with the Hopes of Moun- 
tains of Wealth, by the help of thefe New-found- 
Sands \ and they already began to defpife the Mines 
of Mexico and Peru, in comparifon of their own in- 
eftimabie Srream. In the mean time they labour'd 
under unfp^akable Difficulties, which however they 
bore with patience, being comforted by their golden 
Dreams. One of the Ships that had been fent back to 
England for Provifions, return'd*, and they loaded 
her home with this Yellow Duft, thinking all the 
Stowage wafted that was beftow'd on Furrs or Druggs, 
and cou'd hardly afford- any room for Cedar. Not 
long after her departure the other Ship arriv'd, 
and her they alfo loaded home with this imaginary 
Gol^ Duft,with Cedar and Clap-board to fill up. They 
were all fo buly inFifhing for the Dirt, that they 
cou'd fpare no time for Difcoveries, till the heat of 
their Avarice began to Cool a little, and fome of the 
wifer Sort to fufpec~t, that according to a good old 
Englifh Proverb, All was not Gold that glifter'd. At 
laft Capt. Smith? with part of the Colony, made fe- 
veral Difcoveries in James-River, and up Chefapeac 
Bay, with two Sloops which they had brought with 
them for that Purpole. 

In the fame Year i<?o8. the Englifh firft gather'd 
Indian Corn of their own Planting, and they might 
have fiourifh'd, had not their Feuds, Folly, and Neg- 
ligence, hinder'd their Succefs, and been the caufe 
of their Future Mifchiefs. For in Capt. Smith's ab- 
sence, Matters fell into Confufion •, {everal uneafy 
Per pie were for deferting the Settlement, and attemp- 
ted to run away with a fmall VefTel, which was left 
to attend it, but they were prevented. ' 

Capt. Smith in his Expedition among the Savages, 
was furpriz'd, aiTauited , and taken Prifoner by 
them. He was then making Difcovery on the River 


» The Hiftory of Virgmh. 22$ 

Chicohomony, where Oppecamcanough, a King of that 
Nation, fell upon him treacheroufly, and put all his 
Men to death, after he had forc'd them to lay 
down their Arms. He not only fpar'd Mr. Smith's 
Life, but carry'd him to his Town, feafted 
him, prefented him to Powhatan the Chief King of 
the Savages, who wou'd have beheaded him, hacl he 
not been fav'd at the Inter cefiion of Powhatan's Daugh- 
ter Pacahonta, of whom we fhall have occafion to fay 
more hereafter. Capt. Smith returning to James- 
Town, found the Colony in fuch Diftraftions, that 
'twas likely to break up. When he had prevail'd upon 
them to remain there, Capt. Newport return'd with 
Supplies of Men and Provilions, and they both paid 
a Vifit to Powhatan, who receiv'd them in great State. 
Capt. Newport did not ftay long in Virginia^ and Capt. 
Radclif refigning hisPrefidency,Capt.S#z/>^ was una- Capt- 
nimoufly defir'd to accept of that Office. He made a Smith Pre- 
fecond Expedition for Difcoveries, leaving Mr. Scrive-fidem. 
ner Vice-Prefident, but the Affairs of the Settlement 
ftill ran to deftru&ion. 

In the year following, 1609. John Lay den, and 
jlnne Burroughs were marry'd, which was the firfl 
Chriftian Marriage in Virginia , and in the fame 
Year the Prefident and Council at James-Town fentout 
People to make two other Settlements, one at Nan- 
famund, under" Capt. Martin in James-River; and 
the other at Powhatan, 6 Miles below the Falls of 
James-Kwzt, under the Honourable Ht.Weji : 
Mr. Martin attempting to feize the King of Nanfa- 
mund, was forc'd to fly from his Settlement, and Mr. 
Weft did not ftay long at his. 

The Colony was by this time fo encreas'd by Recruits 
from England, that the People of James-Town cou'd 
fpare 120 Men for each of thefe Settlements. Not 
long after another Settlement was made at Kiquotan, 
at the Mouth of James-River. Powhatan was an In- 
dian Town, and was bought of Powhatan King of 
Werocomoco, for fome Copper. 

The Company mEngland underftanding how preju- 
dicial the Divifionsin their Colony were to the ad- , 
vancementof the Settlement, Petition'd the King for J^f" 
leave to appoint a Governour,which was granted them . G 
in a new Patent. Purfaant to this Grant they made the 



226 The Hiftory of' Virginia. 

Sir Tho. Lord Delaware Governour of the Colony, whofe 
Gates, Sir Brother Mr. VVefl liv'd then in Virginia, My Lord 
Geor S e appointed three of the Members of the Society, Sir 
- rs ' Thomas Gates, Stf George Summers^ and Captain New- 
port, to be Joint Deputy Governours. 

Thefe three Gentlemen embark'din one Ship, and 
fe.t fail, with eight more in their Company, loaden 
with Provifions and Neceflaries. The Ship in which 
the Governours were, being feparated from the reft 
ina Storm, wasdriv'n afhore, and flav'^ at Bermudas^ 
but the Crew were all fav'd, and the three Gover- 
nours with the reft} who, notwithstanding the dan- 
ters they had run, were always jangling, to the great 
etriment of their Affairs. 

While they were there, the two Knights had per- 
petual Quarrels among themfelves, form'd Factions ', 
and their Differences grew to fuch a height, that they 
would not embark in the fame VefTel *, fo they built 
each of them one of Cedar, picking up the Furniture 
of their old Ship for Rigging •, and inftead of Pitch 
and Tar, they made ufe of Fifth Oil, and HogsGreafe 
mix'd with Lime and Afhes. 

Several of the Nine Ships that came out with the 
Governours, arriv'd in James-Kwtr: ^ and by their 
Arrival, encreas'd the Diforder in the Settlements 
there \ for, pretending that the new Commiffion 
cUuoivdthe old one, they would not fubmit to the 
Government they found on the Place •, the fatal Con- 
fequence of which we fhall fee hereafter. 

We muft now return to Capt. Smith, who while 
the Company were preparing to difpatch away the 
three Governours, and thofe Gentlemen ftay'd at 
Bermudas, continu'd his making Difcoveries with 
great Difficulties and' Hazards :, in which he was op- 
p'os'd by Powhatan - with whom he made War, and 
had frequent Advantages of the Indians, tho not with- 
out Lofs ^ himfelf was twice taken Prifoner by him, 
once, as was hinted before, as he was making aDi- 
fcovery of the Head of Ckkkaho?nony River, and a- 
nother time by an Ambufcade ztOnawmomcnt. The 
manner of his Treatment among the Indians, and his 
Elcape, his Friend (hip .with Nautaquavs the King's 
Son, and the furprizing Tendernels of PocahontxhSs 
Darter for him, when he was about to be executed, 



TheHifiory tff Virginia. 227 

ire Incidents equally agreeable and furprizing. He 
lias eiven a large Account of them in his own Hiitory, 
to which the Reader is refer'd-, only we cannot omit 
relating the wonderful Humanity of Pocahonta, who 
when Mr. Smith's Head was on the Block, and ine _ 
:ould not prevail with her Father to give him hisUeFne^ 
Life, put her own Head upon his, and yentur d theJty of Po- 
receiving of the Blow to fave him, thoflie was then « h «^ 
fcarce thirteen Years old: A remarkable Inftance, ?r £™ 
flow vain we are to our (elves, m thinking that all who 
clo not refemble us in our Cuftoms are barbarous. 

We fhall have occafion in this Chapter to fay fome- 
thing more of this generous Lady, who was the firft 
Virginian that ever fpoke Englifti, or had a Child by 
an Englifhman, and the firft Chriftian of that Nation. 

Capt. Smith having twice got out of the Hands of 
the Indians, proceeded in advancing the new fettled 
Colony, which was now fo numerous, that there 
were 500 Men in James-City, and Plantations up and 
down the Country ', but Mr. Smith happening to be 
blown up by the accidental firing of fome Gun-pow- captl 
dennhis Boat, wasfo wounded that his Life was de- Smith re- 
fpair'd of, and his Friends oblig'd him to embark for turns to 
England tobecur'd. f England. 

He was no fooner gone, but thofe he lert behind, 
Capt. Radcliff and Capt. Martin, fell out among them- 
felves, and the Confufion encreas'd upon the Arrival 
of the Ships belonging to the three Governours Fleet. 
The Colony foon mifs'd their late Prefident Mr. Smith, 
who by his Wifdom, Vigilance, Courage and Care, 
preferv'd the Settlements in good Order. Without 
him they had certainly been deftroy'd, either by their 
own Lazinefs and Negligence, or the Treachery arid 
Cruelty of the Indians: He always kept their Grana- 
ries full, and by fair means or force oblig'd the Indi- 
ans to bring in Corn and Provifions. He aw'd them 
fo much by his Valour, that they durft not make any 
Attempts againft the Englim, for whofe defence he 
tais'd Forts and Batteries, and was indeed the Soul of 
the Settlement •, for as foon as he left it the People de- 
creas'd daily, and by the Treafon of the Natives, or 
Want and Hunger, to which they were foon reduc'd, £ JJj£ ; 
their Numbers were leffen'd to 50, when Sir Thomas fk CoJ \ 
Gates and Sir George Summers arriv'd : 'Tis true, they 
Q 2 made 



«!■■ *: 

i(5"i a. 

i ' 

T&e H//?<?ry 0/ Virginia. 

made fome unfuccefsful Attempts 10 defend them- 
felves •, Capr. Sickkmore and Capt. Radcliff, with a 
Company of Men, going amongft the Indians to trade, 
\yere furpriz'd, and 60 Men {lain by Powhatan, who 
would have no Dealing with them after Capt. Smith's 
Departure. All thole that had fettled in any 
other part of the Country, fled from the Indians 
to James-Town, except the Planters at Kiquotan, who 
being defended by Algernoon-Yoxt, maintain'd them- 
felves againft the Natives, but could not fubfift for 
want of Provifions, which they, as well as their 
Country-men at James-Town, had wafted, and like 
them they were almoft famiih'd : Their Diftrefs was 
fo great, that they fed on the dead Bodies of the Indi- 
ans whom they flew, and even dug up and eat thofe 
that were bury'd. . . 

This dreadful Famine is fhll remember'd in Virgi- 
nia^ by the Name of the Starving Time. The Perfons 
who came in the laft Ships continu'd their Diflention 
amidftthefe Calamities', during which, fome of them 
who pretended to be of the Three Governours Coun- 
cil, aflum'd the Adminiftration *, and tho the Commif- 
fion was not arriv'd, ufarp'd the Power of Governing, 
to the Ruin of the Settlement *, which, by Famine 
and Sicknefs, bred by bad Diet, were reduc'd from a- 
bove 500 to 60 Perfons. 

The Three Governours in the mean while fet fail 
on the nth of May, io'io. from Bermudas, in their 
two Snail Cedar Ships, with 1 50 Men in their Com- 
pany 5 and in 1 4 Day arriv'd in Virginia. They went 
up to James-Town with their VefTels, where they 
found the poor Remains of the Colony. 

Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Summers, and Capt. 
Newport pitv'd their deplorable State, and immediate- 
ly caii'd a Council, to confult of what fhould be done 
for their Relief. They inform'd them they had but 
\6 Days Provifion aboard, and demanded of them 
whether they would venture to Sea with that, or ftay 
in the Settlement, and take their Fortunes *, in which 
they would very willingly fharewith them. 

They foon refolv'd to abandon James-Town, and re- 
turn for England •, and, becaufe Provifions fell fliort, 
to call at the Banks of Newfoundland, in hopes to meet 
fome Fifhermen there, and in fuch cafe, to divide 


The Hijlory of Virginia. 229 

themfelves into feveral Crews, and go aboard feveral 
Ships, for their better Accomodation. 

This Refolution being taken, they all went aboard, 
and fell down to Hog-Uhnd the <?th of June, at Night , 
and the next Morning to Mulberry-lfand, i .% Miles 
below James-Town, and 3 ° from the Mouth of the Ri- £ LoU 
ver-, where they fpy'd a Ship's Boat coming upto^™*-* 
them, which the Lord Delaware had fent before him 
to found the Channel. 

This Lord brought with him 3 Ships, very well 
provided with all manner ofProvifions and Necelia- 
ries, and 250 People to recruit the Colony. The 
Lord Delaware perfwaded them to return to james- 
Town; and by his good conduft brought the Settlement 
into a flourifhing Condition. He reftor'd Difcipline 
among them, renew'd their Trade with the Indians, 
which had been interrupted by their Wars with them •, 
and made the Savages once more afraid of attacking 
them, either openly, or by furprize. 

In his time the Government had the Form of an E- 
ftablifhment, and feveral Men of Quality bore Offices 
in it, as the Lord Delaware Lord Governour, and 
Captain General, Sir Thomas Gates Lieutenant Gene- 
ral, Sir George Summers Admiral, the Honourable 
George Piercy Efq*, Governour of James-Town and Fort? 
Sir Ferdinando Wenman Matter of the Ordnance, Capt. 
Newport Vice Admiral, William Strachy Efqj Secreta- 
ry ^ an Appearance of Officers that has not fince that 
time been {qqxi in Virginia. 

My Lord fent Sir George Summers and Capt.y/rg^// 
to Bermudas to fetch Provifions : Sir George dy'd in 
the Voyage-, but Capt. Argall got a Supply of Cod- 
fifh at Sagadahoc in New-England. 

Sir Thomas Gates was fent for by the Company at 
London, to give them an Account of their Proceedings -, The Ho* 
and the Lord Delaware being taken fick, left Mr. Fer- mutable 
cy Deputy Governour, and retum'd to England ?G- °-^ er " 
where he made the Adventurers fuch a pleafmg Re- c _' El4> 
port of their Affairs, that they order'd it to be V^cTJnor 

There were now about 250 Men on James-River *, 
over whom Sir Thomas Dale was plac'd, with the Ti^ Sir Tho. 
tie of Marfhal General, by the London Council : He Dale Mm 
arriv'd there the ioth of Jaw, itfu. with three ShipsJ'^ 
Q 3 - ladea 

~ i u - 


230 The Hifiory of Virginia. 

laden with Provifions and Neceflaries, having Sup- 
plies of Men, and fome live Cattle, and Hogs aboard, 
for Labour and Breed. 

On his PredecefTor's Departure the Colony tell 
into their old Diforders, and began to be in 
Want, occafion'd by their Sloth and DifTention. 
They depended on their Supplies from England, 
and negleaed to plant Corn, to fubfift them in 
cafe of a Difappointment, which they might reafon- 
ably have expecLed, confidering the Length and Ha- 
zards of the Voyage. . 

From this Knights Government the Profpenty ot 
the Plantation may be dated, -for he fet all the Engliih 
to work, and did not difdain to put his own Hand to 
the Spade and the Axe, to help to turn up the Earth, 
and fell Trees 5 and that they might no more depend 
on the Natives for Corn, he put them upon fowing 
Grain of their own •, which, tho they did not begin to 
prepare the Ground till the Middle of ^%, yielded 
an indifferent good Crop : he order'd Land to be wall'd 
in for Fences from wild Beafts, and the wilder Indi- 
ans: He enlarg'd the Englilh Bounds •, furvey'd the 
Rivers to find out a Place convenient for the building 
Dales-Gift & new Town, which was done at his own Charge, 
built. aiK l was from him call'd Dales-Gift. 

The Company in England, notwithstanding they 
had hitherto met with very little Encouragement, 
continu'd to fupply their Colony with all forts ot Ne- 
ceflaries, follicited to do it by the Lord Delaware -and 
Sir Thomas Gates : The latter was fent with 6 Ships 
more, having 350 Men on board, .1 00 Head or live 
Cattle, and Plenty of Provifions and Tools for Labour 
and Life. 1 . , 

TrVTho. Sir Thomas arriv'd in Avgufi, took upon him the 
bates Go- Government-, md in September he fettled a new Town 
memor. at Arrahattuck, about fixty Miles above James-Lity, 
calling it Hcnricopol^ or Henry's-Town, in honour 
of Henry Prince of Wales. 
Hpnnro- Here he built Forts and Centry-boxes, and ran a 
polish. Palifadoe on the other fide of the -River at Coxendale, 
to fecure their Hogs. 

The Englifh now plough'd the Ground, whereas 
before they planted all their Corn with the Spade-, 
they alfo fpread themfelves abroad in the Country, 


The Hiflory of Virginia. ] 23 1 

and poflefs'd themfelves of private Plantations, which 
they cultivated, and planted Tobacco and Corn, each 
Planter paying a Quit-Rent to the Treafury of the 

Their Cattle, efpecially their Hogs, encreas'd pro- 
digioufly^ Laws and Order began to 'flourifh, mdii- 
ftry to thrive, and the Plantation to have the Face of 
a Settlement that look'd to be lafhng ', yet it was not 
long before new Dangers threatened their Deftru&ion ', 
from which however the hand of God deliver 'd 
them. • 

The Company at London finding the Colony was Churches 
in a" flourifhing Condition, thought it their Duty to built, 
provide for the Welfare of their Souls, as well as their 
Bodies •, and to that end invited many charitable Per- 
fons to contribute to the building them Churches, ana 
founding Schools for the Education of their Youth, 
Many devout People, in hopes of propagating t&e 
Gofpel, open'd their Purfes-, Minifters were tent 
over, Churches built, and fupply'd with Prea- 
chers', as will be fhewn mo're at large in its proper 
place. ;\j 

In- the Year \6xi. Capt. Argall, afterwards Sir 16-12. 
Samuel, arriv'd from England with- two Ships more 
for the ufe of the Settlement. Sir Thomas fent Argall 
to Potowmack to buy Corn, where he met with Poca- 
honta, the Lady of whom we have before made ho- 
nourable mention. He invited her to come aboard 
his Ship, which with fome fmalt difficulty me conten- 
ted to, being betray'd by the King ofPafiancy, Bro- 
ther to the King of Potowmack, with whom me then 
refided. _ : » ^ . 

Argall having got her in hisCuftody, detain d her, Pocplion- 
and - carry'd her to James-Town, intending to oblig^ a g* 
her Father King Powhatan to come to what Terms Re £ r ' 
pleas'd, for the Deliverance of his Daughter : Tho the h ' 
King lov'd her tenderly, yet he wou'd not do any 
thing for her fake which he thought was not for his 
own and his Nations Intereft:, nor would he be prevail'd. 
upon to conclude a firm Treaty of Peace, tho Sir Tho- 
mas Dale went himfeif to treat with him about it, be- 
ing then Marfhal under Sin Thomas Gates, till he heard 
his Daughter, whoturn'd Chriftian, and waschrift-. 
ned Rebecca, was marry'd to Mr. John Rolf e, an Englifn 
Q^ 4 Gentle* 


She mirrys 
Mr. Rolfe. 


Cdpt. Geo. 

£>ep. Go- 

ta arri ves 
in Eng- 

The Hiftory of Virginia. 

Gentleman, her Uncle giving her in Marriage in the 

Powhatan approv'd of the Marriage, took it 
for a fincere Token of Friendfhip, and was fo pleas'd 
with it, that he concluded a League with the Englifh 
in the Year 1 ti 3 . Intermarriage was propos'd at that 
time, as a fure means of continuing the Peace with 
the Indians : And how far it would have anfwer'd that 
end, the Reader may judge ', but the Englifh were not 
fond of taking the Indian Women to their Beds as 
their Wives. Whether it was on account of their 
being Pagans or Barbarians we cannot decide} or 
whether that Nicety was not very unfeafonable in the 
Infancy of the Settlement. 

By Powhatan 's Alliance with the Englifh, and Mr. 
Rolfe's marrying an Indian Princefs, a great Nation 
we're made Friends to the Colony : And thus they 
conceiv'd hopes that they had fecur'd them lei ves from 
the Infults of the Savages : But we fhall fee in a Page 
or two they flatter'd themfelves in their Security, 
when they were never nearer Destruction. Tho Sir 
Thomas Gates was on the fpot, yet Sir Thomas Dale 
had a great ihare in the Government} and Capt. 
Argall reduc'd the Chicohomony Indians. 

Thefe two Gentlemen were very induftrious in the 
Service of the Colony •, and the former, Sir Thomas 
Dale, upon Su Thomas Gates's return to England, in 
the Year 16-14. pr? fided over it two Years} during 
which" time it flounfh'd } and he then going for Eng- 
land, left ^ap: George Yardly Deputy Governour } 
took Mr. Rolfe and his Wife Pocahonta with him, and 
arriv'd a* Tlimvuth the 1 2th of June. 

Capt. Smith hearing the Lady who had been fo kind 
to him was arriv'd in England, and being engag'd at 
that time in a Voyage to New-England, which hin- 
der'd his waiting on her himfelf, petition'd Queen 
Anne, Con fort to King James, on her behalf, fetting 
forth the Civilities he had receiv'd from her, and the 
Obligations (he had laid upon the Englifh, by the Ser- 
vices fhe had done them with her Father. 

The Queen receiv'd his Petition gracioufly, and 
before Capt. Smith embark'd for New-England, Mr. 
Rolfe came with his Wife from Plimouth to London. 
The Smoak of the City offending her, he took Lodg- 

The Hiftory of Virginia. 253 

*ngs for her at Brentford, and thither Capt. Smith 
went with feveral Friends to wait on her. 

Pocahontawns told all along that CwptSmith was dead, 
to excufe his not coming to Virginia again, from 
which he had been diverted, by lettling a Colony in 
New-England. Wherefore when this Lady faw him,#if Treat- 
thinking the Englifh had injur 'd her in telling her a««»« 
Falfity, which fhe had ill deferv'd from them tegggj 
was fo angry, ihe wou'd not deign to fpeak to him ; 
but at laft, with much Perfwafion and Attendance, 
was reconcil'd, and talk'd freely to him : She then 
put him in mind of the Obligations (Tie had laid upon 
him •, reproach 'd him with forgetting her, with an 
Air fo lively, and Words fo fen fible, that one might 
have feen Nature abhors nothing more than Ingra- 
titude j a Vice which even the very Savages de- 

She was carry'd to Court by the Lady Delaware, 
and entertain'd by Ladies of the firft Quality, towards 
whom fhe behav'd her felf with fo much Grace and 
Majefty, that fheconflrm'd the bright Chara&er Capt. 
Smith had given of her. The whole Court were 
charm'd with the Decency and Grandeur of her De- 
portment fo much, that the poor Gentleman her Hus- 
band, was threaten'd to be call'd to an account for 
marrying a Princefs Royal without the King's Con- 

Tho in that King James fhew'd a very notable piece 
of King-Craft •, for there was %o likelihood that Mr. 
Rolfe by marrying Pocahonta, could any way endan- 
ger the Peace of his Dominions, or that his Alliance 
with the King ofWiccomoco could concern the King of 
Great- Britam: Indeed we are told that upon a fair and 
full Reprefentation of the Matter, the King was pleas'd 
to be fatisfy'd. i, 

The Lady Pocahonta having been entertain'd with 
all manner of Refpett in England, was taken ill at 
Gravefend , where me lay in order to embark for 
Virginia : She dy'd there with all the Signs of a fincere . 

Chriftian, and true Penitent. vfiSJ* 

She had one Son by Mr. Rolfe, whofc Poller ity En S lancU \ 
are at this day in good Repute in Virginia. 

Capt. Tardly, whom Sir Thomas Dale had left Go- 
.vernour, let the Buildings and Forts run to Decay, 




Sir Sam. 


The Htftory of Virginia. 

being fo eager in planting Tobacco, that he negle&ed 
the Security of the Settlements, and would notfpare 
Hands enough to keep the Fortifications in repair : 
He alfo omitted fowing Corn, And thus the Colo- 
ny fell into their ufaal Diftrefs, were reduc'd to great 
Want, andexpos'd to tne Mercy of the Indians. 

In the following Year Sir Samuel Ay -gall came o- 
ver Governour •, who was griev'd to fee the Number 
of the People lefTen'd, and every thing running to 

The Indians alio, by mixing with the Englifb, had 
learnt the ufe of Fire- Arms ; and the Planters out of 
Lazinefs employ'd them to hunt and kill Wild-Fowl 
for them. 

Sir Samuel Argall did what he could to regulate thefe 
Diforders j but the Mifchief had taken fo deep root, 
that he could not hinder its Growth. 

Capt. Tardly return'd to England, and Sir Samuel Ar- 
gall govern'd the Colony in Peace till the next Year, 
1 £18. i<fi8. when the Lord Delaware , who all this time 
feems to have been Chief Governour, and thofe that 
fucceeded him only his Deputies, came near the 
Coaft with 200 choice Men, frefh recruits of Provifi- 
ons, and all manner of NecefTaries. 

My Lord ftill fail'd the old way by the Canary and 
Caribbee Iflands. The Length of the Voyage had an 
ill Effeft on his People, of whom 3 o dy'd j and the 
;Lord Delaware himfelf did not live to reach Vir- 
ginia *, fo that Sir Samuel continu'd in the Govern- 

Powhatan dying in April, left his Kingdom to his 
fecond Brother Itopaiin, who renew'd the League 
with the Englifh *. But this Prince was foon outed 
of his Dominions by Oppecancanough his younger 
Brother, who reign 'd over Chickahomony,' made 
himfelf Matter of all the Nations around him, 
and his Empire at laft became formidable to the Eng- 

Sir Sam. Argall finding his Colony was in Peace, and 
that they thriv'd a-pace under his Government, began 
to look about him a little, and refolv'd to undertake 
an Expedition on the Coafts, to make Difcoveries, 
and diflodge the French, who had fettled in Acadia. 


Lord De 
dies on tl. 

The Hiftory of Virginia, 23 5 

In his "way he drove out fome Hollanders, who sir , 
fead feated themfelves on Hudfons River-, he then Sam. Ac* 
attack'd a Settlement of French to the Northward § a j | ■**" 
of Cape Cod', and afterwards di -ove Monfieur Btet* . „ thg 
court from Port-Royal in C5WW, where the French f rmch mi 
had fow'd and reap'd, built Barns,. Mills, and other Dutcbt 

Thofe of them that were for returning to France 
he permitted to embark ; which fome of them did, 
and others went up the River of Canada, to make a 
new Settlement there. 

With the Plunder of thefe two Forts Sir Samuel 
return'd to Virginia: And how he could juftifiehis 
attacking the Subjefts of a Prince who was at Peace 
with his Matter King James, does not appear m the 
Hiftories which mention this Event •, only we are 
told, that fome Months after it there arnv'd afmall 
VelTel from England, which did not fray for any thing, 
but as foon as Governour Argall was on board, W 
fail, and carry'dhim home. The occafion ofhiste-f" *«- 
ingrecall'd is not know, and therefore tis imputed Cap *' 
to his attacking the French. Math. 

He left Capt. Nathaniel Powell Deputy, whothe powdl 
fame Year refign'd his Office to Sir George lardly, Depu G(h 
whom King James had Knighted, and the Company vernor , 
made Governour. 5 r ?, e0 * 

1 here arriv'd with Sir George,md fome Months after Yardly 
him,i 3 00 Men in 2 1 Ships, the Earl of Southampton, one Governor. 
of the Company at London, being zealous to hirnijh 
them with Supplies of Men, Cattle and other Provifi- 
ons. Thefe feated themfelves in ail the Plantations 
that' had been deferted, and planted new ones. And 
now the Colony grew fo numerous, that to have the 
Confent of the whole in the PaiTngof any Laws or 
Orders for the Publick Good, Reprefentatives 
were appointed to be chofen for every Precin£r, 
whom the People were to Eleft in their feveral Plan- 

Thefe Reprefentatives, being the firft Aflemblyr^M 
that fat in Virginia, met at James-Town m May, 1 620. JJJemblj. 
The Governour and Council at firft fat with them, 1*20, 
as the High Commiffioner, Lords and Commons, fit 
together in the Parliament in Scotland; here the 
Affairs of the Settlement were debated. We ihall lee 



s j 6 The Hiftory of Virginia. 

in the folowing Chapters how this Method of their 
Seflior came to be alter'd. 

In Augujt a Dutch Ship put in there with Negroes, 
and the Merchant fold 20, which were the firft Slaves 
that were brought thither from Guinea. This Year 
alfothe Boundaries of James-City were mark'd out, 
and Land was laid out in feveral Places, to the 
Company, to the Governour, the College, the 
Churches, and particular Perfons : New Settlements 
were made in James and York Rivers : Very great Sup- 
plies continually came over : A Salt-work was fet. up 
at Cape Charles, an Iron Work at Falling Creek \ and 
Sir George Tardly feem'd to make amends for his for- 
mer Male-Adminiftration j yet he (till fuflfer'd the Peo- 
ple to grow fecure, and neglected providing for their 
Defence. He was fucceeded in the Government by 
sir Fran* Sir Francis Wyat, a young Man, who arriv'd in Otto- 
asWyat, ber r 1*21. and this Year more Men fettled there, 
Governor, ^ho falling to Planting, they made fo muchTobac- 
1621. COj that the Market was over-ftock'd, and the Com- 
modity yeilded little or nothing. The King pitying 
their Lofs by it,commanded that no Planter fhou'd the 
I next year plant above 100 /. of Tobacco a Man, ad- 
vifing them to turn their fpare time to provide Corn 
and Stock, and make Potalh or other Manufactures. 
In November Capt. Newport arriv'd with 50 Men on 
his own Account, and fettl'd a Plantation at the 
Place, which from him is call 'd Newport's News . Set- 
tlements were made as far as Vatowmeck River, where 
the Indians never molefted the Englifh. On the con- 
trary, they were always friendly and ferviceable to 
them. , 

The General Aflembly appointed inferlour 
Court?, call'd County-Courts, to be held for the 
more convenient Diftribution of Juftice in Caufes 
of left moment : The reft were try'd before the 
Governour and Council,who were the lupream Court 
of Judicature in the Country. The Profperity and 
Increafe of the Colony render'd the Englifh carelefs 
of their Safety. They con vers'd frequently and open- 
ly with the Indians, admitted them to eat, drink, and 
Heep with them, and wou'd often do the fame at their 
Cabbins-, by this Means the Savages became acquain- 
ted with their Strength, and learnt the ufe of Guns. 


The Hifiory of Virginia. 237 

The? knew their Places of Refidence and Refort, 
and their Fear of them by degrees wearing off, pre- 
paid 'em for any bold Enterprize againft them on 
the firft occafion •, And 'twas not long before their 
Emperor Oppecancanough took an Affront for the Mur- 
der of one of his Captains, a Man very eminent in his 
Nation for his Valour. This Fellow had robbd 
one Manning, and kill'd him ', for which he was about 
to have been apprehended and carry'd before a Juftice 
of Peace, when he came next time into the Enoliih 
Boundaries ; but making fome Refinance he was mot 

Oppecancanough, on News of the Death of his Cap- 
tain, refolv'd to be reveng'd, and he and his Indians 
contriv'd a general Maffacre of the Englifh, which 
was to be executed on Friday the 22^ of March, 1*22. **22. 
and raoft of the Nations of the Indians w er * fg^SJX 
in the Confpiracy, which was reveal'd to to.PMeWW* 
by a converted Indian, or the Mafiacre mail V™™- theIn f imm 
bility had been general. 

The Difcovery he made being but 4 or 5 Hours 
before the intended Execution of it, the remoter Plan- 
tations cou'd not take the allarm, and the Englifh that 
dwelt near eft to the Savages, were barbaroufly but- 
cher'd, Men, Women and Children, by them, to the 
Number of 3 3 + Perfons. Mr.Pace fled to James-Town, 
and fo did all to whom he cou'd give notice of the 
Confpiracy. Others flood on their Defence,and made 
a retreating Fight to their Forts. The Plantations 
were deferted,and the Planters who liv'd at a Diftance 
Commanded to fet their Houfes, Barns, Store-houfes, 
&c. on Fire, to repair to the Forts, and defend them- 
felves againft the Common Enemy. Moil of thofe 
that were kill'd, fell by their own Weapons, Inftru- 
ments, and Working Tools. Thofe who were at 
the Works at the Iron Mines near Falling Creek, 
were all murder'd, except a Boy and a Girl who hid 
themfelves. This Iron Work cou'd never after be rea- 
ltor 'd, nor the Lead Mines, which the Superintendant 
hadjuft then difcover'd, be found out. The Projeft 
of Glafs-houles at James-Town was ruin'd by the Maf- 
facre, which put Improvements out of Peoples Heads : 
from this time they were fo enrag'd at the Natives, 
that they never gave over warring with them till they 
■ had 




"1 i 


238 T/>? Hiftovy of Virginia. 

had aim oft utterly extirpated the Nations that were 
concerned in the MafTacre. They dealt the fame 
meafure to them that they had receiv'd from 
*■&$#$ And the Savages, fearing the Englifh after 
they were collected into one Body, fled to the 
Woods. The Governour invited them to return 
to their own Habitations, and plant their Corn, 
which on promife of Peace they did *, and when they 
were as fe, ure as the Englifh had been, the latter 
fell upon them, cut great numbers of 'em to pieces, 
and deftroy'd their Corn and Habitations. They at- 
tack'dand entirely feR.xof&TowkatanjOppecancanoitgh's 
Royal Seat, where in imitation of the Englifh he had 
built him a Houfe, and was fo pleas'd with the Con- 
trivance of a Lock and Key to fatten the Door, that 
'tis faid his Imperial Majefty fpent mofl part of his 
Time in locking and unlocking it,wondring how fuch 
a flight Turn of his Hand , fhould have fuch an 
effect on, the Door and Poftern. The Englifh conti- 
nu'd to affaultthe Indians where-ever they found them, 
they deferted thofe Parts where they then inhabited, 
and the Colony receiving frefh Supplies from England^ 
and Arms and Ammunition out of the Tower by the 
King's Command, extended themfelves every way # 
and planted over all the Country, as 'tis now peopled 
and cultivated. 

Some time after this MafTacre, feveral Gentlemen 
procur'd Grants of Land in England from the Com- 
pany, and others came over on their' private Accounts 
to make Settlements ', among the former was one 
Capt. Martin^ who was nam'd to be of the Council. 
This Man rais'd fo many Differences among them, 
that new Diffractions follow'd, which the Indians cb- 
ferving, took heart, and once more fell upon the Eng- 
lifh on the Borders, deftroying them, without pity- 
ing either Age, Sex, or Condition. 

Thefe and other Calamities being chiefly imputed 
to the Mifmanagement of the Proprietors, whofeLoffes 
had fo difcourag'd moft of their beft Members, that 
they fold their Shares, King Charles I. on his Accefiion 
to the Throne, diffolv'd the Company, and took the 
Colony into his own immediate Direction. He ap- 
pointed the Governour and Council himfelf, order'd 
all Patents and Procefs to iffue in his own Name, and 

refer v'd 


Charles I. 
the Com- 


The Hiftory of Virginia. 239 

referv'd a Quit-rent of 2 s. for every hundred Acres. 

We havebeen the larger in our Account of theDif- 
covery and Settlement of Virginia, becaufe that part 
of the Hiftory of the Colony is {lightly touch'd by 
moft of the Writers who have treated of it, and we 
have from all of 'em taken fo many Particulars, as will ■ 
together give the Reader a clear Idea of the Infancy, 
GrW.hand Increafe of this Settlement, from Capt. 
Am'Jas and Capt. Barlow's Difcovery of the Country, 
to the Government of Sir John Harvey who was the 
firft Governour of Virginia after the Diflolution of the Tbeprefent 
Company. The King order'd the future Form of \ts Conflitutl- 
Constitution to be by a Governour, a Council of on fettled. 
twelve Gentlemen, and the AfTembly confifting as has 
been - faid, of Reprefentatives deputed by thefeveral 
Towns and Counties in the Colony. He granted large 
Tracks of Land to Gentlemen and others in England, 
and to fome of them added Authority independent of 
the Government, giving each Gentleman the fame 
Power in his Province as the Proprietors of Virginia 
had formerly. The greateft of thefe Grants was that 
of the whole Territory of Maryland, which was 
giv'n by the King to George Calvert, Lord Baltimore. 
The Virginians pretend that this Divifion of their 
Country into feparate Provinces, created feparate In- 
terefts, and that the General Advantage of the whole, 
has often fufFer'd by their Opposition to the Regula- 
tions which have been made for the Common Good. 
They tell us, that when the Government of Virginia 
has thought fit to prohibit the Exportation of bad 
Tobacco" to help the Market in England, the Plan- 
ters of Maryland have pour'd in as much Trafh as they 
cou'd make, to take the Advantage of that Market. 
Whether the People of Maryland have not the fame or 
the like Complaints to make againft the Virginians, is 
to be doubted, and that the Induftry and good Ma- 
nagement of that Colony have fet an Example ev'n to 
her Mother-Plantation, which it had been better with 
her if fhe had follow'd. We muft leave thisDifpute 
to be decided by the Gentlemen concern'd in it, and s \ t j^ 
continue our Hiftory of Virginia, during the Admini- Harvey, 
ftrationof Sir John Harvey, who was a great Promo- Governor, 
ter of the large Grants that were made of Land in his 
province, and often went fo far, that he procur'd the 


■ >: 


Seiz'd and 
fern to 

Sir Wil- 
ley, Go- 



The Hiftory 0/ Virginia, 
very Settlements which had been made before to be 
included. In a word, he was a very bad Governour, 
fevere in his Extortions and Exa&ious, in Fines and 
Forfeitures,proud and turbulent in his Councils,and Co 
unjuft and arbitrary, that the Gentlemen of the Colo- 
ny not being able to endure hisTyranny, feiz'd him,and 
fent him Prifoner to London, in the Year 1 639- They 
deputed two of their Members to accompany him ? 
and exhibit their Grievances to King Charles I. who 
was fo far from redrefling them, that he immediately 
ordered Sir John Harvey to return to his Government. 
But the Cry of the Plantation was fo loud, that it was 
to be fear'd it might reach the Parliament : To pre- 
vent which Sir John was foon recall'd, and Sir Wil- 
liam Berkley order'd to fucceed him. 

In Sir John Harvey's Time, lays Bullock in his Di£ 
courie of Virginia, what perplexed Condition were both 
he and the Gentlemen of the Country in, when upon\jnis 
Complaint they were fent for from Virgimijtoanfwer here 
in England at the Council Board ; and again upon their 
Complaint he and his Friends mujt come to London toon- 
fwerat the fame place , and this iterated, be fides conti- 
nual Heavings and Shov'mgs between two Parties, &c. 

The Differences between the Governour and the 
Colony occafion'd fomuch Confufion, that the Indians 
who watch 'd all Opportunities to fall on the Englifh, 
(iirpriz'd them again, and cut off 500 Men, Women, 
and Children. 

Oppecancanough highly refented the Incroachments 
that had been made on his Dominions by the late 
Grants, and had contriv'd another General MafTacre, 
but the Englifh were fcatter'd up and down in fo ma- 
ny feparatePlantations,that 'twas impoffible for him to 
deftroy them at once, without an entire Conqueft, to 
which he cou'd not pretend. However, he order'd the 
Savages in all Quarters to MafTacre the Borderers,and 
himfelf and his Indians were the moft aftive of all in 
deftroy ing thofethat had fettled on r^-River,by the 
Natives cdlVdPamaunkee^herQ he himfelf kepthis rude 
Court, and had fix'd the Seat of his Empire. This 
Prince is by Mr. Smiph laid to be Powhatan's Brother. 
He was of a large Stature, a noble Prefence, and un- 
derstood the Arts of Government as well as 'tis pof- 
fible for a Man to do, who was entirely unacquainted 


The Hiftory of Virginia. 241 

with Letters. The Indians by Tradition report, that 
he was not related to their King Powhatan, but came 
from a far Country which lay South- Weft of theirs. 
And by their Defcription of it muft be near Mexico^ 
or the Mines of St. Barbe. This A&ion of Oppecan- 
eanough provok'd the Englifh fo much,that they never 
wou'd give the Savages Peace, but continu'd to make 
War upon them till they took their Emperor, and 
led him into Captivity ? for Sir William Berkley hear- 
ing he was at fome diftance from the place of his 
utaal Refidence, march'd againft him with a Party of 
Horfe,furpriz'd,and took him Prifoner in the Weftern Seizes the 
Parts of Henrico County. Sir William intended to Emperor 
fend him to the King, but a Souldier in revenge of Oppecan- 
the many Miferies the Colony had endur'd by his In- canou §"» 
curfions, fhot him in the back, of which Wound he 
dy'd. Before his death he carry 'd himfelf with a Mag- 
nanimity truly Royal. He was very old, worn out 
with age, and the Hard (hips of War. His Eye-lids 
were fo heavy, he cou'd not fee without the help of 
his Servants to lift them up. When he was a Prifo- 
ner, hearing a Noife about him, he caus'd them to be 
lifted up, and perceiving 'twas the noife of a Rabble 
that were then come to fee him, he reHe&ed with In- 
dignation on the ungenerousTreatmentof the Englifh, . 
in making a Sight of him, and expofing him to the 
Infolenceof the Multitude •, and calling for the Go- 
vernour Sir William Berkley, he faid, Had it been my 
Fortune to have taken you, I wou'd not bafely have expos'd 
you as a Show to the People. 

On the Death of this Emperor, the Nations whom - 
he had fubje&ed, became afraid of the Power of the 
Englifh. There remain'd no Prince of an equal 
Genius to keep fo many feveral Kingdoms united. 
They fet up Sovereigns of their own, and their 
Strength being^ weaken'd by this Divifion, the Eng- 
lifh were no more afraid of any Difturbance by thenr„ 
unlefs it were thofe who lay neareft to them, and 
confequently were more liable to be furpriz'd by them, 
but Sir William Berkley made Peace with ail of 'em, 
and the Savages knowing they cou'd get nothing by 
War, kept it a long time unviolated./ 

The manner of OppecancanougWs Death is varioufly 

related by the Writers that have made any mention 

R of 







The Hifiory of Virginia" 
of it *, fome fay he was kill'd in the Action when 
Sir William Berkley came to furprize him. Others, 
that he was taken and committed to Prifon, where he 
dy'd. The moft authentick account of it is what we 
have taken from the Author of the Hifiory of Virginia: 
'Tis certain, that with him the Power of the Indians 
was entirely deftroy'd. The Colony was in a fair way 
of. improving this great Advantage, and there were 
no lels than 15000 Men, befides Women and Chil- 
dren, on the Place. When News came of the 
Troubles in England, which naturally affected 
all m? Colonies: Befides, that the Relations and 
Friends of the Inhabitants were involv'd in theni} 
they depended on that Kingdom for Supplies and 
Protection, and a conftant Market to take off the 
Commodities their Plantations prodne'd. Virginia 
for a while was more concern'd in them, than 
any of the other Settlements. For Sir William 
Berkley ftood out againft the ufurp'd Powers in 
England, after the Murder of King Charles the Firft j 
and by his Loyalty hinderd the Commerce of the 
Pianterstnef e with their Friends and Correfpondents 
at home. Their Supplies of Provifipns were cut oflf^ 
Their Tobacco lay on their Hands *, and the Vtrgi- 
t nians were oblig'd to fiibfift by themfelves, which 
they were now in a Condition to do, for the Planters 
had great Stocks, 30000 Head of Cattle, an infinite 
number of Hogs •, Beef and Pork were 1 6 d. a Stone \ 
Wheat and Barley very cheap,but few Beafts of Burden, 
for there were no more than 200 Horfes and Mares, 
and 70 Afifes at this time. However, as much as they 
abounded in Provifions, they cou'd not long have 
{imported themfelves without affiftance from England^ 
nor have been able to have kept up their Stocks for 
want of other Necefiaries, for their Maintenance j 
Such as working Inflruments and Tools^ Hows, Axes, 

The Parliament of England who were very caretul to 
fecure the Plantations,fent a Squadron of Men of War 
to the Weft Indies, under the Command of Sir George 
Afcue^ with Instructions to reduce Barbadocs, the 
Caribbee Illands, and the Northern Colonies to their 
Obedience. We ihall fee in the Hiftory of Barba- 
does, what Sir George did at that Ifland, from whence 


The Hiftory of Virginia. 24 J 

he detach'd Capt. Dennis, with a fmall Squadron of G#*.Den- 
Ships to Land feme Forces, and drive Sir ffimm ^/educes 
Berkley out of Virginia. Sir William {till eontinatf Jjf^f 
his uniliaken Principles of Loyalty. He hir'i *M$*^T 
Dutch Ships that were then in his Harbours, wd^pj^ 
made a brave Refinance. The Virginians being am- ^ 
mated by his Example, Capt. Denms attack'd them 
ta no Purpofe •, and finding he ftiou'd lofe a great 
many Men, and perhaps not fucceed at laft in his 
Enterprize by Force, he had recourfe to Policy. 
He gave out that he had two very rich Cargoes of 
Goods belonging to two of the Council aboard one 
of his Ships, and if they did not Surrender them-* 
felves to him, and engage the reft to do fo too •, he 
wou'd detain the Merchandize. The Council were too 
well inclin'd to comply with the Wickednefs of the 
Times. 'Twas only the Govsrnour who was willing 
to hazard all, rather thanfubmit to thofe Powers, to 
whom three Potent Kingdoms had already fubmitted* 
He wou'd hearken to no Terms till the two Coun- 
fellors, whofe Hearts were bent on the fafety of their 
Goods, engag'd the Majority of their Brethren to a- 
gree to a Surrender ; and Sir William was not fo very 
refolute, as to pretend to oppofe both an Enemy with* 
out, and a Fa&ion within his Government ; fo he was 
fore'd to lay down his Arms, and retire to his Plan- 
tation. We cannot omit corre&in g a Miftake of the 
Hiftorian we have often mention'd in this Hiftory, 
who fays Capt. Dennis was fent by Oliver. He has 
run into the vulgar Error of thofe, who call all the 
Governments from the King's Death to Cromwell's, 
Oliver's, Whereas Cromwell did not turn out the 
Rump, till two or three years after Sir George Ay* 
[cue's Expedition. 

He was himfelf in Scotland then, and had nothing 
to do with the Admiralty of England, further than as 
his Councils influene'd the Affairs of the Common- 
wealth. When he was actually in PofTeffion of the 
fole Adminiftration, he bufy'd himfelf ahout the 
Plantations, as much as any other part of the Eng- 
lifti Dominions, and Virginia fell under his Cogni- 
zance as well as the reft. 

We read in an old Hiftorian, that Major General 

Voint^ who was made Governour of the Leward 

R 2 Jflands 

244 The Hifiory of Virginia. 

< I/lands by the Parliament, fail'd from St. Chrlfiophers 
to Virginia, before Sir George Ayfcue fent Dennis, who 
it feems by that Author found the Bufmefs done to his 
Hand, and that Country, the only Retreat for Ca- 
valiers, was forcM to fubmit on tarms of Indemp- 
Col Di^ss Col 'Diggs was firft made Governour of Virginia 
Govern*, by the Parliament, during whofe Governme,.. no 
' thing remarkable happen'd. He was fucceeded by 
Mr. Ben- Mr. Bennet, and he by Mr. Matthews. The two 
net Go- i a ft Governours only were put in by Oliver. Tho 
vemor the f ame Hiftorian fays, That Diggs, Bennet and 
Mr. Mat- Matthews, were all Governours during the fmall time 
rLnr of Cromwell's Prote&orate. If fo, there muft have 
governor. ^^ ^ fe q ^ Governour between Sir William 
Berkley, and Col. Diggs: If not the changing of Go- 
vernours was not fo extraordinary as he pretends. 
Before the end of our Hifiory, we fhall more than 
once find three Governours in feven years ; for fo 
long it was from Sir William Berkley's iubmiilion, to 
Oliver's Death:, and this was the lefs rare, becaufe 
Mr. Matthews dy'd in his Government. 

The Trade of Virginia flouriuVd in thofe Days, 
notwithstanding the A& which paft in one of Crom- 
well's Parliaments, to break off that Colonies corre- 
spondence with other Nations, and to prohibit their 
Exporting or Importing any Commodities whatever, 
but what Thou'd be loaden aboard Englifh Ships, navi- 
gated by Engliih Seamen : Which Aft, commonly 
call'd, The Att oj- Navigation, was juftify'd after the 
Reitoration,by another Aft of Parliament to the fame 
pur pole, but with Several Reftriaions and Prohibiti- 
ons, by Bonds, Securities, &c. Sir William Berkley 
havino {hewn a great Concern always for the good 
of th? Colony, was mightily belov'd by the People. 
On the Death of Mr. Matthews, when they were 
/ without a Governour, they immediately caft their 
Eyes upon him, and by an obliging Violence com- 
pell'd him to aflume the Government ; which how- 
ever he wou'd not confent to, unlefs they all promis'd 
to join with him in venturing their Lives and For- 
tvne for the King, who then was in Exile, but not 
at that time in France ^ as our Hiftorian affirms. 


The Hiflory of Virginia. 24.$ 

This was indeed a very bold Action, for as yet 
there had no News arriv'd of Oliver 's Death, and 
the Anarchy in England that fucceeded. 

The Virginians accepting of the Terms he pro- 
pos'd, he accepted of tke Government, and, we are 
told, forthwith Proclaimed Charles II. King of England? 
Scotland? France? Ireland? and Virginia. It happen 'd 
we v for him and his Colony, that King Charles 
was riot long after reftor'd to the Throne of his An- 
ceftors •, yet we don't find that the King gave 
Sit William Berkley any greater Reward than conti- 
nuing him in his Commifiion, and making him one 
of the Proprietors of the Province of Carolina? when 
he erected it into a Principality about the Year 1 66$. ^. • ¥rar ^ 

Sir William, going for England to Congratulate his fo n M ° rn " 
Majefty on his Reftoration, left Col. Francis Morrifon fm ^ 
his Dep'utyj. . 

When he came to Court, he was gracioufly receiv d 
by the King, who in Honour of his Loyal Virginians? 1 660. 
is faid to have worn a Robe at his Coronation, made 
of the Silk that was fent from thence. Col. Mor- 
rifon in the mean time behav'd himfelf to the Gene- 
ral Satisfaction of the Plantation. He order'd the Laws 
to be revis'd and collected into a Body, to be lain be- 
fore the AfTembly at their next Seffion. He took the 
fame care of the Church, as he did of the State. HUBebt* 
He regulated the Parifhes, fetled the Minifters v««r. 
Allowances, got a Revenue for the Support of the 
Government, and other Laws for the Encourage- 
ment of the Linen and Woollen Manufactories, the 
breeding of Silk-worms, Tanning and Salt-works/ 
While the Deputy-Governour was fo bufy'd for the 
■ Service of the Colony, Sir William Berkley was 
in England? taking his Inftruftions from the King, 
for his future Conduft. His Majefty order'd him' to . 
promote Husbandry, Manufactures, Silk and Vine- 
yards, that all Ships Trading to Virginia? fhou'd go 
to Ja?nes-Town? and be enter'd at the Cuiiom-Houie 
there before they broke Bulk •, which Order was 
giv'n with an Intent that by it the People might be 
tempted to come thither and dwell there, for the 
convenience of Trade •, and had it been obey'd, it 
might have^ encreas'd the number of Buildings in 
that City, which is now much lefs than it wasTour- 






Sir Willi- 

ley, Go- 

t i 

Tfe H//^ 0/ Virginia. 

fcore years ago, every Body coveting to live at kis 
Plantation, and fettle where he thinks he fhall have 
the but Crops and Conveniences of Shipping. This 
is the Reafon that there are fo few Towns in Virginia, 
and thofe that are there, fo very fmall. Sir William 
being fully inftrufted by the King, how he fhou'd pro- 
ceed on his Return to his Government, fet fail from 
England to Virginia^ where he arriv'd in the Year 
1662. and immediately put the People upon impro- 
ving their Plantations, and advancing Manufactures. 
He Tummon'S an AfTembly, and got an Aft pafs'd for 
building of James-Town. Each County was to build 
fo many Houfes, and fome actually built their Quo- 
ta, which notwithftanding the Aft, were converted 
into Taverns and Eating-houfes, and the Town was 
very little the bigger for 'em. 

By Sir Williams Behaviour on the Revolutions in 
England y one may perceive he was no Friend to the 
Puritans. Before the Civil War, he procur'd fevere 
, Taws to be made againft them, and now he had an Aft 
pari, laying great Reftraints upon them, which not 
only drove many People out of Virginia to Maryland 
and other Colonies, but kept others from coming 
thither. - „ 

Tho the Order for all Ships to enter at James- 
Town was difpers'd with, vet the rigorous Circum- 
scription of Trade, by the Aft of Navigation, the 
Perfection of Difienters, and the low Prices of To- 
bacco, rais'd great Clamours among the Virginians, 
fomented by feme of Cromwell's Soldiers, who had 
been banifh'd tether. 

At laft the Mutiny grew to fach a Head, that ieve- 
ral Planters and others enter'd into a Confpiracy againft 
the Government 1 The Servants were the Chief Pro- 
moters of if, with a Defign to kill their Matters, 
and feize their Plantations : Among thefe one Ber- 
kmkadj a Servant to Mr. Smith of 1 htrtcn in Glofier- 
hcad'JGw- County, was one, and he repenting, difcoverd 
/piracy. ' it. Upon which notice was fent to- the Governour 
at Greenfpring, his Seat fo eah% who underftanding 
that the Confpirators were to rendezvous at Poplar 
Spring near Vurton, ient a Party of Militia-Hone to 
furprize them as they came. Accordingly fome were 
taken, others made their Efcape, and informing their 
3 Fellows 

in Virgi- 


The Hifiory of Virginia. 247 

Fellows of the Difcovery of the" Plot, prevented 
fuch as were on the Road, from coming to the Place 
appointed. Four of the Confpirators were hang'd *, 
Berhnhead had his Freedom, and 200 /. Sterling be- 
ftow'd on him for a Reward \ an Anniversary Day of 
Thank fgiving was appointed on the 13th of Sept, 
the day on which the Plot was to have been put in exe- 
cution. The King hearing of it, fent Orders to build a. 
Fort at James-Town, to curb the Mutineers, and ferve 
for a Retreat to thQ Governour on the like Occafion *, 
which Orders were never obey'd. The Virginians 
being loath to be at the Charge, when the Dinger was 
over j they only rais'd' a Battery of fome fmall 
Pieces of Cannon. A very poor Defence, if ever 
they fhou'd be forc'd to make ufe of it. 

In England another Aft of Parliament paft, which 
was thought to be a Hardfhip upon this Colony. It 
' Prohibited their having any Foreign Goods but what 
were firft landed in England, and thence exported to 
them. This reduc'd the Price of Tobacco frill 
lower, and rais'd that of all European Goods. They 
in return prohibited, by an Act of their Affembly, 
the Planting of Tobacco for one Year, in order to 
keep up the Demand for if, but this Act had not 
the defir'd effect } becaufe the Province of Maryland 
refus'd to confent to it, and ftock'd the Market 
fuffiaently to keep down the Price. They attempt- 
ed again to have the Planting of Tobacco ftinted, 
and the Agents of Carolina and Maryland^ who were . 
then at James-Town, confented to it. But 'the Go- 
vernour of Maryland evaded it, and Proclaimed the 
Act void. Thus the poor Planters drudg'd on to 
their Lots, their Tobacco yielded little or nothing, 
and all forts of Goods that were imported from Eu- 
rope^ bore very high Prizes, which was enough to 
raife Difcontents and Murmurs, and produce the Di- 
fturbances that foon after happen'd. 

Tho the Virginians had all the Reafon in tho World 
to expect a Complyance from the People of Mary- 
land, yet they condelcended to fend Agents to St.Ma- 
ry'Sjthe Capital of the Provinces, as it were to Petition 
for their Confent. In which they were unfuccefsfol 
alfo •, the Governour telling 'em. He woud not call 
m Jflfembly onpurpofe, 

R 4, About 



The Hiftory of Virginia. 
About this time there were Attempts made to pre- 
vent Ships unlading any where at the Mailer's Plea- 
fure, that no Forreign Goods might be imported, 
which had not been landed in England. 

It had been found impra&icable to oblige all Ships to 
enter ^James-Town, and afterwards difperfe themfelves 
up and down in the feveral Rivers whither they were 
bound *, and were us'd to unload tneir Cargoes, and 
load again, even at the very Doors of the Merchants 
to whom they were confign'd •, which gave them ma- 
ny Opportunities of bringing in prohibited Goods *, 
wherefore his Majefty order'd that Forts mould be 
built in the feveral Rivers ', that all Ships fhould ride 
under thole Forts •, and thofe Places only be the Ports 
of Trade. 

Had thefe Orders been obey'd, it would neceflarily 
have caus'd People to have reforted to fuch Places j 
Houfes would have been built, and Towns rais'd by 
degrees, without the Force of an Aft , which has 
little Influence on the Wills of People, and in Free 
Governments, where Mens Properties are con- 
cern'd, the Laws are always tender of ufing too much 
Violence, unlefs the immediate Safety of the Common- 
wealth requires it. 

The Plague and Fire happening at London when 
thefe Forts were about to be built, put a flop to the 
Undertaking, and it never was profecuted afterwards ; 
for want of which, the Dutch often infulted the 
Coafts in the Wars between England and Holland, 
and, took the Ships out of the Harbours. 

To defend them againfl any Invafion from the E- 
nemy, a few Batteries were rais'd, which contributed 
little to their Security. 

Sir William Berkley, to remedy the Evil of the low 
Price of Tobacco, earneflly recommended, and hear- 
tily en-ourag'd the Silk and Linnen-Manufaftures, 
Pot-Am and Hemp: He fet an Example himfelf 
at his own Plantation } and it had been well for the 
Colony if they had induflrioufly follow'd it. 

The Indians all this while continu'd quiet *, indeed 
they duril not offend the Englilh, who were now 
grown fo powerful, that they could fend an Army of 
6 or 7000 .Men into the Field, and leave twice as many 
at home to look after their Plantations. 


The Hipry of Virginia. 249 

He Tent out Capt. Batt with 14 Englifh, and 14 In- 
dians, to make Difcoveries. This little Company 4Aven° 
went from Appamotox m Charles-County , and in feven *« r «'^ 
days time reach'd the Foot of the Mountains, which 
they crofs'd with great Difficulty in three days more •, 
and then defcended into fruitful Vallies, where they Difcove- 
found an incredible Quantity of Deer, Elks, Buffa- ms. 
loes and Turkies, fo tame, that they would fuffer them 
almoft to reach them. They alfo found Grapes as 
big as (malt Plums. 

Farther forward they came to a Rivulet, which de- 
fcended backwards. They travell'd down that Stream 
feveral days, and'coming to fonie Cabbins, they could 
perceive that Indians had lately been there, and as 
they fuppos'd fled away at Capt. Batt and his Compa- 
ny's approach. 

The Savages he had with him could not be perfwa- 
ded to pafs fome Marfhes that were beyond thofe Cab- 
bins. They faid there liv'd a Nation a little farther 
that made Salt, and fold it to. their Neighbours j that 
they hifFer'd no body to return who had been amonsft 
them : And notwithftanding Capt. Batt us'd all the 
Arguments he could think of to perfwade them to go 
jforward, the cowardly Indians would not ftir a ftep 
farther j lb the Company were forc'd to return. 

On the Report Capt. Batt made to the Governour 
of his Travels and Adventures, Sir William Berkley re- 
folv'd to go in Perfon : He had made Preparations for 
it, nam'd the Man who was to have been his Depu- 
ty Governour, got the AflTembly to pafs ah Aft in fa- 
vour of the Enterprize *, and juft as things were ready 
for his Departure, Col. Bacon's Rebellion broke out, Col. Ba- 
which ruin'd the Defign. con'* Fe- 

in the Year 1*70.4 or 5 Years before Capt. Ban's hllion. 
Enterprize, Col. Collet with 9 Englifh Horfe, and 5 
Indians, march'd up in the Country •, and fo did Major 
Harris with 20 Englifh Horfe, and 5 Indians*, but to 
as little Advantage as BatVs : After whom, Sir William 
gave a Commifiion to a German Surgeon to difcover 
the South-Weft Parts of Virginia. 

He went along the Foot of the Mountains as far as 
the Lake Sherre^ and difcover'd them to be paya- 
ble in two places. This Man reported, that while he 
was in an Indian Town near the Mountains, there 





250 The Hiftory of Virginia. 

came 4 Savages on an EmbaflTy to the King of that 
Town, from a King who Hv'd beyond the Mountains. 

He brought back an Emerald, and fome Spanifh 

-' Money which he had of the Indians bordering on the 

Lake there 5 and this rais'd Conje&ures, that the 

Spaniards are feated near .the back of thofe Mountains. 

The Rebellion we are going to fpeak of, being 
one of the moft extraordinary Events that ever hap- 
pened in the Englifh Plantations, we fhall be larger in 
our Account of it, which we have taken from publick 
and private Authorities. 

The Author of it, Col. Nathaniel Bacon? Jun. was 
a Gentleman who had been liberally bred in England, 
having ftudy'd fome time at the Temple : He was young, 
. bold, active, handfome, and eloquent: His Merit ad- 
vanc'd him to the degree of a Counfellor ^ and his 
good Qualities got him the Love and Refpeclof the 
People, who were at that time very much difaffetted 
with the Government, and ready to take Fire j which 
Bacon perceiving, blew up the Coals of DifTention a- 
mong them fo much, that at laft it burft out into a 

Before we come to the Fa£K it will be proper to 
let the Reader into the Caufes of the Peoples Murmurs 
arid Refentments •, of which thefe four were the chief: 

the Cm- 1. The low Trice of Tobacco in England} and the 
fesofit. high Prices of all Goods exported thence to Virginia. 

2. The Grants made by King Charles, of fever -at 
Parts of their Country to Noblemen in England 5, 
in fome of which feveral of their Plantations were 

3. The Burdens laid upon them by the Parliament 
in England ' and Taxes by the Afiembly in Vir- 

4. The Difiurbances given them by the Indians. 

Of all thefe Grievances, that of the Grants was the 
moft intolerable : Their Property being given away 
From them, after they had been at great Trouble, Ha- 
zard and Charge, to make Settlements, 

The Affembly taking the bad Condition of many of 
the Planters, by the vexatious Suits, and the Expence 
they were forc'd to be at about their Titles, to their 



The Hiftory of Virginia. 25* 

Plantations, into Confideration *, deputed Mr. hud- 
vell Secretary of Virginia, and Col. Park to go to 
England, to reprefent the Matter to the King, and pe- 
tition for Redrels.- 

A new Tax was levy'd, to defray the Charge of 
heir Voyage ; and this was the more burthenfome, 
>ecaufe the Agents did not fucceed in their Negotia- 

After a "Year's Patience in waiting for News from 
chero, they had Advice, that there were little hopes 
)f Redrefs. Upon which they grew outragious j and 
:heir Rage ended in Rebellion. King Charles hearing 
Df it, would not hearken to their Agents Remonftran- 
:es v and thofe of them who had Money, were forc'd 
to compound with the Grantees for 3 or 400 /. a 

The Indians ever fmce, their laft Mafiacre, had keptf^ In fo 
very quiet till lately : And now they began to be trou- ans fik. 
blefome at the Head of the Bay of Chef apeak, and on 
their own Frontiers. Thofe at the Head of the Bay 
us'd to' trade with- the Dutch in Monadas, fince call'd 

When the Indians travell'd thither, they paft, go- 
ing and coming, by the Frontiers of Virginia, and 
traded with the Virginians ; who had the firft of their 
Market, and the Choice of their Furs. While the 
Dutch ftay'd at Monadas this Xraffick went on very 
peaceably •, but aflbon as the Englifh, who had poP 
fefs'd themfelves of New-Tork and the Trade, under- 
ftood the Advantage their Countrymen in Virginia 
made of it, they treacheroufly fet the Savages againft 
them", and fucceeded Co well, that inftead of calling 
on them as Friends, they never came, but to murder 
or rob them. 

The Indians on their own Frontiers were provok'd 
by the Lofs of their Trade, which decayed daily ', and 
by Sir William Berkleys Attempts for Difcoveries, 
which they apprehended was intended to deflroy 
them •, and therefore, whenever they had an Oppor- 
tunity, they never fail'd to Ihew their Hatred and 
Cruelty to the Englifh ; who being grown psevitfi by 
their LolTes and Grievances, were glad of an Occafion 
of venting their Fury on the Indians •, and on the Cry 
®f Murders committed by them, raoft of the poorer 







Bacon cbo 
fen Gene- 
ral by the 

The Hlfiory of Virginia, 
fort demanded to be led againft them, refolving utter- 
ly to extirpate all the Nations of the Savages. They 
gathered together in riotous and tumultuous Bands, 
running from one Plantation to another, without a 
Head, crying out againft the Barbarity" of the Natives, 
the Murder of their Countrymen, and engaging more 
and more every day to undertake an Expedition for 

The Governour, who was jealous of his Preroga- 
tive, would not fuffer them to judge when 'twas fit to 
make War j and the more they were for it, the more 
obftinate he was not to allow them to-take Arms : 
However, they continu'd their Meetings, and Col. 
Bacon fell in with them, appro v'd of their Zeal for the 
Service of their Country, aggravated the Calamities 
they endur'd by the Indians^ and complain 'd of the 
Want of a Regulation in Trade. 

The Multitude were tranfported with Joy that they 
had got a Man of his Quality and Merit among them ', 
.and immediately chofe him their General : Which 
Port: he accepted ', and by his Eloquence and obliging 
Carriage fo charm'd them, that they were all to a 
Man entirely at his Devotion. 

He knew the Danger of the Step he had taken, and 
yet his Ambition, or his Intereft, (for 'twas thought 
his Defign was to engrofs the whole Indian Trade to 
himfelf) ftill fpur'd him on to open Rebellion. He 
mufter'd his Men, exercis'd them, and prepar'd them 
for A&ion, the Pretence being a War with the Indi- 
ans, which was at that time a very plaufible one : To' 
reconcile his Ambition with his Duty, he fent to . 
the Governour for a Gommiflion \ and order'd the 
MefTenger to reprefent the Mifchiefs the Savages did, 
fo deplorably, that Sir William rni^ht think himfelf 
oblig'd by the Neceflity of their Affairs, to make him 

The Council had fuch an Efteem of Col. Bacon's 
Merit, that the Governour did not think it fafe to de- 
ny his Requeft flatly^ fo he anfwer'd the MefTenger, 
He would confult the Council, and fend him word what 
Refolution they came to about it. But Bacon had not Pa- 
tience to flay for the Refult of their formal Debates. 
He fent again and again to Sir William, to ifTue out a 
Gommiflion, and difpatch it away to him, that he 
»* might 

The Bftory of Virginia. 25 j 

might fead the Voluntiers againft the Indians *, fay- 
ing, 7hey had already chofen him for their General \ and 
he and they refolv'd to begin the War, whether the Go- 
vernourfent him the Commijfiott y or not. 

Twas out of Caution that he defir'd it, to juftifie his 
taking Anns j and finding Sir William prevaricated 
with him, he with forty of his Men in his own Sloop, 
went to James+Tovtn himfelf, to get what he wanted : 
He took his Seat at the Council-Board, like a Man, 
who, far from having committed a Fault, deferv'd 
Thanks for his Zeal for the Publick Good, and againft 
the common Enemy. 

He laid before the Council the miserable State of the 
Borderers •, how they were plunder' d and murder' d by the 
Savages ', and how ready the Voluntiers were to drive 
them from the Border s, and prevent fuch Calamities for 
the future, if they had a Warrant todofo. 

TheGovernour inftead of granting Bacon a Com' He quctr- 
miffion, commanded him todifperfej and for fpeak-'efr mtb 
ing too freely before the Council, fufpended him : By the Gurnet- 
which heexafperatedaMan, who had it in his Power nor ' 
to Be reveng'd, when he himfelf had not Strength 
fufficient to oppofe him. 

Bacon broke up from the Council-Table in a heat j 
and went out, with an Intention to retire to his Men. 
Sir William fill'd a long Boat, and made after 
him •, fending away fome Horfe to flop him when 
he landed at Sandy-Point, the Place he defign'd to go 
afhore at. 

His Orders were obey'd here -, and Bacon forc'd to 
return to James-Town. The Governour inftead of 
chaftizing his Infolence, receiv'd him very gratioufly ; 
and by fair Words, endeavour'd to diffwade him from 
his intended Enterprize : But Bacon was refolute, and 
perfifted in his Demand of a Commiffion, knowing 
Sir William durft not do him any hurt ', when there 
were near 1000 Men in Arms, who would feverely 
have reveng'd whatever Punifhment had been infli- 
£ted upon him : Befides , while they were dispu- 
ting the Matter in Council, frefh News came of 
Murders and Robberies committed by the Indians , 
which feem'd to warrant Col. Bacon's Defign and De- 


B " ■■ -■.„ 

2 54 

Co»we$ to 
voith his 

The Hiftory, of Virginia. 

However the Governour, who was as jealous of his 
Prerogative, as he was zealous for the Welfare of the 
Colony, would not grant him the Commifiion, be- 
caufe it look'd as if it was extorted from him, and that 
there was a Power in Virginia Tuperior to his own. 

Bacon feeing he could get nothing by fair Means, 
made his Efcape out of James-Town^ and polled away 
to the Voluntiers \ of whom he led 6 or 700 to the 
Town, and drew them up in Battalia before the State- 
Houfe, where the AflTembly were fitting * 7 fo that he 
had now the Governour, Council, and AflTembly of 
Virginia in his Power} andmaybefaid to be Mafter 
of the Colony. 
Forces ibe The ArTembly, befides that many of them wifh'd 
Governor we jj to £ acm > s Enterprize, were afraid of offending 
to^ive him j lim .^ ( t j ie y ^ rew * a Commifiion themfelves, and 
ion -' P re{ented *t, with an AdJrefs to Sir William Berkley, . 
defiring him to fign it. 

By this Commiffion, he was conftituted General of 
all the Forces in Virginia ■, and Sir William, much a- 
gainft his Inclination, fign'd it. 

As foon as Bacon had it, he march'd towards the 
Frontiers, and was chearfully folJow'd by his Men \ 
and no doubt, had not Sir William Berkley done what 
he could to hinder his Proceedings, thefe Forces, un- 
der fuch a General, would have conquer'd all the Na- 
tions of the Indians to the Mountains. 

'Tis true, the Virginians did not want Room, yet 
the Savages were fo falfe and cruel to them of late, 
that it feeriis to have been their Intereft to have got rid 
of fuch troublefome Neighbours-, and Co the People 
of Virginia generally thought at that time. 

When Bacon had modeftly withdrawn his Troops, 

to leave the AflTembly free, the Governour prevaiPd 

With them to confent that his Commifiion fhould be 

Bets pro- revok'd, which was done : Then Sir William pro- 

dahnd a, daim'd him a Rebel :, commanded his Followers to de- 

Rebel ' liver him up, and difperfe, on pain of being treated 

like Traitors : He alfo ifTu'd out Orders for railing the 

Militia •, and made Preparations for a Civil War. 

The People were generally exafperated at this dou- 
ble Dealing with Col. Bacon ) and his Soldiers unani- 
moufly-refolv'd to live and die with him. Inftead of 
marching againft the Indians, as they defign'd, they 


The Hijfory of Virginia. 2 5S 

Semanded to be led back to James-Town ; and in their 
tfarch they fell upon the Lands and Houfes of fuchas 
ided with Sir William. 

The Governour fled to Accomack, on the other fide The 1o- 
.f the. Bay, hoping; the Inhabitants of that County, ^fnorfys 
vhich was at a diftance from thofe Parts where Bacon f rom * , ' WI • 
iad the greateft Intereft, would efpoufe his Quarrel ; 
laving mil no better Difpofition to Peace, than be- 
bre he had proclaimed Col. Bacon a Rebel. 

A little Moderation in him would have rem edy'd 
hefe Diforders, which put the King and Colony to 
ooooo /. Expence to compofe them •, and would have 
indanger'd the Ruin of the Country, had not Ba- 
oris Death prevented if, for upon the Governour's 
eaving James-7own, and abdicating the Government \ 
Zo\. Bacon aflenr led the Gentlemen of the Country 
t Middle-Plantation^ himfelf and four others of the y^?". 
Council figning the Writ of Summons ; where they •?$*** 
)ublifiYd a Declaration of the occafion of their meeting, m inm ' 
nd an Affociation to ftand by Bacon againfl: all Oppo- 
ers, till the King was fully inform'd of the Matter, by 
^rfons deputed Dy General Bacon. 

They declar'd, among other things, that Sir Willi- 
m Berkley had fomented and ftiraup the People to a 
avU War, and withdrawn himfelf from his Government, AnA. pub- 
o the great Afionijhment and Vnfettlement of the Conn- HJb a Dc 
ry. That the Army raised by Bacon was for the pub lick titration 
Jaod ; and that the Country juftify'd him in all his ag&infl the 
Proceedings. Governor. 

In the mean time Sir William was bufy in getting his 
friends together,to make head againit the Rebelsywhofe 
^.eafons wou'd have had little weight with King Charles, 
vhile they argu'd with their Swords in their -Hands. 
Fhe Governour was frill obftinately bent on reducing 
Bacon by Force •, and in order to it, feveral Sloops were 
irovided to transport the Men he had rais'd over the 
Bay. Some of his Parties met with fome of Bacon's, 
ind Rencounters happen'd ', in which fome Men were 
dll'd, and fome taken. 

Thus every thing tended to a Civil War, which 
nuft have had very terrible Effects, for Bacon's Men 
were refolute, and enrag'd at the Hardfhips they en- 
hr'd*, and Sir William Berkley's, animated by the 
Loyalty of tjieir Leader, were as furious and impla- 





256 The Hifiory of Virginia. 

cable as the Generals, whom they call'd and treated 
as Rebels. 

Bacon was much Superiour in Numbers •, but the 
Governour depending on Supplies from England^ 
affur'd hinifelf that He fhou'd at laft be too ftrong 
for him, and all his Adherents. 

The King when he was inform'd of this Rebellion, 
was fo far from hearkning to the*Pretences of Bacon's 
AfTembly, that he order'd a Squadron of Men of War 
to be fitted out, and a Regiment of Soldiers to em- 
bark aboard it for Virginia. This Squadron was com- 
manded by Sir John Berry, and fet Sail about Chrift« 
mas, in the year \676. The Hopes of thefe Succours 
confirm'd the Governour in his Severity, and all 
Terms of Accomodation were offer'd to no purpofe. 
Such was the dreadful Profpect of Affairs in Virginia y 
Co/.Bacon w hen happily for the Peace of the Colony Col. Bacon 
diss. ^y'd at £) n Greens Houfe in Gloufier-Connty. He 
was privately bury'd, and the Place kept very fecret, 
to prevent his Enemies infulting his Body, as would 
have been done, cou'd the Corps have been found j 
for ftri£l Enquiry was made after it, With a Defign 
to expofe his Bones to Publick Infamy. 

The Death of the General broke all the Meafures 
of the Malecontents *, Col. Ingram, his Lieutenant 
General, and Col. Walklate, his Major General, laid 
down their Arms on promife of Pardon. The reft fol- 
low'd their Example, and Sir William Berkley return'd 
to James-Tovm, after Bacon and his AfTembly had been 
about fix Months in PofTeflion of the Government of 
all the Countries on that fide of the Bay, and had in- 
fiuenc'd the Affairs on the other fide. Peace being 
reftor'd, the Governour had leifure to punilh the Cri- 
minals ', but having promis'd them all Pardons,on their 
Submiflion,cou'd not do it without breaking his word. 
Col. Johnfon, and Col. Walklate were turn'd out of all 
their Places, and incapacitated of bearing Offices 
in the Colony for the future. As for his Proceeding 
with the reft, he cou'd not come to any Refolution, 
till he had Orders from England, which he did not 
receive •, for that Affair was left to Commiflioners, 
that were fent on purpofe by King Charles, to inquire 
into it ', and the Lord Colepepper who fucceeded him 
in the Government, was intrufted with the Power of 


Sir Wil- 

The Hifiory of Virginia. 257 

punifhing or pardoning thofe who had a hand in the 
Diforders committed in the late Rebellion, which 
were very fatal to the Country. 

James-Town, the Capital of the Colony, was burnt 
to the Ground by Capt. Richard Lawrence, an Officer 
inder Bacon, who, when his Men refus'd to fet fire 
:o the Houfes, did it with his own Hands: and 
:hus this Unfortunate City , which never defer v'd 
hat Name, fufTer'd fomuch, thatfhe has not fince 
'ecover'd ev'n the Condition fhe was then in. 

All Sorts of Improvements were neglected , 
>tock ran to ruin, the Indians taking an Advantage 
>f thefe Confufions, fell upon the Borders, and but- 
her'd the Inhabitants without Mercy. They de- 
troy'd the Plantations on the Frontiers fo much, 
ha t the Virginians have hardly to this day been able to 
lant them and ftock them, much lefs to extend their 
Sounds : Tho the Savages are brought fo low that 
heir Liberty is precarious, and they are little better 
fian Slaves to the Englifh. Bacon was dead, and the 
"ountry in Peace before Sir John Berry arriv'd with 
is Squadron and the Regiment he had aboard, 
/hich landed in February following. The Souldiers 
rere kept in pay, tho there was no Employment 1677I 
Dr them •, and foon after Sir William Berkley went 
>r England, leaving Herbert Jeffreys, Efq-, hisDepu- H b t 
f Governour. Sir William fell fick on his Arrival in y e ffi. eys 
Ingland^ and hisSicknefs confin'd him to his Chamber E f r q\. 
ill he dy'd. The King who had all the Reafon in the putyGo- 
Vorld to be pleas'd with him, enquir'd often after vsrwr. 
is Health, and forbad him to hazard it, by making 
)o much hafle to Court. Sir William never faw his . '.... 
lajefty. However he had the fatisfaction to hear * ^ !■£ 
le King had done him the Honour to declare, Hewfe/i 
ighly approv'd of his Conduct in Virginia. England, 

He had been Governour of that Colony from the to 
ear 1540, to 16-78. when he dy'd. In all thir- 
? eight years, if we^ take in the Time of the Ufur- 
ation, when his Commiffion was virtually in force, 
ho not actually. 

He was doubtlefs a Great Friend to it by encoura- 
.ng Manufactures and Building. And whatever Incon- 
miencies he was drawn into by the Warmth of his 
oyalty, or Zeal for the Church, ought to be excus'd 
S for 



His CU* 



A Solemn 

i! .* (I 

T/^ Hiftorj of Virginia. 

for the Honour and Honefty of the Man's Intentions. 
Thofe who liv'd on the Spot, have a great Refpe A for 
his Memory, and they who are the belt Judges of his 
Merit, always fpeak of him as a wife and a juft Go- 

' Mr. Jeffreys'* firft Care after Sir William Berkley s 
Departure, was to make Peace with the Indians : To 
that purpofe he held an Afiembly at Middle Planta- 
tion, where Bacon's Convention met, and Overtures 
of Peacerwere agreed on and concluded in May, \677k 
On the 29th of that Month, the Kings of the feve- 
ral Nations were invited to come and fign the Peace, 
and Partake in the Rejoicings of that Day, which the 
Governour celebrated with more than ufual Solem- 
nity, in Commemoration of his Majefty's Birth and 
happy Reftoration. 

The Indian Kings and Queens came to the Place ap- 
pointed, and were kindly receiv'd by the Coflimiffio- 
ners and Council j And Silence being Proclaim'd, 
n the Articles of the Peace were Publickly read, and 
rifSeach of them expounded by Interpreters. After 
Minium, which the Queen of Pamrnh was defir'd to come 
within the Bar of the Court to Sign the Treaty, 
in behalf of her felf , and feveral Nations that 
were united u nder her Subjeaion. She did it chear- 
fnlly, and deliver'd the Inftrument to the Governour, 
of which he gave her back the Counter-part •, and on 
the Exchanging thofe Inftruments the Field-pieces 
were difcharga. 

The Queen, and the other Indian Princes were 
nobly entertain'd by the Englifh , and the next 
day return'd to their Kingdoms. This is the 
laft formal Peace that was made with the Sa- 
vages. Aud now they are funk fo low, that if tne^ 
ihon'd dare to give the Englifh any Difturbance, a 
Troop 'of Militia-Horfe wou'd cut 'em all to Pieces, 
They do the Virginians more good than harm ty 
their Trade and Services, and are fuffer'd to enjo} 
the vain Name of Kingdoms, OioJ Kentifl) Town is ar 
Fropire, compar'd to the biggeft of them, as wil 
appear in another Chapter. The Governour an< 
s Aflembly had giv'n the Law to them in this Treaty 
which, tho they thought hard meafure, they wer 
oblig'd to comply with. , 

The Hijiory ^Virginia. 259 

Mr. Jeffreys dy'd the following Year, and Sir, Henry 167S.' 
"hickely was appointed Deputy-Governour in his Place, sir Henry 
He did nothing Extraordinary or worthy to be c hickdy 
remembred, except procuring art Aft of the Aflem- Ds T ut y 
bly, for building Magazines at the Heads of the four GwOTr> 
»reat Rivers, where Men in conftant Pay were or- 
ler'd to keep Guard, and Stores of Arms, and Am- 
nunition were laid up, to the great Terror of theSa- 
r ages. The fame AfTembly obferving that Tobacco 
vas frequently imported from Carolina and Maryland, 
>aft an Aft againft it, to {heighten thofe Colonies for 
vant of Shipping. 

In the Year 1 679* the Lord Colepepper, whom the J *79- 
Cing had made Governour of Virginia, arriv'd there, ^ e Lor <l 
nd brought with him feveral Afts drawn up mEng- Col eP e P* 
and, to* be paft into Laws. P er Go ' 

He fummon'd an AfTembly, and the Members un- vemr ' 
erftanding he had a Power to call fuch to an Ac- 
ount, as had been concern'd in Bacon's Pvebellion, 
3 keep him in a good Humour, paft feveral Afts, 
therein the Authority and Intereft of the Gover- 
our were inlarg'd, and he in return gave his Con- 
jnt to fome that were grateful to the Country. 

The Lord Colepepper obtain'd a Salary of 2000 /. a 
ear of the King, which before was but 1000 /. He 
ti account of his Quality, got an Allowance of 1 50 /. 
year for Houfe-Rent, and turn'd the ufual Prefents 
lade him by Matters of Ships, of Wine or Provi- 
ons, into a certain Sum of Money, fettling the Rate 
t^os. for each Ship above one hundred Tun, and 
o s. for each below that Burden, which Duty has 
nee been levy'd as flriftly as if it had been given 
y an Aft of the AfTembly. Befides thefe Advanta- 
ss, his Lordfhip had one in view, that wou'd have 
im'd very well to account, had it taken effeft. The 
flembly taking into Confideration their Lofs by 
wering their Coin, which had occafion'd the Coun- 
y's being almoft drain'd of it by Exportion to Places 
here it paft for more than it did in Virginia, or- 
sr'd a Bill to be brought in for railing it. 

The Governour interpofing in the matter, told 
lem, it was the King's Prerogative to alter the Va- 
le of the Coin, and the Prerogative being intruded 
nth him, he wou'd do it by Proclamation. The Af- 
S 2 fembly 




260 The Hiftory of Virginia. 

fembly durft not oppofe fuch an Argument. Thofe 
were not times to difpute thePrerogative Royal \ iothe 
Governour'* Reafons were allow'd, and the Aft dropt. 
His Lordfbip having gain'd his Point, privately 
bought up all the light Pieces of Eight he could get, 
at j j. the Piece ; and then put forth a Proclamation, 
to raife the Value of them to 6 Shillings : He foon af- 
ter produc'd an Order to pay and disband the Regi- 
ment that had been fent over by Sir John Berry •, and 
accordingly he paid them off with thofe Pieces at s s. a 
piece 1 and they were fore'd to take them at that rate. 
ThisLord however found very great Inconvemencies 
by his railing the Com, as well on account of his own 
Sallary, his Duty on Ship?,** of the King s Taxes,which 
were paid in Pieces of Eight, at 6 s. a piece : The lois 
was like to be more than his Gain, by injuring the poor 
Soldiers. He affefted a Defpotick way of governing } 
and by his Proclamation repeal'd feveral Laws. 1 he 
yiriinians began to be afraid that the Arts of their 
Aflembly would ftand in force no longer than the 
Governour mould think fir, and that his Mill and 
VUafure would be fet over them inftead of Laws and 
Ordinances. , .. , . - 

This occafion'd frefti Murmurs; and had. not 41* 
cons Rebellion been fo lately fupprefs'd, it might have 
ended in Mutiny. The AfTembly at their next Settlor^ 
to put a flop to the like Evils, paft a particular Aft 
to provide againft the ill Conveniences of them. ; 

The Lord Colepepper did not ftay quite a V ear in 
Virginia, before he embark'd for England : He lett 
Sir Hcnly Chkkelv his Deputy Governour the Coun- 
try well fettled, and the Crop fo good, that the Plan- 
ters made too much Tobacco, by which the Marke 
was glutted, and the Price fell yet lower • And thi! 
produc'd a new Riot •, for fome of the Inhabitants, t< 
^*v7" Sife the Price aareed with their Neighbours, no 
to Tobac ng ™*™*^ own Tobacco> but ail the Plant 

round the Country, where-ever they found them 
while they were yet in their Beds. 

Accordingly they cut up their own nrir , and thei 
did fo in other Plantations, whether the Owners cor 

fCn TheV°dea°royd a great deal of fweet-fcented Tc 
bacco, and threaten^ to cut up all ; but they ha 


The Hiftory 0/ Virginia. 261 

not Courage enough to go through with their Defign. 
The Offenders were feiz'd, imprifon'd, try'd, and 
were condemn'd to be Hang'd : 1 heir Plant- 
cutting being adjudg'd to be Felony and Sedition ; 
and was declar'd to be fo by an A£l or the next 

The Lord Colepepper returning in the following 1*89. 
year, began to think of trumping up his Title to the 
Northern Neck, a large Territory, containing fever 
ral Counties. 

Thele Counties had the Privilege offending Repre- 
fentatives to the AfTembly, as well as the other : And 
the AfTembly being the Supream Court to which all 
others were to appeal, he was afraid his Propriety 
would never be allow'd by them :, wherefore he con- 
triv'd to get the Appeals out of their hands } and to 
that end, rais'd fuch Divifions between the Reprefen- 
tatives and Council, that the former pretending to 
the fole Power of Appeals, were encourag'd in their 
Pretences fecretly by the Governour,till he had Inftru- 
ctions from the King *, to whom having reprefented 
the Quarrel to the disadvantage of the Representatives, 
his Majefty order'd that all Appeals mould be made 
to the Governour and Council: And now this Noble 
Lord thought he might put in his Claim to the Nor- ji e i or ^ 
them Neck, by a Grant from the Crown. There Coel pep- 
were feveral others concern'd in t^Q Patent j and yergets 
ihefe he bought off : After which, he prevail'd with the Nor- 
his Coufin Mr. Spencer, Secretary of Virginia, who thern 
liv'd in the Northern Neck, to fide with the Patent -, Neck ' 
which he did till he dy'd : For his Lordfhip, notwith- 
Handing he had broken 'the old Co.iftitution of the 
AfTembly, thought fit to proceed by fair Means, and 
engage as many of the Inhabitants as he cou'd to own 
his Propriety ; as he did Col. Philip Ludwell, when 
he was in England, in the Year 1 69 o. 

This Gentleman undertook to manage his Matters 
for him , but could make nothing of it. 

Col. George Brent, and Col> William Fk&hugh, who 
alfo were Inhabitants of the Neck, engag'd, as Col, 
Ludwell had done, to lerve him as their Proprietor :, 
but had no better Succefs than Col. Ludwell. 

The People of the Neck addrefs'd the AfTembly, 

and they to the King-, which had no effect, becaufe 

S 3 they 


../ - 


262 The Hiftory of Virginia. 

they had no Agent in England to follicite the Affair : 
So the Inhabitants being tir'd with expecting Relief in 
vain, and weary'd by vexatious Suits with the Pro- 
prietor's Agents, thought it their Intereft to com- 
pound with him, and pay him Quit-Rent. The firft 
that did it was Col. Richard Lee, one of the Council ^ 
whofe Example was follow'd by the reft : And Col. 
Robert Carter,, another of the Council, and one of the 
greateft Freeholders of the Northern Neck, is at this 
time the Proprietor's Agent. 

We have been the longer on this Propriety, be- 
caufe it was the Occafion of altering the Conftitution 
of the Government •, and befides is a very large Par- 
cel of the Colony. 

In other things his Lordfhip's Adminiftration was 
very commendable j he regulated feveral Abufes that 
had crept into the Praftice of the Courts, and pre- 
vented the Chicanry, fo much complain'd of in Eng- 
land, which was beginning to corrupt the Law, and 
leffen'd the Expence the Clerks had contriv'd to 
put their Clients to. Hedemolifh'd the Forts built by 
Sir Henry Chickely, they being a great Charge, and 
of little ufe to the Country : In their ftead, he pro- 
cur'd an Aft to be paft, for fome Troops of Horfe to 
range on the Borders by turns, till there was no more 
fear of the Indians. 

In the year 1 ^83. he return'd to England, and would 
20 thither no more : upon which Francis Lord Howard 
of Effingham was fent over Governour. The Lord 
ard of Ef Qjlepepper had declar'd his Kinmmn Mr. Spencer Prefi- 
nngham, ^^of^e Council*, tho there were other Mem- 
Oijetwr. k en w | 10 wit | 1 more rea f on pretended to that Honour, 
being Elder than he ^ and the oldeft Counfellour us'd 
always to be Prefident -, as the Prefident in the Ab- 
fence of the Governour, or Deputy Governour, al- 
ways fupplies his Place. 

Mr. Spencer's Prefidency was attended with nothing 
remarkable. And the next Year, 1^84. the Lord 
Howard arriv'd, with the fame Refolution to get Mo- 
ney as his PredecelTor had done : He condescended to 
ihare the Fees with his Clerks *, oblig'd all Lawyers 
and Schoolmafters to take out Licenfes to teach and 
plead *, for which they paid according to their Abili- 
ties : He extorted exceihve Fees for fealing Probats 



6% , 

The Hiftory of Virginia. 26 3 

,->f Wills, and Letters of Adminiftration, without 
confidering the Value of the Eftates of the Deceas'd ; 
He threw Men into Prifon, and kept them there 
without Trials : He repeal'd Laws by Proclamation,, 
is much as in him lay \ for the Judges did not mind 
thofe Proclamations, but allow'd the Laws to be in 
is full force as ever, one excepted •, and that was th^ 
Law for paying Quit- Rent:, by vHiich the Planters 
were permitted to pay Quit-Rent in Tobacco at 2 d. 
1 Pound Tobacco falling afterwards, that Law was 
repeal'd by Proclamation, and the Payment deman- 
ded in Money or Tobacco at a Penny a Pound. 

To which Order the Virginians fubmitted, no Man 
daring in that Cafe to ftand Trial with the Gover- 
nour, efpecially becaufe the Quit- Rent was referv'd 
In Money by the Words of his Patent. 

This Lord, by many other ExafHom, fo exafperated 
the Colony, that they fen t Col. Ludwell over to Eng- 
land^ to make their Complaints to the King. Mr. 
Ludwell did all that could be expected from a wife 
and a faithful Agent *, but did not prevail to have his 
Lord (hip rem ov'd. 

We are oblig'd for Connection of things, fometimes 
to make bold with Chronology, and the Conveni- 
ence the Reader will find in it, will, we hope, more 
than excufe the Freedom we take. 

In the Year i^Sj. thatfevere Duty, which has fo 1685. 
long loaded Tobacco, and been the occafion of felling The Impojl 
manythoufand Hogfheads, at rid. a Hogfhead, ?^on Tobacco, 
ther than pay the Cuftom and Charges, was impos'd 
on this Commodity, three Months after King James's 
coming to the Crown : It was obtain'd when the 
Parliament were in a warm fit of Loyalty, juft on the 
Duke of Monmouth's Landing. 

The Bill had been read before, but 'tis thought 
w r ould not have pafs'd fo eafily, if the Duke of Mon- 
mouth had not landed opportunely, and quicken'd it 
by his Rebellion. 

This heavy Imposition has been a great Difcoarage- 
ment to the Induftry of the Plantation, and is the 
fource of all the Miferies the Planters finee fuffer'd, 
having kept them poor, and depriv'd them of the 
Means to fupport themfelves in the long War that 
follow'd upon the Revolution. 

S 4. TIis 


eon Efq* 
A College 
fet on foot, 

l ; ran. Ni- 

The Hiftory of Virginia. 

The Lord Howard fummon'd an AfTembly * 7 who 
laid the firft Tax impos'd upon Liquors imported from 
the other Plantations. The Pretence was for rebuil- 
ding the State-houfe •, which had lain in Ames ever 
fmce Capt. Lawrence burnt James-Town. 

His Lordfhip alfo erected a Court of Chancery j 
and took away that Jurifdiction from the General 
Court : He affum'd the Office of Chancellour } and 
the Counfellours were his Matters. He would not 
hold this Court in the State-houfe, becaufe the Gene- 
ral Court us'd to fit there : And therefore in oppofi- 
tion to them, he heard Caufes in a Dining-room in a 
private Houfe. 

He exacted exorbitant Fees in his New Court j 
and made it turn very much to account. This No- 
velty was laid afide on his Lordfhip's going for Eng- 
land - and the General Court again refum'd their An- 
tient Jurifdiction •, which was as old as the Colony. 

As the Lord Howard had fhown an extraordinary 
Joy on King James's Acceftion to the Throne j an 
Account ef which waspublihYd in the Gazette : So he 
as joyfully proclaim'd King William on the Revoluti- 
on ^ and foon after went for England, leaving Natha- 
niel Bacon Efquire, Father of Col. Bacon, Prefident : 
During whofe Adminiftration the Project of a College 
firfF began : A Scheme of it was drawn up by the 
Projectors, and prefented to the Prefident and Coun- 
' cil •, who approving of it, the Matter was prepar'd to 
be laid before the AfTembly. 

The Prefjdent had not time to call one himfelf j for 
'twas not long before Francis Nicholfon Efq', arriv'd, 
with the Character of the Lord Howard's Lieutenant. 
, This Gentleman on his Arrival, ftudy'd to grow Po- 
pular, by all the winning Arts which Perfons in Pow- 
er make ufe of, to engage the People : He made him- 
felf familiar with them •, was follicitous about impro- 
ving Trade, and encouraging Manufactures : He in- 
ihtuted Publick Games ^ and allotted Prizes to fuch 
as excell'd in Hiding, Running, Shooting, Wreft- 
Jing, and Back-fword. He enter'd heartily into the 
Project of the College. 

That the Projeft might not Itand ftill for want of 
Encouragement from the AlTembly, which was not 
XhQi\ fitting, a private Su|>fcription was propos'd, 


the Hiftory of Virginia. 26 5 

and agreed to by the Governour, and two thou fan d 
five hundred Pounds fubfcrib'd *, Mr. Nkholfon and the 
Council fetting the other Gentlemen of the Colony a 
good Example. The London Merchants alfo contri- 
buted generoufly towards it: And in the next Year, 
when the Lieutenant Governour fummon'd an AfTem- 
bly, the Matter was mov'd to them *, who zealoufly 
engag'd in it, drew up an Addrefs to their Ma jellies 
King William and Queen Mary, to grant a Charter 
for it •, and fent the Reverend Mr. James Blair into 
England, to prefent it, and follicite the Affair. 

The AiTembly pafs'd an Aft for the Encourage- 
ment of the Linnen Manufactures, the Leather Trade, 
&c. and another for Cohabitation : Yet all the Laws 
for it availed nothing -, no Town was built by them ^ 
nor even James-Town rebuilt to the State 'twas in be- 
fore 'twas burnt in the Rebellion. 

Mr. Nicholfon pay'd an extraordinary Refpeft to 
thefe and all other Afts of the AiTembly, governing 
himfelf always ftriftly by them in the General 

The Lord Howard was difmifs'd from being Princi- 1 691. 
pal Governour in the Year 1692. and his Place fup- Sir Edm. 
ply'd by Sir Edmund Andros •, who had been Gover- A " d ™s 
nour of New-England. G ~" 

Sir Edmund arriv'd in February -, and began his Go- 
vernment with calling an AiTembly. Thefe Repre- 
fentatives were fo manag'd by the Governour, that 
they fufpended the Law for Cohabitation, which 
the Merchants of London were againft \ and found it 
for their Eafe and Advantage to have the Trade alike 
open in all parts of the Capital Rivers ', and the Ma- 
tters of their Ships could not endure to think of lying 
under a Fort, or at Key, when they could come up to 
the Door of a Planter or Factor *, live merrily and 
plentifully at his Houfe, and ^unload and load at 

In England, Mr. Neal, the famous Projector, had 
procur'd a Patent to be Poft-Mafter-General of thofe 
Parts of America. This AiTembly took the Patent 
into Confideration, paft an Aft in favour of it ', but 
by reafon of the diftance of one Houfe from another, 
*£was found to be impracticable, 





266 The Hiflory of Virginia. 

Low- ^ In the following Year there happen 'd a moft violent 

tiffi* Storm in this Province, which ftopt the Courfeof 
mi.Tranf.thQ antient Channels, and made fome where never 
* P- were any : By which means, between the Bounds of 
Virginia and Newcafile in Penfilvania, are many na- 
vigable Rivers for Sloops and fmall Veflels. 

Sir Edmund Andros was very fond of introducing 
the Statutes and Laws of England *, and even fuch as 
related to particular Cuftoms in that Kingdom ', which 
was like to have brought all things into Confufion in 
the Courts of Juftice : For the A&s of the Aflembly 
being defpis'd, thofe Laws that were the beft Title 
molt of the Planters had to their Eftates, were forc'd 
to give way to Cuftoms and Ufages adapted to the 
Tenures in England : By which the Virginians were 
alarm'd, as if they were all at once threaten 'd to be 
outed of their Holds. 

No body knew what was Law j and a great Man 
was lb^ free, as to declare frequently, They had none 
of them any Right to their hands : Tho what he meant . 
by it was a Myftery he either cou'd not or wou'd not 

Sir Edmund brought over the Charter for the Col- 
lege *, and Dr. fhomas Bray went thither to be Pre- 
fident of it ~ 7 carrying with him a Library, well cho- 
fen for the Uies it was to be put to. 

Several ProfefTors alfo were preparing to go over^ 
but all that was done and given towards it came to 
nothing : The People were very ready to fubfcribe, 
but not fo ready to pay in their Money : However, 
Contributions were fent from England *, which were 
promoted by the Example of their Majefties King 
William and Queen Mary^ of Glorious Memory •, who 
by their own Royal Bounty, invited others to afiift fo 
charitable an Undertaking : And there was Money 
enough rais'd to build'the College •, of which the Foun- 
dation was laid foon after Sir Edmoud Andros's Ar- 

This Gentleman fet up feveral Manufactures, and 
Fulling-M ills', and was earner! with the Planters to 
propagate Cotton : He regulated the Management of 
the Secretary's Office ^ which had been mightily ne- 
gleet -:l fince Bacon's, Rebellion. He commanded all 
the Publfck Papers and Record? to be forted,and kept 


The Hlftory of Virginia. 267 

in exa& Order •, and when the State-houfe was burnt, 
he was careful to have them preferv'd •, and all that 
could be fav'd, to be again forted and regifter'd : He 
put the Clerks into a Method of difpatching Bufinefs ', 
and by thefe and other commendable Afts, went a 
areat way in gaining the Efteem of the People. 
& He was endeavouring to find out eafy Means tore- 
build the State-houfe, which might not be burdenfome 
to the People \ and in all likelihood would have 
effe&ed it, had his ftay been longer. 

In the Year 1 69 7. "Admiral NeviN Squadron, which 
had been at the Havana looking after Monfieur Potn- 
tL and the French Squadron, touch'd in their return 
horns ^Virginia: The Admiral, Commodore Mees, 
Capt. Lytcot, Capt. Holms, Capt. Bellwood,C^t. 
Dyer, ^pt.Studley, Capt. Fojler, all the Dutch Cap- 
tains out of 6 but one, and raoft of their Men, were 
dead of an Infeftious Difeafe •, which the Remainder 
of their Crew brought to Virginia with them : And 
thelnfeaionfpreadin^^-Toiw, and the Country 
on that River carrying off feveral of the Inhabitants: 
The Plantation continu'd fickly a long time af- 
ter it. 

In November, itfp8. Colonel Nicholfon, who l6 z 9 . 
, went from Virginia to Maryland, return'd to Vir- col Ni- 
ginia, with the Charafter of Governour •, He re- cholfon 
mov'd the Seat of his Government from James-Tow n Governor. 
to Middle-Plantation j where he began to build a 
City in Honour of the King*, mark'd out the Streets 
in the Form of a W. and call'd the Town Williamf- 

He procur'd a (lately Fabrick to be built there, o- 
ver againft the College -, and gave it the Name of the 
Capitol. Some Perfons, who were not endow'd with 
any publick Principle, were againft this Expenfe : 
The Impofitions with which they were loaded in 
England and Virginia, keeping them always low. And 
now a Tax of 15 s. upon each Chriftian Servant •, and 
20 s. for each Negro, w 7 as laid upon them. Befides, 
this Year was very fickly, and the Crop fo fliort, that 
the Ships return'd home with not above one third part 
of their Loading} but the next was healthy and plen- 
tiful. - 





The Hi ft or y of Virginia. 

About the Year 1700. a Pirate came itito Lynha- 
ven-Biy, near the Mouth of James-River, and took 
putfome Merchant-Ships that were fall'n down there, 
in order to fail for England. It happen'd that a fmali 
VefTel came into the Bay, and faw the Pirate engag'd 
with one of the Merchant-men. This Veflel flipt by 
the Pirate, and got into the River •, where the Sho- 
ram, a Fifth Rate Man of War, Capt. Pajfenger Com- 
mander, lay, being newly arriv'd from England. 

There was another Man of War, a Sixth Rate, 
Capt. Aldred Commander, in Elizabeth-River •, but 
that was on the Careen, fitting out for a homeward 

The Mafter of the fmall VefTel polled to Kiquottn^ 
where the Governour happen'd to be at that time, 
to fend away his Difpatches for England ; and Capt. 
Pajfenger was alfo gone thither to wait upon him, and 
pay his Refpe&s to him on his Arrival. 

When the Captain heard of the Pirate's being in the 
Bay, he was for haflening to his Ship as fan; as he 
could, in hopes to come up with him. The Gover- 
nour defir'd him to ftay a little, and he wou'd 
accompany him *, fo he and Capt. Pajfenger put to Sea \ 
and getting between the Capes and the River, forc'd 
the Pirate to come to an Engagement. 

The Fight was ftiarp and bloody \ but at laft the 
. Pirate (truck, and furrender'd at Difcretion •, the 
takes 1 vri- c a p ta i n f the Privateer and his Crew being to be 
vate f- left to the King's Mercy. 

It was reprefented by the Agents of the Colony of 
New-Iork to King William, that Virginia being fe- 
cur'd from the Indians and French by New-York, as by 
a Barrier, the Virginians ought to contribute towards 
building the Fort there. 

The King referr'd the Matter to the AfTembly of 
Virginia - y and the Governour thinking it a rea- 
fonable Propofal, very zealoufly efpous'd it. The 
AfTembly however drew up a Remonftrance againft 
it, to this purpofe ', That neither the ports then in Be- 
ing, nor any other that might be built in the Province of 
New- York, could in the Icafi avail to the Defence and 
Security of Virginia ; for that either the French or the 
Indians might invade that Colony^ and not come within 
'1 o Milts of any fuc h For to 


The Go- 

The Hifiory of Virginia. 269 

this Remonftrance put aitop to the Affair in the 
Aflembly : Whereupon the Governour contributed 
the poo /. himfelf, the Sum that was demanded of the 
Virginians; This was (o generous an Aftion, that it 
feems to bear feme Refemblance with that Roman 
Spirit, which the Heroes of all Ages fince have been 
proud to imitate ; and the Glory of it, was, what all 
the Governor's Enemies adrnir'd»and envy'd. 

Col. Ouarryot Virginia, then in England, declard 
in a Memorial, deliver'd to the Council of Trade af- 
ter Queen Anne 's Acceffion to the Throne-, T : 
foon as Governour Nicholfon found the Affemblyof\ u> 
ginia wou'd not fee their own Interefi, nor comply with her 
Makftys Orders, he went immediately to New-York j 
and, out of 'his great Zeal to the Queen sSevjice and 
the Security of her Province, he gave his own Bills for 
poo /. to anfwer the Quota of Virginia ; wholly depen- 
ding on her Majefty's Favour, to reimburse him out of 
the Revenues of that Province. 

And as Col. NiclMfon was generous in promoting 
the Security of the Province of New Tork, fo was he 
to encourage fuch as fought for the Defence of that of 
New-England in the time of the Indian War : When 
two New-England Women having furpriz'd and kill'd 
10 or 12 Indians, and had a Gift from the AfTembly 
there, he fent them aifo a very noble Prefent. 

In the Year 1701. the Governour hearing the 
French Privateers were bufy on the Coafts, laid an 
Embargo on all Ships, to prevent their going out, 
and falling into their hands. The fame Year fome 
Camels were brought thither in fome Guinea Ships •, 
Thofe Beafts would carry 1200 Weight : But we have 
not heard how they thrivd there -, and iuppofe the 
■:ians fucceeded with them no better ^than the 
Barbadians ; who were foon fore'd to lay down that 
fort of Carnage. 

On the Sth oWBohr, i -25. there happer. d 
violent Hurricane at Virginia ; which was the more 
remarkable, becaule that Country is not fubjeet to fuch 
Accidents. In this Tempeft ieveral Ships w e re d 1 wsi 
afhore in their Harbours', and othersdamag'd in their 
Mafts and Rigging, and much Mifchief done by it in 
the Plantations, 








Earl of 







The Hiftory of Virginia. 

In the following Year Col. Nicholfon return'd to 
England, having in his Government deferv'd a better 
Character of the Province of Virginia, than the late 
Author of the Hiftory of that Country ispleas'dto 
beftow upon him. The Reception he met with at 
Court, is a fufficient Demonftration that her Majefty 
approv'd of his Conducl •, and all the World niuft 
condemn that Hiftorian, otherwife Judicious and Elo- 
quent, for fuffering a private Pique to prevail over 
the Juftice and Gratitude which was due to the Me- 
rit of the Governour. 

He was fucceeded by George Earl of Orkney, Lieu- 
tenant General of Her Majefty's Armies } whofe 
Deputy is Benjamin Notte Efq-, During their Autho- 
rity nothing extraordinary has happen'd in Virginia , 
which Colony is now in a fafe and flourifhing Conditi- 
on, having nojuft reafon to complain of any thing but 
thofe Taxes, which the Prefer vation of their Re- 
ligion and Liberty at this time makes necefTary. 


Containing a Geographical Defcription of Vir- 
ginia ; Of the Towns, Ports, Rivers, 
Forts, &c. 

TN the former Chapter we have fhewn how feveral 
A Provinces, that at firft went all under the Name of 
Virginia, were divided from it, by Patents granted 
to other Proprietors*, who gave them other Names, 
as New-England, New-York, Maryland, &c. to the 
North •, and Carolina to the South : All which were 
a part of the Country that was by Queen Elizabeth 
call'd Virginia. 

In procefs of Time that Name was loft to all, ex- 
cept the Tra£t of Land lying along the Bay of Chefa- 
peac ;, in which are included Virginia and Maryland ; 
and both in common Difcourfe, are ftill caji'd Vir- 
ginia : But the Province that's properly fo call'd, is 
bounded on the North by the great River Patowmack , 
which parts it from Maryland ; and on the South, 


The Hiftory of Virginia. 271 

by Carolina : On the Eaft it has the Virginian Sea \ and Bounds. 
on the Weft and North- Weft, thofe Wildernefies 
that have fo often been in vain attempted to be Difco- 
cover'd j and are fuppos'd to ftretch themfelves to the 
Californian Sea. 

The Bounds of this Country are not well fettled -, 
and in the Year 1703. the Aflembly had it under Con- 
fideration to fix them : But by common Computati- 
on, 'tis reckon'd to reach 200 Miles North from 
Point Comfort at the Mouth of Chefapeac Bay, and two 
hundred Miles South, including all the Land, Weft 
and North-Weft, from the Weftern or Virginian, to 
the Californian Sea, with the Wands on both Seas with- 
in 1 00 Miles of the Continent. 

Both this Province and that 0$ Maryland are fitu- Chefape- 
ate on the Great Bay of Chefapeac •, whofe Mouth is ac Bsy. 
Cape Henry on the South, and Cape Charles on the 
North. The Water in the Channel is for the moft 
part 9 Fathom deep \ but in fome places not a- 

DOVe 7. ■ : ■ ' ' : ,. . 

The Bay is eighteen Miles broad-, and lies -in 3 7 
Degrees North latitude. It runs about 100 Leagues 
up in the Country •, and is feven Miles over, 60 
Leagues within Land. This is what our Modern 
Sailors call the Capes of Virginia. 

It receives into it abundance of Navigable Rivers j 
which, like thofe in the North of England, flowing in- 
to the Humher, all loofe themfelves in this Bay •, k> big, 
that 'tis faid all the Shipping in Europe can ride there. 
In it are feveral little Iflands } fome of which are 

Virginia is divided into 25 Counties-, in which are 
4 p Parifhes-, 34 with Incumbents on them, and ij 
vacant. The latter are diftinguifh'd by the Let- 
ter V. 

We fliall begin with thofe that lie on James-River, 
the moft Southern in the Province : Twas, as has 
been faid, cali'd Powhatanby the Indians. Here the 
Englifh firft fettled, and built two Forts for their 
Defence : but thefe are fince demolifhU It runs 
140 Miles up in the Country -, and is near a Mile 
broad as high as James-City. The firft County on 
the South tide of it, is Norfolk County -, which bor- 
ders on Carolina, 


< km 



-272 The Hifibry of Virginia. 

In this Shire ftands the Panjh °f Elizabeth ; it 
fo^T / contains 11201* Acres, andlTwater'd by Elizabeth- 
River which rifes in it, and runs into J^ww-River, 
betwe'en £#-Bay and Wefl-^y. The next is, 

Princefs- Ann-County ontheCoaft: In which are 
28305 Acres of Land, and the Pariih of Lynhaven V, 
below Cape Henry. The next is, 

Nanfemund-County : In which are 13 11 72 Acres 
of Land, and three Parifhes •, Vpper Pariflj, Lower 
Parijh, and Chuckatuck, all vacant. The River Nan- 
famond rifes in this Shire, and falls into J^w-River, 
above Bennet's Creek. The next is, 

Ifle-of- White -County : In which are 1427^ Acres 
of Land, and two Parifhes, Warwick-Squeek and New- 
port. Here's alfo a Spring that vents almoft as great 
a Source of Water as Holy-Well in Wales. The next 


Swry-County : In which are 1 1 1050 Acres of Land, 
and two Parifhes, Southward V. and Lyons-Creeh 
The next is, 

Henrico-County, the upperrnoft on the South-fide 
of James-River j it contains 148787 Acres of Land, 
and two Parifhes, Henrico and Brifiol. The next over 
againft it on the North-fide of the River are, 

Prince George and Charles-City , Counties : In 
which are 1 51 23 p Acres of Land, and three Parifhes *, 
Martin Brandon, Wyanoke, Weftover. The Parifhes 
in the three laft Counties are all fupply'd with Mi- 
nifters. In the County of Henrico, there was a Town 
call'd Henricopolis, which is falPn to decay. Twenty 
Miles above the Falls, is the Monacan Town, where 
the French Refuges have fettled j and next below 
CW/w-County on the North- fide of the River is, 

James-Coxmty : In which are 10^83^2 Acres of 
Land, and five Parifhes, of which one lies on the 
other fide of the River, as does part of the Coun- 
ty. The Parifhes are Walli?igford and Wilmington, 
James-City^ Merchants Hundred V. on the South-fide 
of the River, and Bruton. This is reckon'd the chief 
County, becaufe, 

James-City^ ftands in it, in a Pemnfula on the 
North-fide of James-KiVQX, about 40 Miles from the 
Mouth of it. There are feveral Brick Houfes in it j 
and Taverns and Eating Houfes, for the Convenience 


The Hiftory of Virginia, 
of Voyagers and Travellers : But the Buildings are 
not many nor contiguous, not above ^o or 7° Hou- 
fes in alii In this Town there were formerly two or 
ttree Forts, and many fair Streets •, but they have 
been ruin'd by Fire and Revolutions in the Govern- 
ment, or rather in the Dilpofition of the Governours. 
The Removal of the Courts of Juftice to Williamftadt, 
by Col. Nicholfon^ His refiding and holding the Sef- 
fions of AfTembly and General Court there, and the 
building the College there, help'd to keep James- 
Town in the mean Condition he found it •, and the 
Humour of the Virginians to live upon Plantations, 
feem'd to forbid that City to hope for an Inereafe of 
Houfes and Inhabitants. Not far from James-City 
Sir William Berkley built a handfome Houfe for his Re- 
sidence, calPd Greenfpring, where is a Spring focold, 
that 'tis dangerous to drink of it in the Summer time. 
In the fame County ftands, 

Williamsburgh? Which before the late Governour 
remov'd thither, was call'd Middle Plantation ; 'tis 
about 7 Miles from James-City within Land. In this 
Town are 20 or 30 Houfes, and the Publick AiTem- 
blies and Courts are held there \ yet neither thefe 
Advantages, nor that of the College and Academy 
founded there, cou'd procure it a better Figure than 
that of a Country Village. Here is a fmall Fort or 
rather Battery mounted with 10 or 12 Guns, which 
were brought thither from James-City by order of 
Col. Nicholfon, who caus'd a State-houfe or Capital 
to be erected, and feveral Streets to be laid out in the 
Form of a W\ but we do not hear that a V, or one 
Angle of it is yet finiuYd, or ever likely to be fo : For 
'tis probable that whenever the Government, or the 
People (hall think of building a City, they will re- 
turn to their Old Capital, James-City. The next 
County to this is, 

Tork-Cmnty. It lies between the two Rivers^ 
James-River, and 7V&-River, and contains 60767 
Acres of Land, and three Parifiies •, Hampton, V, 
rorkj and NewPokofon. The latter ftands at the 
Mouth of Tork-RvfQr. The next County to it 

Warwick-County : In which' are 38444. Acres of 
Land, and 2 Parifhes, DettbyVytnd Mulberry-lUxnd K. 



274 The Hi/lory of Virginia. 

The River Pokofon riles in it, and runs into the Bay 
of Chefapeac near the Mouth of TwJ-River. The-next 

to this is, 

Elizjabeth~C\Vjj. and County, the leaft in Virginia, 
containing but 19000 Acres or Land, and one Parifh. 
Elizabeth-City, which tho never very great, is lefs 
than when 'twas firft built : It had then feveral good 
Houles of Brick and Stone, and a Fort was rais'd there 
in the Dutch- War •, all which are Ruins already, 
there being a fort of Fatality which attends the Towns 
in Virginia, fo that they are like never to come to any 
thing, unlefs the very nature of the Inhabitants is 
quite alter'd :, for they have now nothing fo little in 
their thoughts, as the building of Towns. The Parifh- 
Church of Elizabeth-City is fupply'd with a Mini- 
fter. CrofTing the Neck of Land to Pokofon, we 
come to the Mouth of York-River, which the Indi- 
ans csbll'd Pamunky, a Name the upper Branch of this 
"River in King Williams County ftill retains. 

This River is navigable 60 Miles with Great Ships, 
and with Ketches and Sloops 3 o more. It runs the fame 
Courfe withj ames- River for an 1 00 Miles, and fo near 
it,that in fome Places 'tis not above 5 Miles, over Land 
from one to the other •, which Land between them 
'being fo well accomodated for Navigation, and fo 
near two fuch great Rivers, is belt inhabited :, and 
here the Richeft Planters are feated. After the laft 
Indian MaiTacre, 'twas propos'd to draw a Pale from 
one River to the other, and wholly clearing the 
Country of Savages, to live fecure between the two 
Rivers, where they had the Conveniency of Ships 
coming within a few Miles of every Houfe •, w«~ 
muft go up higher into the Country, and following 
the Courfe of "he River through Elizabeth, War- 
wick and 2V£-Counties, beforemiention'd, we come 

New Kent •, Containing 171 3*4 Acres of Land. 
This is one of the largeft and mod populous Coun- 
ties in Virginia. Tis watered by the Southern Branch 
of the River York, and has two Parifhes in \t,Blifsla?id 
and St. Peter's. The Weftern Bounds of this County, 
and the next, are certain Hills, out of which iiTue 
forth a Glittering Sand, like the Filings of Brafs, 
which Sand was, as is fhewn in the Hiflory, mifta- 


The Hiftory of Virginia. 27$ 

ken, for Gold by the firft Planters. The next Coun- 
ty to this nearer the Falls is, 

King William-County : In which are 843 24. Acres, 
and one Parifli, St. Johns : Pamunky-River runs thro* 
it \ 'tis the Southern Branch of Tork-Rivcr. On the 
South of this lies, 

King and Queens-Coxmty \ Containing 131 71 6 A- 
cres of Land, and two Parifhes, Straton-Major, and 
St. Stephens. Chicohomony-River rifes in it, and falls 
into James-River, near Bromfield's Plantation. From 
this County, returning thro' King William^Connty, 
and New-Kent, down the North-more of 2V£-River, 
we come to, 

Gloucefter-Coxmty , the beft Peopl'd of any in the 
Country. It has 142450 Acres of Land in it, and 4 
Parifh Churches, Perfo, Abington, Ware and King- 
fton. Tis parted from, 

Middlefex-County,by the River Prankitan^which is 
navigable twenty or thirty Miles up,containing 4^500 
Acres, and one Parifh, Chrifi-Church. The County 
of Middlesex lies on the South Shoar of Rappahanock- 
River, which is very broad, deep, and navigable 
40 Miles within Land, where 'tis remarkable that the 
Heads of Tork-Kivtr and Rappahanock-Rivzr, iflue out 
of low marfhy Ground, and not of Hills and Moun- 
tains, as other Rivers do. Above Middle/ex, towards 
the Falls, is Rappahanock \ or, 

EJfex- County : Containing 1 40^20 Acres of Land. 
In this County and Middlesex lies the Great Swamp, 
or Bog, call'd the Dragon-fwamp, 'tis near 60 Miles, 
long, and is over-run with Bryars, Thorns, and wild 
Beafts,which herd there,becaufe the Place being almoft 
inacceflible, the Inhabitants can't come at them, at 
leaft not fo eafily as in the Woods and Savana's. In 
this County ftands three Parifhes, South Farnham, 
Sittingburn V, St. Mary's. The South-fide of it is wa- 
ter'd by Mattapony, theWeftern Branch ofTonfc-River, 
which is Navigable. Above it are the Counties of, 

Richmond and Stafford: A Survey of which I have 
not feen •, they are new Counties, and are not in the 
old Surveys, going all by the Name of Rappahanock 
In thefe are three Parifhes , Nbrth-Famham in 
Richmond, and St.Pauls V, and Overworton in Stafford- 
County. The next below it, between Rappahanock^ 
mdPatowmack, is, T 2 Wcji- 




The Hifiory of Virginia. 

Weflmore land-County , which is very larger but 
our Author has not communicated the Number of 
Acres. It has two Parifhes in it, Copeley and WaJJnng- 
ton. Below it lies the County of, 

Lancafier^ On the North-Shore of Rappahanoch 
River •, 'tis water'd by the River Cartomain, or Coro- 
toman, which runs into- Rappaha?wck-Bj.VQr, about 
3 Leagues from the Mouth of it. There are two 
Rififhes in this County, Chrift-Church and St. Marys 
Whlte-Chappel. The next to this and the laft in the 
Province on the South Shoar of Patowmack, is, 

Northumberland-County : In which are two Parifh- 
Churches, P air f eld and Bowtracy V, and Wiccomoco. 
There is a River of the fame Name Wiccomoco, 
which Rifes in this County, and runs into the Bay, 
at the Mouth of Patowmack-River, which is the Nor- 
thern Bounds of Virginia, and divides it from Mary- 
land. The Neck of Land from Wiccomoco to the Bay 
is what goes by the Name of the Northern Neck, 
which we often mention'd in the firft Chapter. 
We muft now crofs over the Bay ; and all along the 
Shoar from Cape Charles, at the Mouth of the Bay, to 
the River Pocemoke, which divides it from Maryland 
on the Eaftern Bounds, the Province of Virginia ftill 
continues, and there are two Counties in it : 

Accomack \ Which retains its Indian Name. This 
Is the largeft County in Virginia, and contains 200.923 
Acres of Land. 'Tis not fo Populous as thofe on the 
other fide of the Bay, and has but one Parifh in it, 
that of Accomack, which is without a Minifter. The 
River ChiJJimeJfex rifes in this County, as do feveral 
others of lefs Note. The other County is, 

Northampton : A narrow County that runs 
along in a Neck between the Virginian-S^-, and 
the Bay of Chefapeac. Cape Charles, in the moil Sou- 
therly 'part or it, is oppofite to Cape Henry, and 
thofe two Points of Land are what is commonly call'd, 
The Capes of Virginia. This County contains 99 384 
Acres of Land, and one Parifh Church, that of Hun- 
gers, which is alio without a Minifter. Thus we have 
vifited the whole Province, and have taken notice of 
the moft remarkable things:, but as there are no 
Towns, nor Mines, nor other Places worthy the Rea- 
der's Curiofity •, fo our Relation wants that Variety 


The Hifiory of Virginia. 277 

o{ Obje&s which renders fuch Descriptions delightful 
The Jpelchaan Mountains are in the Weftern Bounds 
of Virginia, and are ftor'd with Minerals, if we may 
believe fome Travellers who have fpoken of them, 
but we don't find that they have been of any other 
Advantage to the Virginians, than to furniih them 
with Earth, for. the Experiments of their Virtuous 
at the College. The whole Country is water'd with 
Rivers, the moft noted of which we have treated of j 
the Falls of each of thofe Rivers, are but 15 or 20 
Miles diftant from one another \ and befides them, 
there are North-River, Eajlermofl-Kwzx, Vungoteque, 
Apumatuc, Voyanhtank, and others, that are Navigable 
many Miles, and well ftor'd with Fifh. The Tides 
are fcarce difcernable when the Winds hold at N. W. 
but at other times they flow as they do in England^ 
only they feem not fo large, which is thought to be 
occafion'd by the Tides diffufing it (elf into fo ma- 
ny Rivers. The Original Springs that make ail thefe 
Rivers, rife at the Foot of the AppalUan or Apelchaan Lowth; 
Mountains \ but the Cataraas or Falls are 60 or 70 Phil. 
Miles diftant from thofe Hills. IheShoars are fovTranf. p« 
the moft Part Sandy. What Stones are there, are al- S67, 568, 
moft all of 'em hard and tranfparent. Some will cut 
Glafs like Diamonds, and are equal to 'em in Luftre. 
The Clifts of thefe Rivers are full of great Veins of 
Iron Mine, and generally all the Highlands under the 
Mould are a meer Rock of Iron : The Charge of 
raifing an Iron- Work is fo great, that no Body in 
Virginia dares ventures on the Expence, or the Plan- 
ters are fo intent on Planting Tobacco, that they neg- 
le& all other Improvements. 

There was another Town built in James-County 
call'd Dales Gift; but 'twas ruin'd by the Incur fions 
of the Indians, Fire, and other Accidents. The 
Country lying between Tcr^-River, and James-Jkisetv 
is the beft' inhabited. The Banks of the former are 
full of Plantations *, and the beft Tobacco growing 
there, the Trade of the Colony tends moft that way. 
We have elfewhere obferv'd in what Counties the 
Indian Nations ftill remain. Their Towns are very 
froall, and their Houfes or Huts fuch mean Dwellings, 
that they are rather like the Cabbins of the Slaves in 
theSusar-Iflands, than the Habitations of free People, 
f :i T 3 The 

■■■ ;;, 

— - 


The Hiftory of Virginia. 

The abundance of Rivers occafion abundance of 
Mills in this Country, fome of their Springs fend 
forth fuch a glut of Water,. that in left than half a 
Mile below the Fountain-Head, they afford a Stream 
iuffiaent to fupply a Grift-mill. All thefe Rivers 
are full or Creeks, in which the Planters employ an 
infinite number of Sloops and final! Boats, to convey 
their Tobacco and Merchandize from and to the Ships 
that he in the greater Rivers, or in the the lefs. We 
have faid little of the greateft River of them all, Pa- 
towmacLbec&ufe 'twill as properly come under the 
Article of Maryland, being the Boundary of that Pro- 
vince, on the Weftern-fide of Virginia. It cannot be 
expected that info little a Map as that is which, is 
annexed to this Hiftory, fo full a Defcription can be 
made of Virginia, as in the large one i but this is the 
neweft Survey : And the Country is divided into 
the Counties that are the prefent Divifions of it, 
there being at this time 6 new ones -, Prince George, 
Princefs jimie, King William, King and Queen, Rich- 
mond and Stafford. In the former Surveys^there were 
but ip Counties : In this all of them are included, 
together with as many Plantations as wou'd ftand in 
lo much room ; and the fame Care has been taken in 
the Maps of the other Countries. 



The Hiftory of Virginia. 



Of the Inhabitants ; and fir ft of the Indians : 
Their Government, Religion, Manners, 
and Cuftoms : Of the Englijh, Mafters, 
Servants , and Slaves : Their Numbers, 
Strength and Way of Living. 

WHEN the Englifh firft difcover'd Virginia^ In- 
dians were divided into feveral Nations, as, the 
Kecongthans, theWeavoch, the Jrrahattocks, tteAp- 
pemetoch, the Nanfemunds, the Chefapeacs, the Paf- 
pahoges, whopoflefs'd the Ground where James- -City 
now itands. Thefe Tribes or Divifions inhabited trie 
Country lying on the River Powhatan, orJames-Ki- 
ver On thefcver Famunke there dwelt the Nations 
of 'the Toungtanunds, and the Mattapaments. On 
Lpahanock, or Toppahanuck-Rwr, the Manavoacs 
fteMoraughtacunds, and the Cuttatawomens. The 
CountVy on which the En.lim landed, whenCa£ 
BZowlndC^t.Jmidas difcover'd it, was call c IP* 
W,L, andthe Kingof it W^ffiw. Jtlies Scj uth- 
ward of the Bay of Ck/^c, near the * rentiers of 
M. Sometimes the King of one of thefe Natrons 
made War on the reft, and conquer'd three or four 
of them ; the Dominion of which genera ly after his 
Death fell back to the natural Princes rf thofe Coun- 
tries ' All thefe Nations are now entirely ruin a, 
occafion'd partly by their Feuds among themielves, 
and partly by their Wars with the Englifh, wiioare 
Mailers of all the Countries which they formerly 
PofTefs'd- The EngliPn for their Convenience, or out 
of Humanity, fufer'd them to enjoy their Lives, and 
Liberties, and frequently enter'd into Leagues with 
them, which the faithle is Savages kept no longer than 
thay were fore'd to it. Thofe who dwell upon the 
Borders of the Province, which only retains trie Name 
of Virginia at this day, were the molt - 

T 4 


— -'- *»* 


The Hifiory of Virginia. 

and cruel to the Englifh of all the Indian Nations. 
The People of Wingandacoa were affable and cour- 
teous to the firft Adventurers, while Grangammeo y 
Wmgmd'sJLlder Brother reign 'd. His Wife alfodid 
many good Offices to the Englifh, who afterwards at* 
tempted to fettle on the Ifland of Roenoke : But after 
Grangammeo's Death, Wwgwa, who perhaps lik'd 
them better for Dealers than for Neighbours, behav'd 
himfelf very treacheroufly towards them § And when 
a Party of 'em was going towards the Kingdom of the 
Mangoacsj in queft of Copper Mines, he ftir'd up 
ieveral Tribes againft them, and particularly Temoa- 
tan.> Prince of the Moratoes, whofe Father Enfenore 
prevented his falling upon them ; indAfenatonon King 
of one of thofe Tribes,courted their Friendfhip by Pre- 
sents of Pearl,as did Okifco King of the Weopomeocs^who 
lubmitted to become Tributary to the Queen of Eng- 
land. Wwgina finding all his Contrivances to deftroy 
\ them were difappointed, thought it his Intereft to 
afte& a Friendfhip for them, as the other Kings 
did •, but this Friendfhip lafted no longer than till 
he had an Opportunity to fhew his Treachery, and 
when he thought he had 'em at an Advantage, he fell 
upon them, who putting his wild Army to flight, took 
himPrifoner, and cut off his Head. The Englifh 
being forc'd to abandon thofe Settlements, C&ptSmtth 
founded the prefent one, as we have elfewhere related, 
in the Dominions of Powhatan, King of Wicomoco, who 
warr'd with the Englifh all his Life-time, except a few 
Intervals of Peace, and the fame did his SuccefTor 
Oppecancanough, the laft Prince of any Fame of the 
Savages. They fell to decay after his Death, and 
tho they committed feveral Murders on the Borders •, 
'twas rather like the Sallies of Robbers from their lurk- 
ing Holes, than the Incurfions of a warlike Nation. 
They are now brought fo low,that the Englifh are not 
in the leaft fear of them, having it in their Power to 
extirpate them whenever they pleafe :, but they ferve 
them in Hunting and Fowling, and other Services \ 
which is _ the chiefeft, if not the only Caufe of their 
Prefervation. One may judge by Oppecancanough's 
Greatnefs, who we are told cou'd bring 20000 Men 
mto the Field, that had all the Indian Tribes been 
onited, it wou'd have been impoflible to' have made 

f The Hifiory of Virginia. 
a Settlement with fuch fmall Numbers as the Englifh 
brought over, or from time to time fent to Virginia. 
Of all the Nations that were then in being } at which 
time two or three thoufand Bow-men liv'd in a Town 
together, the few that remain are fcatter'd up and 
down on the^ Frontiers of the Englifti Plantations •, and 
tho they live in Towns, or what fome call Cities, we 
may perceive by the following Account of them, they 
are reduc'd fo low, that the Hand of Providence ap- 
pears vifibly in their Deftru&ion. 

They are much more afraid of the Indians who in 
habit higher up in the Country, than of the En- 

tlifh} to whom they pay Tribute of three In- 
ian Arrows, and 20 Beavors Skins, each Town, for 

On the North-lide of the Bay, 

In Accomac are 8 Towns, viz,. 

Matomkin, Lately almoft depopulated by the Small- 
Gingoteque, What is left of this Place is now part of 
the Kingdom of a Prince, who reigns 
over a Nation of MarylandAnAims. 
Kiquotarty Almoft ruin'd. 
Matchepungo, Some few Families remain there. 
Occahanocky There a few Families are alfo yet in being. 
Pungoteque, Govern'd by a Queen j a fmall Nation. 
Has but 4 or 5 Families. 
Not many more. 

Govern'd by an Emprefs, to whom all 
the Nations on the Coafts are Tribu- 
In the County of Northampton, border- 
ing on Accomac, as numerous as all 
the other Nations ptit together 




On ihQ South-fide of the Bay are, 

Wyanohj In Prince George County, almoft come 
to nothing. The Remains of this 
Tribe are gone to live with other 


The Hiftery of Virginia. 

Jppamdtk^ In Charles-City. Thefe live on 




Byrd's Lands ", about 7 Families : 
They were formerly a great Nation. 
In Surrey. This King can raife 1 00 
Bow-men*, the moft thriving People, 
of all the fcrgmian-ln&ians. 
By Nanfammd 1 Has about 30 Bow- 

Bow-men •, and increafe of 


About 30 

In King William County, has 40 Bow- 
men *, they decreafe. 
Chkkahdmony f Ha.s 1 6 Bow-men •, they increafe, and 
were a powerful People when the En- 
glim firft landed here. 
Rappahanoct, In Effex\ has but a few Families', and 
they live fcatter'd on the Englifh 
fort-Tobago^ In Richmond, j Bow-men. 
Wkcomaco 9 Of which Nation there are now but 
three Men living, who retain the 
Name of their Kingdom, and the 
particular Cuftoms oftheir Anceftors. 
Of this People, Powhatan was at firft 
King, and conquer'd feveral others af- 
ter them. If thefe three Men have a 
King, he muft be of the fame Rank 
with Trincolo in the Tempeft, the 
Nation being much of the fame fize. 
Thefe Men are very proud of their 
Original, and live by themfelves, fe- 
parate from either the other Indians 
or the Englifh. 

Were all thefe Nations or Tribes united, they 
could not raife 500 fighting Men : A poor Army, com- 
par'd to the Virginian Militia', which, as we fhall 
make appear in this Chapter, confifts of near 10000 

Thofe miferabie Wretches (till follow the Religion 
and Cuftoms of their Anceftors j and are not become 
either more pious or more polite by the Company of 
the Englifh, 



The Hiftory of Virginia. 

As to their Religion, they have all of 'em fonie dark 
Notion of God •, and fome of them brighter ones, if 
my Author may be believ'd, who had this Confeflion 
from the Mouth of an Indian, That they believ'd God 
was univerfally beneficent: That his Dwelling was in 
Heaven a hove ; and the Influences of his Goodnefs reach' 'd 
to the Earth beneath : That he was incomprehensible in his 
Excellence; and enjoy' d all poffible Felicity ; That his Du- 
ration was eternal; his Perfection boundlefs ; and, That 
he poffeffes everlafting Indolence and Eafe. So far the 
Savage talk'd as rationally of the Being of a God, as a 
Chriftian Divine or Philolbpher could have done : But 
when he came to juftify their Worlhiping of the De- 
vil, whom they call Okee, his Notions were very He- 
terodox : Hefaid, 'Tis true God is the Giver of all good 
Things, but they flow naturally and promifcuoufly from 
him; that they are fljower'd down upon all Men indiffe- 
rently, without Dijlinttion : That God does not trouble 
himf elf with the impertinent Affairs of Men; nor is con- 
cerned at what they do, but leaves them to make the mofi 
of their free Will, and tofecure as many as they can of the 
good Things that flow from him : That therefore it 
was to no purpofe either to fear or worjbip him : But 
on the contrary, if they did not pacify the evil Spirit, 
he would ruin their Health, Peace, and Plenty, 
he being always vifiting them in the Air, Thunder- 
Storms, &c. 

As to the Idol which they all worfhip, and is kept 
in a Temple, call'd Quwcafan ; He feem'd to have a 
very indifferent Opinion of its Divinity, and cry'd 
out upon the Juggling of the Priefts— This Man does 
not talk like a common Savage •, and therefore we 
may fuppofe he had ftudy'd the Matter more than his 
Countrymen ; who for the generality pay a great 
deal of Devotion to the Idol, and worfhio him as their 
chief Deity. 

Their. Priefts and Conjurers are highly reverenc'd 
by them : They are given extreamly to Panwawing 
or Conjuring : And one of them very lately conjur'd a 
Shower of Rain for Col. Byrd's Plantation in a time of 
Drought, for two Bottles of Rum. We are not apt 
to give Credit to fuch fupernatnral Events •, and had 
we not found this in an Author who was on the Spot, 
we mould have re je&ed it as a Fable. 




The Hiftory of Virginia: 

Their Priefts promife fine Women Eternal Spring, 
and every Pleafure in Perfe&ion in the other World, 
which charm'd them in this j and threaten them with 
Lakes of Fire and Torments, by a Fairy in the Shape 
of an old Woman. They are often bloody in their 
Sacrifices :, and offer up young Children to the Devil. 
They have a fuperftitious Ceremony among them, 
which they call Huskanawing, and is perform'd 
thus j They mut up ten or twelve young Men, the 
nioft deferving among them, about 20 Years of Age, 
in a ftrong Inclofure, made on purpofe, like a Sugar 
Loaf, and every way open like a Lattice, for the Air 
to pafs through. They are kept there for feveral 
Months *, and are allow'd to have no Suftenance, but 
the Infufion or Deco&ion of poifonous intoxicating 
Roots j which turns their Brain, and they run ftark 

By this 'tis pretended they lofe the Remembrance 
of all former things, even of their Parents, Treafure, 
Language, as if they had drunk of the Water of Obli- 
vion, dipt out of the Lake Lethe. 

When they have been in this Condition as long as 
their Cuftom dire&s, they leflfen this intoxicating Po- 
tion } and by degrees the young Men recover the 
Ufe of their Senfes l But before they are quite well, 
they are ihewn in their Towns*, and the Youth who 
have been huskanaw'd, are afraid to difcover the leaft 
fign of their remembring any thing of their paft 
Lives ', for in fuch cafe they muft be huskanaw'd again •, 
and they are difciplm d fo feverely the fecond time, 
that it generally kills them. 

After the young Men have paft this Trial, they are 
Coucaroufesy or Men of Quality in their Nations: 
and the Indians fay they do it, to take away from Youth 
all childiJI) [mprefions, and that ftrong Partiality to Per- 
fons and Things, which is contracted before Reafon comes 
to take place. , 

The Indian Priefts, to command the Refped or the 
People, make them (elves look as ugly and as terrible 
as they can. The Conjurers always (hare with them 
in their Deceit, and the Gain by it : The Indians con- 
fult both of them before they go on any Enterpnze. 
There are no PrieftefTes or Witches among them. 
They erett Altars, on every remarkable Occafiaiu 


The Hiftory of Virginia, 
and have Temples built like their common Cab- 
bins, in which their Idol ftands, and the Corpfe of 
their Kings and Rulers are preferv'd. 

They have no fort of Literature among them ; and 
their way of communicating things from one to ano- 
ther, is by Hieroglyphicks. They make their Ac- 
counts by Units, Tens, Hundreds, &c. as the Englifh 
do-, but they reckon their Years by Cohonks or 
Winters •, and divide every Year into five Seafons : 
The budding time, the earing of the Corn, the Sum- 
mer, the Harveft, the Winter. 

The Months they count by Moons. They divide 
the Day into three parts \ The Rife, Power, and low- 
ering of the Sun: And keep their Accounts by Knots 
on a String, or Notches on a Stick. Of which Capt. 
Smith relates a pleafant Story •, That when the Prin- 
cefs Pocahoma came for England, a Coucarovfe, or 
Lord of her own Nation attended her-, his Name was 
Vttamaccomack : And King Powhatan, Pocahonta's 
Father, commanded him when he arriv'd in England, 
to tell the People, and give him an Account of their 
Vttamaccomack, when he came afhore, 
i, intending to count them by Not- 
ches ', but he foon found that his Arithmetick 
wou'd be to no purpofe -, and threw away 
his Stick. At his Return, the King ask'd him, 
How many People there were ? and he reply'd, Gntm 
the Stars in the Sky, the Leaves upon the Trees, and 
the Sand on the Sea-fhore, and you will know how many ; 
forfuch is the Number of the People in England. 

They efteem the Marriage- Vow as the mod facred 
of all Engagements -, and abhor Divorces : Adultery 
is the moft unpardonable of Crimes amongft them. 

Their Maidens are very Chafte -, and if any one 
of them happens to have a Child before Marriage, 
her Fortune is Spoilt. This Account contradi&s 
others that delcribe them to be common Proftitutes \ 
but* the Indians and the Virginians difown the Scan- 
dal, which fome Authors lay to their Charge : They 
are very fpritely and good-humour'd, and the Wo- 
men generally handfome. Their manner of hand- 
ling Infants is very rough •, As foon as the Child is 
born, they plunge it over Head and Ears in cold Wa- 
ter, and then bind it naked to a Board, making a hole 



got a Stick, 


The Hiftory of Virginia. 

in it in the proper place for Evacuation. Between 
the Child and the Board,they put fome Cotton- Wool 
or Fur, and let it lie in this Pofture, till the Bones 
begin to harden, the Joints to knit, and the Limbs 
to grow ftrong. Then they loofen it from the Board, 
and let it crawl about where it pleafes. From this 
Cuftom 'tis faid the Indians derive the Cleannefs and 
Exa&nefs of their Limbs, which are the moft per- 
fect for thefe Qualities in the World. Some of 'em 
are of a Gygantick Stature, live to a greater Age, 
and are ftronger than others*, there being never a 
Dwarfe, crooked, bandy-legg'd, or ill-fhapen Indian 
to be teen. Some Nations of 'em are very tall and 
large-limb'd, and others are fhort and fmall : Their 
Complexion is a Chefnut brown and Tawny. They 
paint themfelves with a Pocone-root, which ftains 
them of a reddifh Colour. They are clear when they 
are Young. Greafing and Sunning makes their Skin 
turn hard and black. Their Hair for the moft part is 
cole-black } fo are their Eyes : They wear their Hair 
cut after feveral whimfical Modes \ the Perfons of Note 
always keeping a long Lock behind. The Women 
wear it very long, hanging at their Backs, or twifted 
up with Beads, and all the better Sort adorn their 
Heads with a kind of Coronet *, the Men have no 
Beards, and to prevent their haying any, ufe certain 
Devices which they will not communicate to the Eng- 

Their Cloaths are a Mantle girt clofe in the middle, 
and underneath a Piece of Cloth ty'd round the Wafte, 
and reaching down to the middle of the Thigh. 
The common Sort only tie a piece of Cloth or Skin 
round their Middle. As for their Food they boil, 
broil, or roaft all the Meat they eat : Homony is their 
(landing Dim, and confifts of Indian Corn foak'd, 
broken in a Mortar, and then boil'd in Water 
over a gentle Fire for i o or 12 Hours together. 
They draw and pluck theirFowl, skin and paunch their 
Quadrupedes but drefs their Fifh with their Scales 
on, without gutting : They leave the Scales, Entrails 
and Bones, till they eat the Fifh, when they throw 
the Offals away. Their Food is chiefly Bevors, Tur- 
tle, feveral Species of Snakes : Broth made of Deers 
Humbles, Peafe, Beans, &c. They have no fet 


The Hifiory of Virginia. 

Meals, they eat when they are hungry ; and drink 
nothing but Water. Their Bread is made of Indian 
Corn, Wild Oats, or the Seed of the Sun Flower: 
They eat it alone, and not with Meat 

They travel always on Foot, with a Gun or Bow. 
They live upon the Game they kill •, and lie under a 
Tree, upon a little high Grafs. The Englifh prohi- 
bit them to keep Corn, Sheep, or Hogs, left they 
ihould fteal their Neighbours. 

When they come to Rivers, they presently patch 
up a Canoo of Birch Bark, crofs over in it \ and leave 
it on the River's Bank, if they think they mail not 
want it, otherwife they carry it along with them. 

Their way of receiving Strangers is by the Pipe 
or Calumet of Peace : Of the latter Pero Hennepin 
has given a large account in his Voyages j and the 
Pipe is as follows •, They fill a Pipe of Tobacco, 
larger and bigger than any common Pipe, light 
it, and then the chief of them takes a Whif? 
gives it to the Stranger, and if he fmoaks of it, 'tis 
Peace:, if not, War: If Peace, the Pipe is handed all 
round the Company. 

The Difeafes of the Indians are Very few, and eafy 
to be cur'd : They for the moft part arife from excef 
five Heats and Colds, which they set ofFby Sweating. 
As for Aches, and fettled Pains in the Joints or Limbs, 
they ufe Cauftieks and Scarifying. <Iheir Priefts are 
their Phyficians j and from their Childhood are 
taught the Nature and Ufe of Simples •, in which their 
Knowledge is excellent*, but they will not communi- 
cate it, pretending 'tis a Gift of God-, and by the My- 
ftery they make it the more valuable. 

Their Riches con fift in Furrs, Peak, Roenoke, and 
Pearl. Their Peak and Roenoke are made of Shells *, 
the Peak like an Englifh Buglas*, the Roenoke is a 
piece of Cockle, drill'd through like a Bead. Before 
the Englifh came among them, this Peak and Roe- 
noke were all their Treafure, but now they fet a 
value on their Furr and Pearl, and are greedy of fcra- 
ping Quantities together. The Pearl is good ", 
and formerly was not fo rare as 'tis at this time. 

They had no Iron Tools before the Englifh brought 
'em over: Their Knives were fharpen'd Reeds or 
Shells •, their Axes fharp Stones : They rub'd Fire, by 




*88 The Hiftory of Virginia. 

turning the End of a hard piece upon the fide of one 
that is foft and dry, which at laft wou'd burn. They 
fell'd great Trees by burning them down at the Root, 
having ways of keeping the Fire from afcending : 
They hollow'd them with gentle Fires, fcrap'd the 
Trunk clean •, and this made their Canoo's, of which 
Ibme were 3 © Foot long. They are very good Handi- 
crafts Men j and what they do is generally neat and 

In the firft Chapter we have faid enough to mew, 
that the Government of the Indians was Monarchi- 
cal : Their Kingdoms defcended to the next Heir, 
Male or Female - 9 and they were very exact in pre- 
fer ving the Succeflion in the right Line. If, as it of- 
ten happen'd, one great Prince fubjected the other, 
thofe Conquefts commonly were loft at his Death,and 
the Nations return 'd again to the Obedience of their 
natural Princes. They have no written Laws *, nei- 
ther can they have any, having no Letters., Their 
Lands are in common, and their Werowancesor Judges, 
are all Lord Chancellours, deciding Caufes, and in- 
flicting Punifhments, according as they think fit. 
Thefe Werowances^ and the Concarotifes, are their 
Terms to diftinguifh their Men of Quality : The for- 
mer are their War Captains, and the latter fuch as 
have paft the Trial of Huskanawing. Their Priefts 
and Conjurers have great Authority among them. 
They have Servants whom they call Black Boys ', and 
are very .exact in requiring the Refpect that is due to 
their feveral Qualities.-— And thus much of the Indi- 
ans, who from a State of Nature and Innocence, in 
which the Englifh found them, are now infected with 
the European Vices of Drunkennefs, Avarice and 
Fraud, having learn'd nothing of the new Comers, but 
what has ferv'd to render their Ignorance the more 

We muft now treat of the Englifh Inhabitants, their 
Rife, Numbers, Distinction, and way of Living. We 
have feen in the beginning of this Treatife, from what 
{mail beginnings the Englifh Colony rofe to the State 
it is in at prefent : And it cannot be imagin'd, that 
the firft Adventurers there were Men of Quality and 
Fortune, whatever the Proprietors in England were : 
Men of Eltate wou'd not leave their Native Country, 


The Hiftory of Virginia, 
of which the Englifh are of all Men moft fond to 
feek an Habitation in an unknown Wildernefs : And 
what deter'd fuch from going thither at firft, will al- 
ways deter them. Tis true, as the Colony encreas'cf, 
and became fettled, Men of good Families, andfinall 
Fortunes, remov'd to Virginia, thriv'd and grew 
great by their Induftry and Succefs : And thus many 
Gentlemen of Virginia may boaft as good Defcents 
is thofe in England: But there's no need as yet of an 
Hlerauld-Office to be fet up at James-Town ; and the 
Colony are in the right to make flight of fuch empty 
honours, in comparifon of the fubftantial Profit 
vhich is got by Planting and Traffick. Wherefore 
:he honeft Merchant, and induftrious Planter, are 
:heMen of Honour in Virginia *, and it would not be 
he worfe for England, if Induftry and Honour were 
learer a-kin than fome vain Perfons make them. 

Twas a long time before Virginia faw a Race of En» 
^lifli born on the fpot , which was occafion'd by the 
mall number of Women that came over -, the firft 
planters being fo hard put to it, that they made no 
cruple to buy a Wife, and to accept of any Woman 
hat could give a tolerable Account of her Virtue. 
ATomen were not fo fcarce afterwards •, when the Co- 
ony was come to a fort of Perfection, whole Fanr 
ies tranfported themfelves thither from England, to 
nend their Fortunes, and others to enjoy that Liberty 
>f Confcience which was deny'd them at home, in the 
leign of Charles I. and his Son Charles II. Befides 
vhich, feveral Royalifts remov'd thither during the 
[lump and Oliver's Ufurpations. 

By this means the Colony has fo encreas'd in 
lumbers, that there are now by the niceft Com- 
tutation near 70000 Men, Women, and Children 
11 Virginia, including the French Refugees, the 
nhabitants of the Northern Neck, and the Negro Serv- 
ants, who are but a few, in comparifon to the Sugar- 
^antations. Of thefe the Men are more numerous 
n proportion than the Women, occafion'd by greater 
lumbers of them going over thither :, tho of late 
'ears, it has been cultomary for young Women, who 
re fall'n into Difgrace in England, or are ill us'd by 
heir Parents, to tranfport themfelves thither -, and, 
.s they fay, fry their Fortunes, which have often been 
U very 




The Hiftory of Virginia. 

very favourable. The People of Virginia are, as in 
England, diftinguifti'd by the Names of Mailers and 
Servants. The Diftin&ions of the Mafters are b^ 
their Offices or Birth •, and of the Servants, by fudi 
as are for Life, and fuch as are for a Term of Years ; 
tho Negroes and their Pofterity are all Servant; 
for Life-, the white Men and Women for ai 
many Years as they bind themfelves : And if the] 
don't bind themfelves by particular Indentures 
the Laws of the Country oblige them to (erve till the^ 
are four and twenty Years of Age, if they are unde: 
Nineteen when they commence their Service: if a 
bove, the term is fet to five Years *, and then they ar< 
as much entitul'd to the Liberties and Privileges c 
the Place, as any of the Inhabitants or Natives are 
Their Mafters, when their Times are out, are oblig'< 
to give each Servant 1 5 Bufhels of Corn, and two nev 
Suits of Cloaths, Linn en and Woollen v befrdeseac 
of them may take PofTeffion of 50 Acres of unpatentei 
Ground, if he can find any, which is a Privilege tha 
makes a Noife, and is tempting to the poor Creature 
who go over, but is not worth the naming, for 
Crown will purchafe it at any time. 

The Laws of Virginia take great Care forthegoo< 
Ufage of Servants, as to Neceifaries, Diet and Cloathi 
And the Labour of the Country, which con lifts chiej 
ly in Tilling, Manuring the Ground, Sowing an 
Planting Tobacco is fo eafy, that as hard Work as 'ti 
represented to be, the Day-Labourers in England ar 
much the greater Slaves, if hard Work, and han 
Living, are Signs of Slavery. 

The Servants and Slaves are never lilted m the M: 
litia. of the' Country 7 but every Freeman froiu Six 
tQQn to Sixty Years of Age, is enroll'd, and oblig'd t 
mufter once a Year. Their Number is in all 95^ 
of which 23*3 are Light-Horie, and 715* Foot an 
Drapoons, according to the following Schedule, take 
in the Year 1703. By which the Reader will have 
clear View of the Strength of Virginia , without it 
eluding the Northern Neck, or tliQ French Refugees a 
the Mwachan-Tovin, which may encreafe the Nun 
ber of Souls to near 70000, 


the Hifiory of Virginia. 




Prince George 



fa of Wight, 



Princefs Jnne, 




Elizabeth-City -, 


King William, 

King and Queen^ 

Glocefier, ^ 










tf06-o5-|25O23l35j8 3 U 5 22J236-3|7ijp 

Befidesthe Englifli Inhabitants, there are now feve- 
ral hundred of French Refugees Families, who were 
rent over thither by King William. Thefe Refugees 

IhiVlll % C l T %m°*y*®g^ them, twenty Miles 
ibove the Falls of James-River, on the South-fide of 
:he River, formerly the Habitation of a Warlike Na- 
ion of the Indians,cail'd the Monachans;md theTowii 

of Souls 


. Female 

Militia. Horfe 

. Foot 
8c Dra- 
























3 74 

































































I 45 




43 8 











1 1 70 
















9 20$9 

n 58 






1 041 















292 The Hiflory of Virginia. 

• * The Affembly has granted them great Privileges, 
and been bountiful in their Charity to them, for 
their Encouragement. They are alfo very much ob- 
lig'd to the Generofity and Prote&ion of Col. Byrd, 
whofe Friendfhip has been ferviceable to them on ma- 
ny Occasions. They are an induftrious People •, have 
made excellent Wine there, even of the Wild Grapes} 
and are upon feveral Improvements, which will be 
very much to their own Advantage, and that of the 

Tis computed that the Number of Souls whici ei- 
ther came over at firft, or fince, or have been born in 
the Country, amounts to near twelve hundred French. 
And tht Northern Neck being larger than the largeft 
of the other Counties, and almoft as populous, may 
contain about fix thoufand : So that the whole Num- 
ber of Souls in the Province of Virginia, exclufive of 
Maryland, is about 70000. 

* As to the Cuftoms and Manners of the Virginians, 
they are the fame with the En glim -, and one may as 
well go about to defcribe the Manners and Cuftoms or 
any one particular County of England feparate from 
the reft. 

Their Diet is fomewhat different •, fo is their Cloa- 
thing, as alfo their Sports and Paftimes, and Difeafes, 
occafion'd by the difference of the Climates : Befides 
Beef, Mutton, and Veal, which the Virginians have 
in plenty, tho not [~o good in its kind as we have in 
England, they have Pork, Bacon, and all forts of 
Tame and Wild Fowl, better than any of the feveral 
Kinds that are in England. 

Pork is fold from 1 d. to^.a Pound ', a large Pul- 
let for edSi Capon for 8 d. Chickens 3 *■ a Dozen ; 
Deer 8 s. a Head. The Bread which the better fort 
of People ufe, is generally made of Wheat : The poor- 
er eat Pone, made of Oppone, or Indian Meal. Their 
Kitchin-Gardens fupplys them with all lorts of Roots, 
Satlte- and Pot-herbs* Their Drink is according to 
their Circumftances 5 the Gentlemen brew lmall Beer 
with Erialiffi Malt : Strong Beer they have from En- 
gland; as alfo French Wine and Brandy, with wnich 
?hev make Punch ; or with Rum, from the CarMee 
Iflands, or Spirits of their own diftillmg, from Ap- 
ples Peaches, &c. Madera Wine is the molt com- 
v ' 7 mon 

The Hifiory of Virginia. 

mon and the moll noble of all their ftrong Drinks. 
The Poor brew their Beer with MellafTes and Bran? 
or Indian Corn dry'd in a Stove. They have feveral 
other forts of Potables, which are very wholefom and 
pleafant. They burn Wood every where, tho there 
is Pit- Coal in many places \ but Wood being Jo plen- 
ty, that they may have it for cutting, no body has 
thought it worth while to dig for Coal. 

Their Cloaths are brought from England, for Per- 
rons of Diftinction, and are as much in the Mode as 
Art and Coft can make them : They are generally of 
the lighteft Stuffs or Silks, both for Men and Wo- 
men. The Men for Coolnefs, as in other parts of the 
Weft- Indies, wear in the Heat of the Summer Fuftian 
and Linnen Jackets ; and the Women Linnen or Muf- 
Hn Gowns. They have almoft all their NecefTaries, 
as to Drefs, from England. Their Buildings are as in 
England, of Brick, Timber and Stone, the .out-fide 
of their Houfes being cover'd with Lime made of 
Oyfter Shells, much more durable than Englifh 

Their Sports are Deer-hunting, Hare-hunting ; 
but different from the Englifh Chafe : They learnt of 
the Indians to come up to the Deer under the blind of 
a {talking Horfe, as the Savages did under that of a 
(talking Head : They teach a Horfe to walk gently 
by the Huntfman's Side, to cover him from the Sight 
of the Deer •, and fo they have an Opportunity to kill 
him. They have other ways of Deer -hunting-, but 
this being the moft remarkable, I have chofen to 
mention it in this place. 

Their Hares they hunt with Mungrils or Swift- 
Dogs : The Hares generally hole in a hollow Tree, 
and then they are fmoak'd out by the Hunters. They 
alfo have other forts of Hunting, as Vermine-hunting, 
and Horfe- hunting} the latter is much delighted m 
by young People, who purfue wild Horfes with Dogs, 
and fometimes without them. Thefe wild Horfes are 
fuch as are foal'd in the Woods in the Hill Country \ 
and no body knowing whom they belong to, every 
one is free to catch and keep as many as he pleafes : 
Jho they are of the Englifh Breed, they are as fhy as 
any Savage Creatute ; but this fort of Cattle feldom 
is fit for ufe. 

U 3 They 





The Hiftory of Virginia. 

They have feveral other Sports, as taking wild Tur- 
kies and Wolves in Snares, Fifhing, Fowling, and 
Catching of Beavers *, which is an excellent Paftime : 
'Tis faid that thefe laft Creatures live in a fort of 
Monarchy like Bees, and are very kind and obedient 
to their Sovereign. 

The Difeafes raoft incident to the Place are Colds, 
caught by the irregular Conduct of People at their 
firft Arrival •, Gripes and Fluxes, occafion'd by the 
fame means, the Englifh eating too greedily the 
pteafant Fruits of the Country •, Cachexes or Yaws, 
which is a violent Scurvy, the Seafoning here, as in 
other parts of America, is a Fever or Ague, which 
the Change of the Climate and Diet generally throws 
new Comers into*, The Bark is in Virginia a Sove- 
reign Remedy to this Difeafe. 

The Virginians have but few Doctors among them, 
and they reckon it among their Bleffings, fancying 
the Number of their Difeafes would encreafe with 
that of their Phyficians. The few they have flu- 
dyand make ufe of Simples moft, with which their 
Woods are plentifully furnim'd. 

We will conclude this Account of the Inha- 
bitants of Virginia, with a fhort Character of them \ 
They are a prudent, careful, generous, hofpitable 
People, their Houfes being open to all Travellers, 
whom they entertain as heartily as Relations or 
Friends •, and that fordid Wretch who offends againfl 
this laudible Cuftom of his Country, is the Object of 
<every one's Contempt. 

As for the Convenience of Society, the Gentlemens 
Houfes are at not much greater Diftance from one a-, 
nother, than they are in England. The Planters are 
almoft all iociable \ and as every thing towards ma- 
king their Friends' welcome is cheaper than in En- 
gland, fo the Entertainments there are larger, the 
Reception more ftncere, and the Mirth of trie Com- 
pany more hearty than in moft of our Gentlemens 
Houfes \\ among whom Hcfpitality is fo far out of 
fafhion, that a Man who pre rends to it is reckon'd a 
Sot or a Bubble •, and the 4 coftly and pernicious Vi- 
ces that were introduc'd in the place of it in the 
laft Century, has banifh'd it from that Country 
re it formerly flourifli'd , to the eternal 
- ■ - Praife. 

The Hifiory of Virginia. 
Praife of our Anceftors, and the Shame of tneir 



Of the Government of Virginia ; Of the 
Laws, Courts of Judicature, Publkk Offi- 
and Revenues, 


THE Government of Virginia was at firft by a Pre- 
fident, and a Council of twelve. Mr. John White 
was the firft Prefident j and when the Prefidency was 
abrogated, there was a Commiffion granted by the 
Company or Proprietors in England to Sir Thomas 
Gates, Sir George Summers, and Capt. Newport , to be 
joint Governours. We don't find that the Gover- 
nours and their Council had any more Power than 
the Prefident and his Council •, but the Name gave 
more Authority to their A&s in the Imagination of 
fome Perfons. 

When K.Charles I. diffolv'd the Company, he conti- 
nu'd the Form of the Government by a Governour and 
Council for the Executive Power, and plac'd the Le- 
giflative in the Affembly. The Affembly had been ap- 
pointed before, and met feveral'times during the Go- 
vernments under the Company. The chief Court next 
to the Affembly is the General Court, held by the Go- 
vernour and Council, who are Judges of it, and take 
Cognizance of all Caufes Criminal, Penal, Ecclefia- 
ftical and Civil. There is no Appeal from this Court, 
unlefs the Matter in difpute amounts in value to above 
three hundred Pounds, and then Appeals lie to thQ 
Queen and Council in England. In Criminal Cafes 
there never was anyAppeal,butthe Governour can par- 
don Perfons for any Crime whatfoever, except Mur- 
der, and reprieve ev'n for that til! her Majefty's 
Pleafure be known therein. Indeed the Governor's 
Power in this and the other Plantations is very great : 
He is fubjecl: only to the Queen's Commands, and re- 
prefents her Penon in his Government ; he affents to 
pr diifents from tha Aas of Affembly, as he thinks 
U* tit, 

The Hifiory of Virginia. 

fit, and by his AfTent pafTes 'em into Laws. He 
Calls, Prorogues and Diflblves the AfTembly : He Calls 
and Prefides in the Council : He makes Juftices of 
the Peace -, all Officers of the Militia under the Degree 
of a Lieutenant General : Puts out Proclamations : 
Is the Keeper of the Seal of the Colony, anddifpofes 
of the Queen's Lands according to the Charter and 
Laws of .the Country : all Payments out of the Trea- 
fury are order'd by him, or in his Name : He is Vice- 
Admiral byVirtue of a Commifiion from the Admiral- 
ty, and has a Salary of 2000 /. a Year •, formerly 'twas 
but 1000 /. and about 500/. Perquifites*, 200 /. a Year 
was added by the AfTembly in favour of Sir William 
Berkley -, and the Lord Colepepper got it encreas'd to 
2000 /. a Year, and 1 50 /. a Year Houfe-rent, which, 
with the Perquifites, make it worth near 3000/. a 
Year to the Governour, and more if he opprefTes the 
People, as too many Governours have done. When 
the Governour and Deputy Governour are abfent, 
the Adminiftration falls to the Prefident of the Coun- 
cil for the time being, who has a Sallary of 500 /. 
a Year only, added to what is given him as a Coun- 
fellor, which is a very fmall Allowance; The Queen 
nominates the Counfellors by Letter or Inftru&ion, 
which fays no more, but that they be fworn of the 
Council. The Governour can fill up the vacant Pla- 
ces of fuch as die, or are remov'd without flaying for 
Orders from England. Thefe Counfellors have an 
equal Vote with the Governour at the Council-Table 
in many things, and are a Check upon him, if he 
offers to exceed the Bounds of his C«mmiflion, in 
calling AfTemblies, difpofinp of the Publick Revenue, 
placing and difplacing Officers, Votes and Orders 
of Counciljpublifhing Proclamations, making Gtfants, 
and paffing all Patents. They are the Upper Hpute 
in the AfTembly, and claim a negative Voice to all 
Taws. . 

Their Sallary in all is 350/. a Year, which is di- 
vided amongft them, according to their Attendance 
on General Courts and AfTemblies. The Lower 
Houfeof the AfTembly confiftsof the Reprefentatives 
of the Counties, two for each, and one for James- 
City, in all yi. The College alfo has Power by 
their Charter, to fend a Member to the AfTembly. 

...,,,. The 

The Hifiory of Virginia. 297 

The AfTembly-Men arechofen by the Freeholders, by 
Virtue of a Writ dire&ed to the Sheriff, which is read 
in every Church and Chappel in the County, and the- 
Day or Election then appointed. The Privileges of 
thefe AfTembly-Men are the fame with the Members 
of Parliament in England,^ the Power much the fame 
with that of the Houfe of Commons, only they are 
very much influenc'd by the Pleafure of the Gover- 
nour •, and after their Acts have regularly paft the 
Lower Houfe and Upper Houfe, and have had the 
Governour's AfTent, tney rauft fend to England to 
be confirm'd by the Queen *, but till foe has declar'd 
her Negative, they are in full Force. Thefe AfTem- 
blies meet once or twice a Year, as occafion requires. 
Befides the Governour and Council, the Publick Offi- 
cers are, 

7he Auditor of the Revenue, Dudley Diggs, Efq\ 

whofe Salary is 7 f per Cent, of all the Publick 

The Secretary and Prefident of the Council, Edmund 

Jennings, Efq; whofe Fees and Perquifites 

amount to above 400 /. a Year. 
The Ireafurer, William Byrd, Efq^ whofe Salary 

is 6 1. per Cent, of all Money thatpaiTes through 

his Hands. 
Collector of the Cuftoms, Col, Gawen Corbin. 

Thefe are General Officers and Servants of the 
Colony. There are other little Officers , as Clerks 
of Courts, Sheriffs, and Surveyors, &c. The She- 
riffs Place of each County is very profitable by an 
Allowance of 1 o per Cent, out of all his Receipts and 
other Advantages. The Revenues of 'Virginia, arife, 



The Hiftory of Virginia. 

By the Queen's Quit-rents 2 s. 7 t 
for every 100 Acres. $ 

By the Aft for the Support of] 
the Government, 2 /. for every J 
Hogfhead of Tobacco export- j 

2o«/. a Year, 

ed ii 5 d. a Tun for every Ship *, ! 3 000 
<r d. Poll for every PafTenger , f 
Fines and Forfeitures, Waifs 
and Strays, Efcheats of Land, 
and Perfonal Eftate for want 
of a lawful Heir. J 

By the Aft referv'd to be diP 1 
pos'd of by the AfTembly, 4 d. 
a Gallon on Wine, Rum and 1 
Brandy *, 1 d. a Gallon on I 
Beer,Cyder and other Liquors, r 
1 5 s. for each Servant not be- 
ing a Native of England and 
Wales, and 28 s. for each Slave ) 
or Negroe. J 

4. The College-Revenue, a Du-£ ica 

ty on Skins and Furs, * 

5. The Duty of % 4. & pound on j 
all Tobacco exported to the J 
other Plantations, and not car- y 200 
ry'ddireftly to England, King » 
William gave it to the Col- J 

lege. J '', 


The General Court, of which we have made fome 
mention, is'alfo call'd the Quarter Court, as being 
held every Quarter of a Year. There are inferi- 
or Courts, which are kept every Month in each 
County, and are call'd the County-Courts, or Month- 
ly Courts, where Matters that are not of the mgiiek 
Moment, fuch as do not relate to Life or Member, 
or exceed a certain limited Value, are try d. From 
thefe Courts there lies an Appeal to the Quarterly 
Courts . In which no Aftion can be originally 
broapht under the value of Ten Pounds Sterling. 
THe Sheriffs, Tuitices of the Peace, and other O 

The Hiftory of Virginia, 
cers, are Judges of thefe County-Courts. In which 
every Man may plead his own Caufe, or his Friends 
do it for him, the Virginians underftanding their 
Intereft too well to incourage Lawyers •, believing 
that as Difeafes wou'd be brought in by Doctors, fo 
Lawyers wou'd create Suits , a Mifchief we in Eng- 
land all complain of, butdefpair of feeing remedy'd. 
The Juftices of the Peace alfo hold Courts yearly in 
each County to look after Orphans, and take care of 
them and their Eftates, to provide for thofe Chil- 
dren that are Fatherlefs, and have no Body to pro- 
vide for them. The Laws of Virginia are the Acts 
of Parliament and Statutes of England, which affect 
all her Majefty's Dominions in general j the Sta- 
tutes and Acts of the AfTembly, which relate only 
to the Affairs of this Colony, in particular Orders of 
the Queen and Council in England, which in many 
things have the Force of Laws in the Plantations \ 
the Ufages of the Country,or the Civil Law, by which 
all Cafes in the Admiralty are adjudg'd. But there 
being an excellent Collection of the Laws of this and 
all the other Plantations already publifh'd, I refer the 
Reader to it for a larger and clearer account of them. 


Qf the Churchy and Church- Affairs, and the 
College in Virginia. 

\If HEN the Nobility, Gentry, Merchants^ and 
others, firft got a Grant of this Country, and 
refolv'd to make a Settlement upon it, they receiv'd 
large Contributions t© carry it on from feveral De- 
vout Perfons, who were for propagating the Gof- 
pel among the Indians, building Schools, Church-? 
es, and fettling Minifters 'for their Converfion 
and InftruCtion. To this end a great Lottery 
was fet up in London, the Profits of which were 
for the benefit - of the Colony ; and what instiga- 
ted many charitable People to put Money into it, 
^rere Hopes that a good part of it wou'd be laid 



goo The Hifiory of Virginia; 

out on the ufe for which it was by thsm intended. 
This Lottery was drawn in St. Paul's, Church •, but 
We do not find that the Money was employ'd asthofe 
Religious Perfons wou'd have had it,or that there have 
been many Converts made by the Englifh in this 
Country. The Religion of the Virginians is the fame 
as in the reft of her Majefty's Dominions : The Bo- 
dy of the People are Members of the Church of Eng- 
land. There are fome few DifTenters, and might 
have been more, had they not been perfecuted by , 
Sir William Berkley. Whether the Virginians glory 
in it or not, or honour the Memory of this Governour 
the more for it, we can't tell •, but Puritans were 
certainly always difcountenanc'd by him. In the Year 
1 5+1 . Mr. Bennet went to Bofion in New England to 
defire in the Name of fome other Gentlemen, that 
two or three Minifters might be fent them. Mr. Phil- 
lips^ Mr. Thompfon, and Mr. Knowles, a late Diflen- 
ting Minifter in London, came thither, where they 
were kindly entemin'd by private Perfons, but the 
Governour and his Council, forbad them to Preach, 
and order'd, Thatfuch as wou'd not conform to the Cere- 
monies of the Church of England Jhoud depart the 

Country. ,.10 

There are forty nine Parim-Churches m the Pro- 
vince, of which thirty four are fupply'd with Mini- 
fters, and 15 vacant. It were to be withd that 
care was taken to fupply them with fuch Divines as 
mieht,by their Example as well as by their Preaching, 
invite People to a Religious Life 5 the Indian Dark- 
nefs being not more gloomy and horrid than what 
fome of the Meaner Sort of Virginians live m, and 
their Parfons for the moft part don't take much Pains 
to lead 'em into the Light of the Gofpsl. In each 
Pariih there is a Church built either with Timber, 
Brick or Stone, and decently adorn'd with all things 
proper for the Celebration of Divine Service In 
large Parifhes there's a Chappsl of Eafe, and lome- 
times two for the Convenience of the Panihioners. 
The Minifter of the Parifh preaches in tnem alter- 
natively, and each of 'em has a Reader to read Prayers 
in his Abfence. The Mmifter's Maintenance is lettled 
at 1 5000 /. Tobacco each, yearly, befides Perquifites, 
as 40^. for a Funeral Sermon, 20 s. for a Marriage. 

The Biftory of Virginia. 

The Parifli- Affairs are govern'd by a Veftry of twelve 
Gentlemen chofen out of the Inhabitants', thele are 
call'd the Patrons of the Church, and on the Death 
of one of them the Survivors eleft another in his 
Place They have the Prefentation of Mmiiters, and 
the fole Power of all Parifli- Afleflments : No Man can 
be of the Veftry,but what fubfcribes an Inftrument to 
be conformable to the Church of England •, two of thefe 
are the Church- Wardens,whofe Bufinefs it is to fee the 
Orders of the Veftry obey'd,to collea the Parifli and 
the Parfons Tobacco, to keep the Parifli Accounts, 
and to prefent all Profanenefs and Immorality. The 
Power of Induftion upon the Prefentation of Mmi- 
fters is lodg'd in the Governour's hands by Law. There 
are only two Presbyterian, and three Quakers Meet- 
ings in this Colony. The Bifliop of London, who is 
the Ordinary of this and all the other Plantations,ap- 
points a Commiffary here, whofe Bufinefs is to make 
Vifitations of Churches, and have the Infpeaion of the 
Clergy, for which he's allowed ioo/. per Annum, and 
by the ftria hand that the Clergy and Govern- 
ment have held over Diffenters, they have been kept 
low in Virginia, and never encreas'd there : The 
AfTemblie5 having done what their Governours woud 
have 'em, to difcourage them. 

In the Year i * +2. Sir W.Berkley then Governour, 
they paft an Aa to prevent DiffentmgMinifters preach- 
ing, and propagating their Doarines. They admitted 
none to preach in their Churches, but fuch as were 
ordain'd by forae Bifhop of the Church of England : 
And in 1 66i .Sir William Berkley being ftill Governour, 
great Reftraints were laid upon them by a miltaken 
Zeal, to prevent their getting ground. Ot what ill 
Confequence this has been to the Colony, I leave to 
thofe moderate Virginians to determine, who think they 
ought not to facrifice the true Intereft of their Coun- 
try to the Revenge or Pride of a Party. In the firlt 
Chapter of this" Treatife, we have hinted the Projea 
of a College, which afterwards was built at Middle- 
Plantation, now call'd Williamsburgh, moftly at the 
Charge of their late Majefties KingWilliam and Queen 
Mary, who gave 2000 /. towards it, and 20000 Acres 
of Land, the Duty of 1 d. a pound on all Tobacco 
exported from Virginia and Maryland to the Planta- 
1 tions, 




|02 ' The Hiftory of Virginia. 

tions, and the Surveyor-Generals Place, which was 
then vacant. He alfo granted them the Privilege of 
fending a Member to theAfTembly. The AfTembly 
afterwards added a Duty on Skins and Furrs. The 
whole Profit amounts now to above 400 /. a Year, 
and the Revenue encreafes yearly. The Foundation 
was to confift of 

A Prefident. 

Six Mafters, or ProfefTors •, the Chief Mafter was 

to have 100 /. a Year. 
100 Scholars, Graduates or Non-graduates. 

They were enabled to purchafe and hold to the 
value of 2000 /. a Year, and were to be govern'd and 
vifited by certain Gentlemen nam'd in the Charter, 
who were to be call'd the Governours and Vifitors j 
and upon the Death of any one of them, were im- 
power'd to choofe another in his Place. One of thefe 
was to be Rector, and their number in all to be 1 8. 
They were to name the Prefident, Mafters, and other 
Officers of the College, and had Power to make Sta- 
tutes and Ordinances. The Building, when perfect, 
was to confift of a Quadrangle, and two fides of it 
were carry'd up, The Kitchen, Brew-houfe and 
Bake-houfe were finifh'd. 

The ProfelTors were to read on all the liberal 
Sciences, on Agriculture, Architecture, Art Mili* 
tary, Navigation, Gardning,Trade, and Manufactures, 
once a Week from Eafter to Michaelmas, and twice a 
Week from Michaelmas to Eafter. They began upon 
Experiments of Plants, Minerals, and were aflifted by 
the French in the Monachan Town •, their own Lead, 
Iron and Copper Mines in the AppalUan Mountains 
were under their Confideration, when the Fire put an 
end to their College and Studies. There were fuch 
Expectations of the Revenue, which wou'd be rais'd 
by all Tobacco exported to the other Colonies, that 
they talk'd of adding four itinerant ProfefTors to 
the Refident, each to have 120/. a Year, and 
thefe were to travel into Europe, Afia, Africa, and 
the other Parts of America, to make Inquifitions in 
natural and experimental Phylofophy for the ufe of 
this Univerfity : They were to take an Oath to write 
, nothing 

The Hiftdry of Virginia* 

nothing that they cou'd not prove to be true. Th$ 
College was to bear their Charges, but they had no 
occafion to be at fuch Expence. 

The firft Prefident of the College was Dr. Tho- 
mas Bray, who procur'd confiderable Contribu- 
tions in England , towards collecting a Libra- 
ry. They proceeded fo far, that they had a Com- 
mencement there in the Year 1700. at which 
.there was a great Concourfe of People : feveral Plan- 
ters came thither in their Coaches, and feveral in 
Sloops from New-Yorhy Tenfifoania and Maryland. 
It being a new thing in America to hear Graduates 
perform their Academical Exercifes. The Indians 
themfelves had the Curiofity to come to Williamsburgh 
on this cccafion, and the whole Country rejoic'd as 
if they had fome relifh of Learning. About this 
time the Clergy here tranflated the Practice of Piety 
into the Indian Language, and the College intended 
to fend for a' Printer from England. Since that a 
dreadful Fire feiz'd this Building before it was quite 
finifh'd, and confum'd it to Allies, under which the 
Project feems to lie bury'd, and the Colony muft 
be in a better Condition than now 'tis, before they 
can think of reviving it. 




The Hijfory of Virginia. 



Of the Climate, the Soil) and its Producti- 
ons, as Trees, Seeds, Plants, Roots, Fruits, 

and Flowers. 

WE may imagine by the Situation of the Country, 
that the Climate is Healthy, and indeed it ge- 
nerally agrees well with Englifti Conftitutions. Tis 
full of Rivers, and conlequently the Soil very fruit- 
ful. The Sicknefs that th^ EngHfh who go thither 
complain of, is occafion'd by Folly, Intemperance, 
or Carelefnefs •, and a fober prudent Man will not on- 
ly find every thing that prefervesand confirms Health, 
but alfo all things that are charming by the Beauty 
of the Profpetf:, and the Delight, the Fragrancy 
of the Fields and Gardens, the Brightnefs of theSkye, 
and Serenity of the Air affefts the Ravifh'd Senies. 
The greateft Difturbance the People meet with there, 
are terrible Claps of Thunder, which however do 
very little Harm, the exceflive Heats of the Sum- 
mer, againft which the Inhabitants are defended by 
the cool Shades of the Woods and Groves, and fling- 
ing Infefts, as Frogs, Snakes, Mufcketa's, Chinches, 
Seed-takes and Red-worms. The Rattle-Snake is 
molt talk'd o[\ and his Bite without a prefent Appli- 
cation, is infallibly Death •, but the Remedies are fo 
well known, that there's ne're a Servant, and fcarce 
a Slave who cannot cure it immediately, by applying 
the Rattle-ihake's Heart to it, which reftores the Pa- 
tient in two or three hours. Befides, 'tis very rare 
here, that thefe or any of the other poifonous Snakes 
are to be feen. The Musketa's are troublefome, 
like Gnats in Marihy Ground in England, but are on- 
ly found in the Fenny places there; They are ftronger, 
and continue longer than the Gnats in England. As 
to the other Infefts, there are ways to get rid of 
them, and the trouble they put the People to is not 
worth naming. The Winter in all Virginia does 
not continue above three or four Months, December, 
January, February, and March, of which thirty or 


The Hiftory of Virginia. 

forty days only are very bad Weather. The Froftsare 
fevere, but attended with a clear Skye, and don't laft 
long. The Rains are frequent and refrefhing, and the 
Heats of the Summer, which are molt violent in June, 
July, and Auguft, are much mitigated by them, and 
the frefh Breezes that are common in this Country 
contribute much to render the Heat tolerable to new 
Comers, and hardly fenfible to the Inhabitants. 

The Soil in general is a rich fat Mould 3 foot deep, 
and under it a Loam, of which they make a fine 
Brick •, but according as the Situation is moiit or dry, 
the Soil varies. 'Tis diftinguiuYd into 3 Sorts, High, 
Low, and Marjky, all which having Sand mix'd with 
'em, makes their Land warmer than Old England. 
The Highlands are moft Sandy : However they bear 
good Crops of Tobacco, only the Soil does not hold 
in Strength fo long as the Low-Lands, which are ve- 
ry rich, being a blackifh Mould about a Foot deep, 
and this Soil will hold its Strength 7 or 8 Crops, 
without manuring. Their Marfh-Lands bear Sedges 
and Rufhes like ours, and are unimprov'd. Their Land 
in general is as good as in England. That at the 
Mouth of the Rivers is moiil and fat, and produces 
Rice, Hemp, and Indian Corn. There are Veins of 
cold, hungry, Sandy Soil, where Huckleberries, Cran- 
berries, and Chinkapins generally grow. Alfo Oaks, 
Poplars, Pines, Cedar, Cyprefs and Sweet-Gumms, 
Hockly, Sweet-Myrtle, and the Live Oak are found 
here in great Quantities. The Land higher up the 
Rivers is a various Soil, and ftor'd with Chefnuts, 
Chinkapins, Oaks, Walnut, Hickoryes, Dogwood, 
Elder, Hafel, Locuft, SafTafras, Elm, Afh, Beech, 
and Poplar. The Land at the Heads of the Rivers, 
and its Prod unions, are alfo various. Here are 
Trees of an incredible Bignefs , and Plenty of 
Pafture-ground, Phyfick-Earth, Dyers-Wares, Coal, 
Quarries of Stone, Iron and Lead Mines \ Col. Bird 
being at this time fearching for one, which was for- 
merly work'd, butdeftroy'dattheMafTacre, as is re- 
lated in the firft Chapter ^ and Mr. Wtttaker, Mini- 
fter of Henrico, before the DifTolution of the Com- 
pany, wrote home. That not far from the Fall, there 
was found fome Silver Ore. Thus we fee Virginia a- 
bounds in every thing that is for the Pleafure or Pro- 
X fit 


% I : 


306 The Hiftory of Virginia. 

fit of the Inhabitants. We fhall now defcribe fome 
of the chief Productions of the Soil, and fpeak firfl 
of the Timber-Trees, of which the moil uieful are 
Oak, Cedar , Cyprefs, Firs •, two forts of Elm, 
Walnut and Afh. The Oaks are commonly of fo 
prodigious Bignefs, that they will meafure two Foot 
fquare at Co Foot high. The ftrft Ships that went to 
Virginia were us'd to Load with Cedar and Clapboard, 
but fome richer Commmodities have been exported. 
There is not much of this Timber knt abread, tho 
the Country was then full of Woods y they were fo 
clear from Buflies, Bryars and Underwood^ that a 
Man might have been feen above a Mile and a half, a- 
niong them -,and the Trees flood at that diflance, that 
a Cart or Coach might have been driven between the 
thickefl of the Trees, they having no Boughs to a 
great Height, yet they were fo tufted, that they af- 
ford a very confortable Shade in Summer. Yet tho 
the Grapes are juicy and plenty, all that have at- 
tempted to fall into the Wine-Trade, to raife Vine- 
yards, and make Wine, have never been able to bring 
their Defigns to perfection. The Realbns are* becaufe 
the Fir and Pine-tree, with which the Country a- 
bounds 5 are noxious to the Vine j and the Experiments 
that have been made were in the Low-lands, fubjecl to 
the Pine,- and near the Malignant Influence of the 
Salt Water. This ruin'd Monfieur Jamart a French 
Merchants Vineyard on James-River ^ near Archer's 
Hope-Creek , and Sir William Berkleys had the fame 
Inconveniences, and the fame Fate. Several French 
Vignerons were fent over in 1^21. the Year be- 
fore the Ma fiacre, and wrote over very promifing 
Letters of the Country and the Vineyard they were 
raifmg:, but that Bloody Treafon of the Sava- 
ges, put at end to them and their Undertaking, 
which the French Refugees at the Monacan Town talk 
of reviving. There are Plenty of Shrubs as well as 
of Timber, and befides the Berry, we have before- 
mention'd, there is a Brier growing fomething like 
the Sariaparilla. The Berry is as big as a Pea round, 
and of a bright crimfon Colour. Befides the SafTafras 
Tree, whofc Root was formerly one of thebefl Com- 
modities that came from hence, here are feveral forts 
of Gums and Drugs, and mofl of the Shrubs that 


The Hiftory of Virginia, 
grow in England, or other parts of Europe. The 
whole Country is interfpers'd with an incredible va- 
riety of Plants and Flowers, there being fcarce any 
kind of either, which does not thrive wonderfully in 
Virginia, and the Fruits are equally plentiful and 

Of Stone-Fruits, they have here Plums, and Per- 
fimmons or Vutchamimes. Here are three forts of 
Cherries, which are as plentiful as they are in Kent, 
and larger than the Englifh. The one grows in Bun- 
ches like Grapes-, the other is black without, and 
red within. The third is the Indian Cherry, and 
grows up higher than the others do. Here is fuch 
Plenty of Peaches, that they give 'em to their Hogs:, 
fome of 'em call'd Malachotoons, are as big as a Le- 
mon, and refembles it a little. Quinces they have 
in abundance ; as alfo Pumpions and Muskmelons. 
The Plums that grow here are the black, and the 
Murrey Plum. The Englifh forts of Plums do not 
ripen fo kindly as they do in England. Their Wild- 
Plum is like our White-Plum. The Perfimmons or 
Putchamimes are of feveral Sizes, from the Bignefs of 
a Damefin, to that of a Bergamot Pear ; when 'tis 
eaten ripe, 'tis as delicious as an Apricock *, but if 
green, is dangerous, and caufes Gripes and Convul- 
iions. Their Tafte and Colour referable thofe of a 
Cherry, all thole Fruits grow wild, and without 
cultivating, as moft of thofe do that we have al- 
ready treated of. Apples and Pears are fo plentiful, 
that 50 Butts of Perry, and as many of Cyder have 
been made out of two Orchards, few of which have 
lefs than 1 1 or 1200 Trees. The Bergamot and War- 
den are the moft common. There's great (lore of 
Quinces in Virginia, of which the People us'd to make 
Quince-Drink. Their Meflamines are a kind of 
Grapes ; the Cheinquamine's a kind of Fruit, re- 
fembling a Chefnut •, the Rawcamen,like aGoofeber- 
ry •, the Macoquez, a kind of Apple •, Mattaquefu- 
maucks, a Fruit like an Indian Fig •, Matococks a kind 
of Strawberry •, Oconghtanamins,\&Q a Caper. Figs grow 
as well there as in Spain; but Oranges and Le- 
mons do not thrive. Befides the Common Acorns, 
the Virginians find another fort with which chQ Na- 
tives us'd to make a fweet Oil to anoint their Joints*, 
X 2 >and 





Philof. , 

The Hifiory of Virginia; 
and another fort of Acton better than the Ordinary, 
the Indians dry'd and kept for their Winter Food, 
when Corn was fcarce : Of Roots, they have the 
Puccoon and Mufquafpern, the Juice of which is of a 
pleafantColour,and ths Indians made ufe of it to paint 
their Bodies and Warlike Arms. The Tockawaeigh, 
a very wholfome and favory Root. Shumack, Cha- 
pacour, and the famous Snake-root, fo much admir'd 
in England for being a Cordial, and an Antidote in 
all Peftilential Difeaies. There is no kind of Gar- 
den-root, but what they have in perfection" •, Sallad- 
Herbs, and Pot-herbs grow there fpontaneoufly, as do 
Purflain, Sorrel, &c. Their Flowers are as fine as 
any in the World ■, fuch as the Crown-Imperial, the 
Cardinal-Flower, the Moccafin-Flower^ the Tulip- 
bearing- La wrel, the Tulip-Tree , the Locuft like 
the JefTamine, the Perfuming-Crab-Tree, and the 
AiTentamin, a kind of Pink. They have plenty of 
Mufmelons, Water-Melons, Pumpions, Cufhaws, 
Macocks and Gourds. Their Cufhaws are a kind of 
Pumpions of a blewifh-green colour, ftreak'd with 
white. Their Macocks are a lefs fort of Pumpions : 
There are feveral kinds of them : The Savages never 
eat the Gourds, planting them only for the Shells, 
which ferve them inftead of Flaggons and Cups. The 
Indians had Peafe, Beans, and Potatoes, before the En- 
glim came among them \ but the Staff of their Food 
was their Corn •, of which we have giv'na large De- 
fcription in the Hiftory of New-England. 

Plantain of all forts grow wild in the' Woods-, as 
alfo Yellow-Dock, and Burdock, Solomon's-Seal, Egri- 
mony, Centery, Scabions, Groundfel, Dwarf-Elder, 
Yarrow, and White Maiden-hair ', Afar urn is gather'd 
on the Sides of the Hills, and Soldanalla on the Bay- 
fide. Their Dillany grows a Foot and half high : 
The Water diftill'd from it, the heft Medicine for the 
Worms: TheTurbil and Mechoacan, or Roots ex- 
£tly like 'em, grow there. 

Tobacco is the {landing Commodity of the Coun- 
try, and is fo beneficial to the Planter, and fo natural 
to the Soil, that all other Improvements give place to 
that. Indeed they could turn their Hands to nothing 
that would employ fo many Slaves and Servants, and 
require fo little Stock to manage it, or take up (uch a 


TheHiftory of Virginia. 
*arge Traft of Land •, for the fame Ground that is 
Planted every year with Tobacco, wou'd produce, if 
Corn was fown therefore than all the Plantations in 
America cou'd confume. This Plant is fo common in 
England, that we need not defcribe it: It grows much 
like a Dock : And whereas in our Gardens it muft 
be manag'd with as much care as the choicefl 
Fruit or Flower, in Virginia they leave it expos'd 
to all the Injuries of the Weather, which is very fa- 
vourable .to it, and 'tis feldom that the Crop fuifers 
by it. The Tobacco of this Plantation was not at 
firft fo good as 'tis now. That of Brafil had once the 
greateft Reputation all over Europe, but now Virginia 
and Maryland has the beft Price in all Markets ,'Tis 
not known how the Indians cur'd theirs: They now 
have it all from the Englifh. Tis faid they us'd to 
let it run to Seed, only fuccouringthe Leaves, to keep 
the Sprouts from growing upon and ftarving them. 
When it was ripe, they pull'd them off, cur'd them 
in the Sun, and laid them up for ufe. The Virginia 
Planters fow the Tobacco-Seeds in Beds, as the Gard- 
ners in England do Colwort-Seeds •, they leave them 
there a Month, taking care all that time to have them 
well weeded. When the Plants are about the breadth 
of ones hand, they are remov'd in the firft rainy 
Weatheryand tranfplanted into what they call Tobac- 
co- Hills. In a Month's time the Plants will be a Foot 
high, and they top them, and then prune off all the 
bottom Leaves, leaving only 7 or 8 on the Stalk, that 
they may be the better fed by the Top, and thefe 
Leaves in 6 Weeks time will be in their full growth. 
The Planters prune off the Suckers, and clear 'em of 
the Horn-Worm twice a Week, which is call'd Worm- 
ing and Suckering •, and this Work lads three Weeks 
or a Month •, by which time the Leaf from green begins 
to turn to brownifh, and to fpot, and to thicken,' which 
is a Sigh of its ripening. As faft as the Plants ripen, 
you muft cut 'em down,leave 'em in the Field for half a 
Day, then heap them up, let'em lye and fweatanight, 
and the next day carry them to the Tobacco-Houfe, 
where every Plant is hang'd one by another, at a con- 
venient diftance, for about a Month or 5 Weeks \ at 
the end of which time they ftrike or take 'em down in 
moift Weather, when the Leaf gives,or elfe 'twill crutn- 
X 3 ble 




310 The Hifiory of Virginia. 

ble, to duft •, after which they are laid upon Sticks, 
and cover'd up clofe in the Tobacco- Houfe for a Week 
or a Fortnight to fweat, and then opening the Bulk 
in a wet day, the Servants ftrip them and fort them, 
the top-Leaves being the beft, and the bottom the 
worft Tobacco. The laft Work is to pack it in 
Hogfheads, or bundle it up, which is alfo done in a wet 
Seafon •, for in the curing Tobacco, wet Seafons are 
as necefTary as dry, to make the Leaf plyant, which 
wou'd otherwife be brittle and break. They take a 
great deal of Pains with it now, and with all their 
Trouble can fcarce make it turn to account. The 
Englifh have carry'd over a thoufand feveral forts of 
the Productions of Nature, and have found all to fuc- 
ceed there : They have had fuch extraordinary Suc- 
cefs with Apples and Pears, that there's never a Plan- 
ter but has an Orchard, and makes large Quantities 
of Cyder and Perry, which is fome of their common 
Drinks, and there is nothing in England beiong- 
. ing either to a Garden or Orchard, but what 
they have or may have there in as great or greater 

B \\m 


Of the Beafts, Birds, and Fijb. 

HpHE Beafts that are peculiar to this Country, 
* are the Aronghena, fomewhat like a Badger. 
The AfTa panic, or flying Squirrel. The MufTafcus, 
a kind of Water- Rat. The Utchunquois, a Wild- 
Cat. The Opaflum, a certain Animal, whofe Fe- 
male lias a Bag under her Belly, wherein fhe carries 
her young ones. The Woods are ftock'd with Deer, 
the fame in kind with ours in England^ and larger and 
fatter for the mod part. There are Racoons, Bea- 
vours, Otters, Foxes, W T ild-Cats, Martins and 
Minks in the Frethss. The Indians are dextrous in 
catching them, and keep the Secret to themfelve?,that 
they may preferve the Furr Trade, which otherwife 
the Englifh wou'd foon drive them out of. Lyons, Leo- 

The Hiftory of Virginia, 
pards, Elks, Bears and Wolves, efpecially the latter, 
are met with in Virginia, tho not fo frequently as in 
fome other Parts of North America^ and the Wolves 
are not much bigger than Englifh Foxes. This Country 
was not over-ftock'd with any kind of Beafts, either 
wild or tame, when the Englifh difcover'd it, and the 
Cattle that are now to be found there, are all of 
Englifh breeding : Horfes are as plenty and as good 
as in England. 

Having mention'd the Flying- Squirrel, we think 
the Reader will not be dii'pleas'd with a Defcription 
of it: This Creature has a flefhy Subftance, which 
it extends in its skipping from one Tree to another, 
like Wings *, and by the help of thefe, he will fly or 
rather Skip 3 o or 40 yards at a time, from Tree to 
Tree. The OpafTum has a Head like a Hog, and a 
Tail like a Rat, 'tis about the bignefs of a Cat •, and 
the Falfe Belly, in which the Female carries her 
Young, is thus defcrib'd by one that faw it. 'Tis like 
a loofe Skin quite over the Belly, which never flicks 
to the Flefh, but may be look'd into at all times, 
after they have been concern'd in Procreation. In 
the hinder part of it is an Overture big enough for a 
fmall hand to pafs, and thither the young ones, after 
they are full hair'd, and ftrong enough to run about, 
fly when any Danger appears-, or when they 
go to reft or fuck, and continue to do fo till they 
have learn'd to live without their Dam. The ftran- 
geft part of this Defcription, is, that the young ones 
are bred in this falfe Belly, without ever having been 
in the true one. They are form'd at the Teat, and 
grow there for feveral Weeks together, till they are 
in perfect Shape, and have Strength, Sight, and Hair : 
They then drop off, and reft in this Falfe Belly, going 
in and out at pleafure : The Perfon from whom we 
took the Defcription, fays, he has feen them thus 
faften'd to the Teat, from the bignefs of a Fly till 
they became as large as a Moufe. Neither is it any 
hurt to the old one to open the Bag, and look in upon 
her Young. Some Panthers, Bufaloes and wild Hogs, 
which yield equal Pleafure and Profit to the Hunter, 
are caught up in the Country near the Heads of the 
Rivers. The reafon of there being few Sheep, is be- 
caufe the Country is not yet clear'd cf Wolves \ all 
X a. other 





k " 

fi2 The Hifiory of Virginia. 

other Beafts that are reckon'd wild, do no damage 
to the Virginians, flying from the Face of a Man 
whenever they fee one ^ and the Planters, by Pafture- 
Fences, fecure their Cattle and Hogs from them. 
There were no Rats nor Mice there, when the Eng- 
glifh hrft landed :, but they foon multiply'd fo from 
the Englifh Shipping, that once there was like to 
have been a fort of Rat-Plague among the Planners. 
The Virginian Water-Rat, or Muffafcus, fmells like 
Musk. Pole-cats and Wefels are fometimes to be 
feen there, but the Plenty of Hares and Rabbits make 
amends for it. 

; There is no Country more remarkable for the va- 
riety of Birds in it than Virginia, where the Woods 
and Groves in the Spring, Summer, Autumn, and al- 
moft all the Year, are render'd as delightful by the 
Mufick of their feather'd Quires, as by the Coolnefs 
of their Shades, or the Fragrancy of their Flowers. 
Among thefe the Rock-Birds are the moft diverting : 
They love Society fo well,that whenever they fee Man- 
kind,they will perch upon a Twig near thePerfon,and 
ling the fweeteft Airs in the World. The next is the 
Humming-Bird, who revels among the Flowers, and 
licks off the Dew and Honey from their Leaves. 'Tis 
not half fo large as an Englifh Wren, and its Colour 
is a mining Mixture of Scarlet, Green and Gold. 
There are Black-birds with red Shoulders that come 
in prodigious^ Flights out of the Woods about the 
Fall of the Leaf \ a fort of Nightingal, whofe Feathers 
are very gay, of a Crimfon and blew Colour ; but "it 
feldom or never fings. The Mock-Bird comes in 
about March and flays till Jme, and in bianefs and 
colour is like a Thrum. The Herons there* are very 
large, and the Partridges verv fmall. There's great 
variety of W 7 ild Fowl, as Swans, Geefe, Brants, 
Sheldrakes', Ducks, Mallard, Teal, Blewings, 
Cranes, Curlews, Snipes, Woodcocks, Oxe-Eyes, 
Plover^ Larks, Pheafants, Pigeons-, and which is beft 
of all 'em, wild Turkeys, much larger than our 
tame-, they are in Seafon all the Year. The Virgi- 
nians have feveral ingenious Devices to take them i 
among others a Trap wherein ie or 17 have been 
caught at a time. 


The Hiftory of Virginia. , gt $ 

As for Fifh there's fuch prodigious plenty of em, 
that 'tis hardly credible to an European. Some 
of the Stories that have been told of it, are cer- 
tainly Roman tick, and are rejected as fictitious, 
fuch as Shoals of Fifh, fwimming with their Heads 
above Water, and to be taken by Hand, loading a 
Canoo with Fifh in the open Sea by one Indian, in 
half an hour - but 'tis certain that no Rivers in the 
World are better ftor'd than theirs, and that the Vir- 
ginian Sea-Coafl abounds in Cod and Sturgeon, of 
which fome are eight foot long. Indeed there's fcarce 
any Fifh, but what may be caught either in the Sea 
or the Rivers. And yet there is only one fort peculiar 
to this Country, which is the Stingrafs. Tis good 
to eat, but has a long Tail with a very dangerous 
fting in it. There are other ftrange Fifties } but 
then they are alfo to be found in moft parts of North- 
America •, fuch as the Coney-Fifh, Rock-Fifh,Cac-Fifh, 
and a Fifh in the form of a Dragon, to which there's 
no Name as yet affign'd in our Language. The 
Toad-Fifh, when 'tis taken out of the Water, fwells 
till 'tis like to burft. Mufcles and Oyfters are very 
plentiful in Virginia, and fo large, that fome of 'em 
are as big as a Horfes Hoof. Pearl has been often found 
in the Shells. The Indians had large, but the Eng- 
lifh found only Seed-Pearl, of which good Quantities 
have been fent to England. In the Spring-time the 
Brooks and Fords are fo full of Herrings, which come 
up to Spawn there, that 'tis almoft impofiible to ride 
through without treading on them. The Rivers are 
alfo at that time ftock'd with Shads, Rock-Sturgeon, 
and Lampreys, which fatten themfelves to the Shad. 
In the Salt Water at certain times of the Year, there 
are Shoals of other Fifh •, fuch as the Old Wife, fome- 
thing like an Herring, and the Sheeps-head, which 
Virginians efteem in the number of their Bert. Black 
and red Drumms, Trouts, Taylors, Green-fifh, Sun- 
fifh, Bafs, Chub, Place, Flounders, Whitings, Flat- 
backs, Maids, Wives, fmall Turtle, Crabs, Cockles, 
Shrimps, Needle-fifh, Breme, Carp, Pike, Jack, 
Mullets, Eels, and Perch. Thefe are to be found 
in the Rivers and Brooks all the Summer long, 
and are eaten by the People. Thofe that follow 
are n,ot eaten: The Whale, Porpus, Shark, Dog-fifh, 

Garr s 


The Hiftory of Virginia; 
Garr, Thornback, Saw-fifh, Frog-hfh, Land-Crabs, 
Fidlers and Periwinkles. Many of thefe Fifh will 
leap into Canoes and Boats, as the Englifh or Indians 
crofs a River } and there's fuch Quantities of them, 
that they often tire the Sportfmen with taking 'em : 
Whereas in England, they are generally tir'd for 
want of it. The manner of Fifhing-Hawks preying 
upon Fifh, is very diverting. The Sport is to be 
feen every Summer in the Mornings, and fometimes 
all day long, Thefe Hawks are wonderful eager af- 
ter their Game, when the Fifh firfl come in the Spring. 
In the dead of the Winter 'tis fuppos'd they fifh fur- 
ther off at Sea, or remain among the uninhabited 
Iflands upon the Sea-Coaft. They have often been 
feen to catch the Fifh out of the Water, and as they 
were flying away with their Quarry, the Bald Eagles 
have taken it from them again. The Fifhing-Hawk 
will hover over the Water, and reft upon the Wing 
fome Minutes together, and then from a vaft heighth 
dart down directly into the Water, plunge into it 
for the fpace of half a Minute, and at laft bring up 
a Fifh with him, fo big, that he can hardly carry it. 
When he is on the Wing he makes himfelf fo ftrong- 
ly, that the Water comes off of him like a Mift, and 
then he flies to the Woods with his Prey, unlefs the 
Bald-Eagle intercepts him, and takes it away from 
him. This Bird, as foon as he perceives the Fifhing- 
Hawk, with his Game in his Mouth, purfueshim, and 
itrives to get above him in the Air, which if he can 
do, the Hawk lets his Fifh drop, and the Eagle leaves 
him to take up his Prey, which he fhoots after with 
fuch furprizing Swiftnefs, that he catches it in the 
Air, before it falls to the Ground. Thefe Fifhing- 
Hawks, when the Seafons are extraordinarily plenti- 
ful, will catch a Fifh, and loiter about with it in the 
Air, on purpofe to have a Chace with the Eagle for 
it \ and if the Eagle does not come, he'll make a da- 
ring Noife, as if it were to defy him. This Sport has 
frequently been feen by the Englifh, and by the De- 
fcription of it muft certainly be extreimly pleafant 
to the Spectators. 


The Hiftory of Virginia. 

ji 5 


Of the Coins in Virginia : Of the Trade to 
and from England, and other Parts of 
Europe and America : The Prodigious 
Revenue that the Cuftoms of Tobacco brings 
in : The Advantage that Trade has been 
to England, and the DiJ advantages it lies 

'T*HO the common way of Traffick there is by Bar- 
■■• ter or Exchange of one Commodity for another, 
or of any for Tobacco } yet there is fome Silver Coins, 
Englifh and Spanifh, and were much more, till the 
lowering of the Value tempted People to export 
the Coin to the other Plantations, where it went for 
more than it did in Virginia. The Chief of their Coins 
are either Gold of the Stamp of Arabia, or Silver and 
Gold of the Stamp of Spanifh America, or Englifh 
Money. There's very little of either kind to be feen in 
this Country for the Reafbns above-mention 'd : The 
Government, round about it, often raifing the Value 
of the Coin, is the Caufe th&tVirginia is drain 'd of the 
little it has. And 'tis impofiible to prevent this Inconve- 
nience, unlefs all the Colonies on the Continent were 
oblig'd to have one and the fame Standard for their 
Coin, which there have lately been fome attempts 
made to effect, tho without the Succefs that was 
expected and defir'd. The Scarcity of Money is fuch 
in this Plantation, that Gentlemen can hardly get 
enough for Travelling Charges, or to pay Labou- 
rers and Tradefmens Wages.. It occafions alfo the 
commencing many vexatious Suits for Debt, which 
by this means are contracted. The Value of the fe- 
veral Coins that are there, is as .follows : 


t , ;, 



|i6 The Hlftory of Virginia. 

/. s. d. 
The Spanifh Double Doublon, • • 03 10 o» 
The Doublon, confequently, • • 01 15 00 

ThePiftole, 00 17 o<?r 

Arabian Chequins, • • • • 00 10 00 
Pieces of Eight (except of Peru) ? 

weighing is penny Weight, i °° ° 5 °° 

French Crowns, 00 05 00 

Peru Pieces of Eight, and Dutch > 

Dollars, ...... £ 00 04. •<> 

And all Englifli Coin as it goes in England. 

The Trade of this Colony, as well as that of Mary- ' 
land, confifts almoft entirely of Tobacco •, for tho 
ths Country would produce feveral extraordinary 
Commodities fit for Trade •, yet the Planters are fo 
wholly bent on planting Tobacco, that they feem 
to have laid afide all thoughts of other Improvements. 
This Trade is brought to fuch Perfe&ion, that the 
Virginia Tobacco, efpecially the fweet-fcen ted, which 
grows on Tork-Kiver, is reckon'd the beft in the 
World, and is what is generally vended in England 
for a Home Confumption. The other forts, call'd 
Oranoav, and that of Maryland, are hotter in the 
Mouth •, but they turn to as good an Account, be- 
ing in demand in Holland, Denmark, Sweden, and 
Germany. Of this Commodity 30000 Hofheads have 
been exported yearly, which befides the other Ad- 
vantages that the Englifh reap by it, have clear'd 5 /. 
a Hofhead in a Foreign Market, and encreas'd the 
General Stock of the Nation, 150000/. a year. 
The whole Trade of Tobacco is indeed one of the 
nioft Profitable of all the Englifh Commerce, it em- 
ploys above 200 Sail of ftout Ships every year ; and 
brings in between 3 and 400000 /. to her Majefty's 
Treasury one year with another. Tho this Calcula- 
tion may feem too extravagant to fuch as know no- 
thing of this Trade, and to fome who make guefTes of 
the Trade in general only, from their own in parti- 
cular, yet it will appear to be Modefl to all that have 
experience in the Matter. There are 200 Sail of 
Ships freighted with this Commodity Communibus 
Annis i from the whole Bay : In which we include 


The Hifiory of Virginia, 

the Province of Maryland *, and, one with another,we 
can't reckon they carry lefs than 300 Hogfheads 
of Tobacco j in all 70000 Hogfheads j of which half 
we fuppofe to be fold and fpent in England \ and 
the Duty of thofe 3 5000 Hogfheads, at but 400 weight 
of Tobacco each, will come to 8 /. a Hogfhead, and 
280000 /. for the whole. The other half which is ex- 
ported will not produce above a 5th part fo much 
in the Exchequer, becaufe all the Imports are drawn 
back, and part of the Subfidy^ yet allowing but 
joooo /. for the Duty of the 35000 Hogfheads 
exported, the whole Amount of the Cuftoms for 
the 70000 Hogfheads of Tobacco, will come to 
'330000/. a year*, and fo much it certainly brings 
into the Exchequer in a time of Peace. For in 
this War-time our Trade is more uncertain ^ and 
a juft Calculation of this Branch of it, in part, or in 
thQ whole, cannot now be made, tho confider- 
ing that the Virginia and Maryland Merchants 
have efcap'd much better than thofe of Barbadoes, 
Jamaica , and the Charibbee Iflands , our Efti- 
mate, with fome abatement, according to the 
number of Ships loft, may ftand good. Some who 
pretend to be very well acquainted with the Virginia 
Trade, have aflur'd us, that 1 00000 Hogfheads have 
been Ship'd off from Virginia and Maryland in a 
Year, and 40000 of 'em fpent in England : If fo, we 
are rather too fhort in our Account than too long, 
both with reference to the Calculation of the Cuftoms, 
and the Addition the Trade makes to the National 
Stock. But we have kept as clofe to Truth as we 
cou'd by our own Experience, and the beft Informa- 
tion *, and to render what we have faid the more cre- 
dible to the Reader,'tis neceffary he fhou'd know how 
vaftly this Trade is improv'd in all Parts of England^ 
as well as in the Port of London. The Town of Le- 
verpool has had 50 Sail of Ships unlade at her Key from 
thence in a Year, for feveral Years paft, reckoning 
one year with another - , many of the out- Ports have 
8 or 1 o Sail employ'd yearly in the Virginia-Trade^ 
and the City of Brifiol is faid to pay above 60000 /. 
a year Duty for Tobacco her felf, which will not ap- 
pear improbable, if what we are very credibly in- 
form'd by Briftol-Mzn is true ? that one Ship belong- 


' ,:* 'J "< ''■:■ 


The Hijiory of Virginia. 

ing to that Port, call'd the Br i ft ol- Merchant, has 
paid 8 or roooo /* Cuftom, every year for thefe 
Twenty years laft paft. And very often 30 or 40 
Sail of Ships have come into the Severn at a time, 
bound for Briftol ; befides Runners and Stragglers. 
If the Out-ports together fend 100 Sail to Virginia 
in a year, as we think we have fufficiently prov'd \ 
London will more than make up the other 100. 
And what we have fa id of the Trade and the Cu- 
ftom s, will feem very rational and certain. 

Befides the vaft Advantage that accrues to the 
National Stock, by the Exportation of Tobacco from 
England to all other Parts of Europe ; we muft con- 
fider, how beneficial this Trade is, by the prodigi- 
ous Number of Hands it employs, and Families it 
maintains, . in England and Virginia : No lefs than 
Seventy thoufand Engliflj Souls in Virginia ; and 
as many in England. There are vaft Quanti- 
ties of Manufactures exported from hence daily 
to this Colony •, who have all their NecefTaries 
for Cloathing , Labour , and Luxury , from En- 
gland : And thole Commodities that are fent hence 
lying moft among Handicraft-Trades, are fuch as 
employ the moft Hands, feed the moft Mouths, and 
confequently are the moft beneficial to the Publick ', 
fuch as Weavers, Shoomakers, Hatters, Ironmonger s, 
Turners, Joiners, Taylors, Cutlers, Smiths, Bakers, 
Brewers, Ropemakers, Hofiers, and indeed all the Me- 
chanicks in England ; their Manufactures being good 
Merchandile in Virginia, when the Ignorance or A- 
varice of fome Merchants do not glut the Market. 
The Commodities fent thither, befides Linnen, Silks, 
India Goods, Wine, and other foreign Manufactures, 
are Cloth coarie and fine, Serges, Stuffs, Bays, 
Hats, and all forts of Haberdajhers Ware, Houghs, 
Bills,' Axes, Nails, Adzes, and other Iron- Ware •, 
Cloaths ready-made, Knives, Bisket, Flower, Stoc- 
kings, Shoos, Caps for Servants *, and in fhort, e- 
very thing that is made in England. 

They formerly drove a conliderable Trade with 
Pipe-Staves and Hoops, from Virginia to Madera, 
Terceras, Fial, and the other Iflands calfd the A- 
zores ; but lately New-England and New-Tork have 
almoft driv'n the Virginians out of that profitable 


The Hifiory of Virginia. 
Trade. They ftill keep part of the Trade to and 
from the Sugar-Iflands, on account of the Tork-River 
Tobacco, which is moft fmoak'd among the better 
fort of People ^ tho' the Oranoac will ferve the Ne- 
groes, and the worft of the White Servants, as well 
or better than the fweet-fcented. The Virginia-Mer- 
chants and Planters export Tobacco, Cattle, and 
Provifions to Barbadoes and the Leward Iflands •, and 
ifi Exchange bring back Rum, MelaiTes, and Sugar. 
For notwithftanding they make good Brandy of 
their own, and might have Sugar From their Sugar- 
Tree, as has been prov'd by many Experiments 5 
yet they are fo lazy, that they will be at no pains 
to provide themlelves with any thing which they 
can fetch el fe where for Tobacco. There are fe- 
deral Trades which they might fall into, befide that 
3f Tobacco, and which would be a Service to that 
Commodity, becaufe the lefs of it was made, the 
greater Price it would bear. The Country is cer- 
tainly capable of large Improvements, by the Tim- 
ber-Trade, and its Appurtenances, as Pitch, Tar, and 
Rofin. They might alfo manufacture Flax, Hemp, 
Cotton, and even Silk *, the three firft Commodities 
thriving there as. well as in any Country in the 
World, and the Mulberry-Tree feeding Silk-Worms 
brmerly in abundance. Edward Diggs Efq-, was at 
yreat Charge and Pains to promote the Silk-Manu- 
afture, fince it was given over by others - but 
wanting Encouragement, he alfo gave it over : Se- 
veral ofthe late Governours have, for Reafons which 
hey did not think fit to reveal, difcourag'd all fuch 
.s went about Manufactures •, and the Planters have 
>een oblig'd to ftick to their old Drudgery, the 
Wanting of Tobacco. Silk-Grafs grows there fpon- 
aneoufly in many places, and may be cut feveral 
imes in a year. The Fibres' of this Plant are as 
ine as Flax, and much ftronger than Hemp : A 
>iece of Grogram was made of it in Queen Eli- 
zabeth's Reign, and prefented to her •, and yet the 
Engli/h neglett it, and make no manner of life of 
t •, not fo much as the Jndaans did, who made their 
Jaskets, Fifhing-Nets and Lines with it. The Vir- 
\inians might alfo drive as good a Trade with Cat- 
le and Provifions, Horfes, Cows, Qxen, Beef, 




320 The Hiftory of Virginia. 

Pork, &c. as the People of New-England and Caro- 
lina do to the Sugar-Iflands : But all their Thoughts 
run upon Tobacco, and they make nothing of thofe 
Advantages, which would enrich an induftrious Peo- 

Indeed the Naval Stores that might be brought 
thence to England, for the Queen's and Merchants 
Service, are of fuch Confequence, that 'twould be 
well, if fome Care was taken to oblige them to 
Manufacture 'em, and due Encouragement was given 
to do it. It feems a little unaccountable, why the En- 
glijh, whofe Plantations are fo well furnifh'd with 
thofe Commodities, fhould be at the Charge of 
buying them in the Baltick with Ready Moneys 
fuch as Pitch, Tar, Rofin, Turpentine, Plank, Tim- 
ber, Mafts, Yards, and Cordage. New-England and 
Virginia would plentifully fupply all our Naval 
"Wants, and we mould not then be oblig'd to the 
People of the North, who do not always deal friend- 
ly or fairly by us. ' The Virginians are fo far from 
thinking of improving thefe Manufactures, that tho' 
they fee others fend thither to build Ships, they 
feldom or. never do it themfelves. They not only 
neglect making a Trade of Provifions, but even to 
provide a neceffary Store againfl an accidental Scar- 
city, contenting themfelves with a Supply of Food 
from Hand to Mouth •, infomuch that if a Scarce 
year fhould come, there would not be enough in the 
Country to fubfift them three Months. The only 
Excufe that the Virginians can plead for their La- 
zinefs is, that their Induftry was never encourag'd. 
Their Want of Towns hinders them from receiving 
many Advantages by the Fruitfulnefs of their Soil * 7 
for the People who inhabited them would take thole 
Commodities off their Hands, which every Planter 
in the Country is furnifh'd with at home. By 
this Want of Cohabitation, they are uncapable of 
making a beneficial life of their Flax, Hemp, Cot- 
ton, Silk, Silk-Grafs, and Wool •, which might o- 
therwile fupply their Neceffities from their Towns j 
and their Tobacco would enrich them, as we have 
fhew'd elfewhere. The greater! of their Difcou- 
ragements is the high Duties on their Commodi- 
ties, the Cuftom being often ten times as much as 


The Hiftory of Virginia.' 

the Prime Coft. And if it wants in Goodnefs, there 
is no Abatement for it, no Confideration for Loffes, 
for high Freights and Premio s of Infurance,for a fmall 
Crop, the Dearnefs of Hands, and other Accidents 
which may prove the Ruin of this Plantation : For 
when his Goods conle to Market, after Cuftom and 
the Factor's Bill for Commiffion is paid, the Neet 
Proceed comes to little. The poof Planter is not 
jnly difappointed in the Value of his Goods, but 
Kis Bills that he drew come back protefted, and he is 
'brc'd to pay exorbitant Intereft, to prevent being fu'd, 
3r. forc'd to fign Judgments to the Merchant there -, 
who, having got the leaft Hold of his Eftate, feeds 
him infenfibly with Money, till the whole follows 
it a mean Rate. If this Fate does not attend his 
Bills, he is forc'd to buy the NecefTaries at home, 
it dear Rates, which he wrote for to England •, and if 
le goes upon Truft, 'tis at fuch Prizes, that a Ufurer 
blufhes to extort, but Cuftom makes it look like 
awful. If he fells his Tobacco in the Country, the 
Factors take Care to beat down the Price fo low, that 
twill hardly pay for cultivating. How can all this be 
remedy'd, you fay, in War Time ? By fecuring their 
Trade, which would make Infurances unnecefTary : 
knd how can it be fecur'd ? That Queftion has been 
fo often anfwer'd - to fuch as have the Care of 
thefe things, 'tis needlefs for us to decide it here. This 
we may venture to fay, that thejending a Ship or 
two to this or other Colonies, under Commanders 
who think themfelves Admirals, and defy all Powef 
but their own, will never anfwer the End. A Re- 
prefentation of which was made to thofe that have 
:he Management of thefe Affairs, in which 'twas faid, 
They make it their Bufinefs to oppofe Authority, and 
when there is any Faction in any Place, they are fare to 
win with them againfi the Governour; They will lie in 
a Harbour for a Week together, without once going out 
to cruife •, by their ill Vfage of their Men, they force 
them to run away from the Ship, and then they ruin 
'he Merchants and Trade of the Place, by preffmg away 
the Seamen from the Feffels. Some Inftances of the ill 
Practices of thefe Captains are mention'd. Oneofthem,^ 
when he was at Virginia, neither fpar'd the Gentlemen of 
the Country^ the Queen's Officers, nor the Governour 
y km* 



322 The Hiftory of Virginia. 

himfclf, becaufe they would not fuffer him to marry a 
Gentleman's Daughter , when at the fame time he had 
a Wife and Children at London. Vpon which he at- 
tempted the Lives of the Gentlewoman's Father, federal 
of her Relations, efpecially of a very worthy Gentleman, 
one Col. Gary, who courted the young Lady. The Go- 
vernour was forc'd to fecure the Ft ace : The Pro- 
vince being all in an uproar by this Man's extravagant 
Actions. The Council of Maryland complain'd of an- 
otherj reprefenting, He was fitter for Bedlam than to 
command a Ship. And another at New-York, When the 
Lord Cornbury order'd him to take feveral Vejfels 
loaden with Provifwns on her Majejly's Account, in 
Penfylvania and Carolina, and convoy them to Jamaica, 
excused himfelf, faying, His Ship was laid up, and m- 
riggd. They might have been ready before Chriftmas, 
but he would not go till the i^th of March, prumifing 
then to fet Sail. However, he lay in the Harbour 
till the latter end of May ', all which time her Majejty 
paid Demurrage, the Provisions lying on board, which is 
great Damage. He refus'd to obey the Orders he re- 
ceived to touch at Carolina, and take thofe Veffels un- 
der his Convoy. 

Bat fhouid we go about to write a Hiftory of all 
the Complaints that have been made againft fuch 
Officers as thefe, for their Mifcarriages in America, 
one might add another Volume to thefe of the Plan- 

We have alfo feen a State of Virginia, drawn by 
an Inhabitant of North- America, and prefented to 
'A State" of ^ Lords of Trade in England. The People are very 
Virginia. numeroHt, difpersd thro'* the whole Province. Their 
almofi fole Bufinefs is planting and improving Tobacco, 
even to that degree, that moft of them fcarce allow 
themfelves time to produce their necejfary Provifions, 
and confequently take little Leifure to bujy themfelves 
about Matters of State. They have always been re- 
fpeliful and obedient to Government, &c. Again, On 
every River of phis. Province there are Men in Number 
from ten to thirty, who by Trade and Industry have got 
very co-mplcat Ejiates. Thefe Gentlemen take Care to 
fupply the poorer fort with Goods and Necejfaries, and 
are fure to keep them always in their Debt, and confe- 
quently dependant on them. Out of thu Number are 


The Hijlory of Virginia. 3 2 1 

chofen her Majeftys Council, the Affembly, the Jufiices 
and Officers of the Government. Many of thefe Gen- 
tlemen have apply' 'd themfelves of late Tears to procure 
from their Governours good Laws, for the better Go- 
vernment and Improvement of the Country, &c. Again, 
They confider this Province is of far greater Advantage 
to her Majefty, than all the reft of the Provinces be- 
fides on theM&m; and therefore falfely conclude, that 
they ought to have greater Privileges than the reft of 
her Majefty's Subjects. Further, The Affembly think 
themfelves entitled ta all the Rights and Privileges of 
an Englifh Parliament, and begin to fearch into the 
Records of that Honourable Houfe, for Prefidents to 
govern themfelves by. The Council imagine, they 
almoftftand upon equal Terms with the Right Honoura- 
ble Houfe of Lords. We think a great Part of what 
follows in this Reprefentation might have been fpar'd, 
fo we leave it as we found it. 

The Society for propagating the Gofpel, in the Ac- church 
Count they have publrlhia of their Succefs in Ame-A$dn. 
rica, tell us, Virginia is divided into fifty Parifties, 
and about thirty Chapels. Here was alio a noble 
College, ere&ed for the Education of the American 
Youth, in the Studies of Divinity and Philofophy. 
A Maintenance for the Students has been fettled, but 
by Difufe is impair'd in many Places. Several Pa- 
rishes are not fupply'd with Minifters, particularly 
in Princefs Anns County. There was no Mathemat- 
ical Profefibr in William and Mary College. The 
Society have paid to Mr. Tyliard 20 /. and to Mr, 
Wallace of Elizabeth City Pariih 15 /, in Books. 

Of the College above-mention'd, we have fpoken 
already, but fince that have met with a better Ac- 
count of it. A ftately Fabrick was raised, a Royal ^ e m 
Charter given, with ample Privileges and Immunities, Account of 
a publick Fund was allotted for the Endowment of it, the Society 
and' a Prefident appointed with an honourable Sa!lary,for propa- 
&C. and in Honour of the Founder it was call' 'd William gating ths 
and Mary College. But it could not be fumiJJfd with Gofpel, 
Profeffors and Students, nor advanced above a Gram- &c> P' 2 . 
mer-School, before the whole College was vnfortunately 
deftroy'd by Fire. And the great Service Col. Nichol- 
fon did this Society, and the Caufe of Religion, in 
this Province, while he was Governour, has been 
Y 2 cftea 




: : './;■■; 


324 The Hifiory of Virginia ) 

often acknowldeg'd by them, in Publick affd Pri- 

We have nothing further to obferve relating 
to Virginia *, but that on the Death of Mr. Notte y 
my Lord Orkney's Deputy in the Government of this 
Colony, Col. Hunter was appointed his SuccefTor 
in that honourable Poft, A- D. 1707. On which 
he embark'd for his Province, and in his Paflage 
was taken by the French, and carry'd into France : 
From whence he return'd into England, and now 
waits for a Convoy to Virginia. 

We have only to add a Lift of the Chief Officers, 
Civil and Military, as is done in the other Parts of 
this Treatife. 

Col. Hunter, Governour. 
Edmund Jennings, Efq:, Prefident. 

Dudley Diggs, Efq*, • | 

Benjamin Harrifon, Sen' Efq;, | 
Robert Carter , Efq:, I 

JohnCufiis, Efq*, 
,The Reverend Mr. James 

Blare, ^ 

Thilip Ludwell, Efq - , 
Henry Duke, Efq-, 
Robert Quarry, Efq*, 
John Smith, Efq*, 
John Lewis, Efq*, 
William Churchill, Efq*, 

CommifTary to the Bilhop of London, the Reverend 

Mr. James Rlaire. 
Auditor of the Revenue, Dudley Diggs, Efq*, 
Secretary, Edmund Jennings, Efq*, 
Receiver General, William Bird, Efq*, 
Collector of the Cuftoms, Col. Gawen Corbin. 
Attorney General, Stephen Tompfon. 

J»-Counfellors e 





Containing An Account of the Dtfcovery and 
Settlement of this "Province, and of all 
the Wars, Factions, Difturbances, and 
other Events there, from that time to the 

WE are not ignorant of the Pretences of nifcovem 
the Concern'd in this Province, who 
affirm, 'twas difcover'd by Sebafiian 
Cabot. Mr. Archdale, one of the 
Proprietors, in his printed Defcription of Carolina, 
fays, Henry the Nlllth. about the Tear 1500. furnffid 
Sir Sebaftian Cabot with Shipping, (He was born at 
Briftol, tho his' Father was a Venetian,) to make a 
Difcovery , and he fell upon the Coafi of Florida, and 
having faiVd along the Continent a conjiderable way 
North-Eaji, returned. But this does not appear in 
any authentick Hiflorian ; nor that Sir Sebaftian Ca- 
bot ever got -fo far to the South. 




Caftell ef 

The Hifiory of Carolina. 

Carolina is the Northern part of the vaft Region 
of America, which was diicover'd by John Ponce de 
Leon, in the Year 151 2. He made Land about 30 
Degrees from the j£quator, near the River of San 
Matt&o, the moft Southerly part of this Province. 
He fail'd thither from the Ifland of Porto Rico, and 
gave the Country the Name of Florida, for that the 
Face of it has the Refemblance of a continual 

The Spaniards, who paffionately defir'd to fecurc 
it to themfelves, eight Years afterwards fent Kafquez, 
de Ayllon to make a further Difcovery of it, as belong- 
ing to Charles V. in whofe Name de Leonhud taken 
Ponefiion of it. He came upon the North Coaft, 
and call'd the North North-Weft River by the Name 
of Jordan. He did nothing memorable, except 
this infamous Action, of inviting many of the Na- 
tives aboard his Ships, where when he had got 
them, he hoifted Sail, and carry'd them into mifera- 
ble Bondage. 

In the Year 1 5 2 £. Charles V. Emperor of Germany 
and King of Spain, fent Pamphilio Narvefi to Florida, 
who ftay'd fo long in the South-Weft part of this 
Country, which is the moft barren, that, fays my Au- 
thor, they were fain to eat one another, his Crew having 
fpent their Provifions. 

Ten Years afterwards Ferdinando a Soto came 
hither in the fearch of Gold and Silver Mines, ha- 
ving a little Army of <?oo Foot, and 500 Horfe. 
Kimfelf, and three Parts of his Soldiers, dy'd, ei- 
ther thro' Want, or by Sicknefs, or the Indians ; 
and the reft were led back by Lewis Mofcos to New 
Spain, tho not without great Difficulty, for the Na- 
tives fetting upon them leveral times in their March, 
kill'd all that fell into their Hands. 

This unfortunate and expenfive Expedition fo dif- 
eourag'd the Spaniards, that for feveral Years they 
made no more Attempts in thefe Parts, and indeed 
they fearch'd no further than that Part of the Couti- 
nent which lies oppofite to the Gulph of New Spain, 
and not w ithin and beyond "the Streights of Bahama, 
which includes that part of the Country we are now 
treating of, and which is the moft fertile and rich, 
abounding in feveral merchantable Commodities. 
• ■ . ~ -.--.. The 

The Hifiory of Caroling. 327 

The French perceiving the Spaniards neglected this 
long Traci of Land, Admiral Coligny, in tliQ Reign 
of Charles IX. procur'd two of the King's Ships 
to be fent thither, the Command of which he gave 
to Jean Ribaut, who after a Voyage of two Months, 
arriv'd at the River of Dolphins , between that of San 
Matuo, and that of May, lying about the 30th De- 

The next River to that of May, he call'd the Seine. 
The next to that, theSomme ; then the Loire ; then. 
the Charente, and the Garonne. At the Mouth of Al- 
bemarle River, then call'd the Great River ; the Port 
being fafe and commodious, he built a Fort, which he 
called Charles Fort, and gave it the Name of Port 
Royal, in 32 Degrees of Latitude, bordering on Virgi- 
nia, now North Carolina, where the firil Settlement 
was made by any European Nation. 

The Civil Wars raging in France, Ribaut's Sol- 
diers mutiny'd, for want of Supplies. The Natives, 
'tis true, were very kind to them, out of Hatred to 
the Spaniards', but they could not furnifh them 
with many NecefTaries which they wanted •, and the 
Admiral was fo engag'd in Politicks at home, that 
he had not Leifure to provide for the Wants of his 
Colony. So Ribaut having made fome Difcoveries 
in the North-Eaft part of Florida, return'd to France, *&& 
and in his Return, if Credit may be given to an old 
Author, his Company were reduc'd to fuch Extre- 
mity, that they kill'd and eat one of their own Men - y 
and probably would have done fo by others, had 
they not accidentally met with an Englijh Ship, the 
Mafter of which furniuYd them with fome Provifi 
ons. A Peace being concluded 2 Years after in 
France, between the Papifts and Proteftants, Gtligny, 
who was then in Favour at Court, procur'd other 
Ships to be fent to this Country, which was now 
call'd Carolina, from Fort Charles, as that was from 
the French King, The Command of thofe Ship?? 
and the Men aboard, was given to Lewis Laudoner, 
who was order'd to carry on the Settlement He 
arriv'd here the 20th of June, 15^+. with 3 Ships s 
and was kindly receiv'd by the Indians, but could 
find no Gold and Silver Mines, tho he fpent much 
Labour and Time in fearch after them. His Provi- 

y 4 jjons 


The Hifiorj of Carolina^ 

fions being almoft all gone, and the Natives eithetf 
unable, or unwilling to furnifh him with more, 
Laudoner refolv'd to return alfo to France :, and as 
be was preparing to depart, JeanRibaut arriv'd with 
3 Ships, which had fo good an Effect on the Indians^ 
that they feem'd to o be as welcome to them as to the 
French. The Kings of Homoloa, Seravatri, Alma- 
cantj Malica, and Cajlri y waited upon Ribaut, to 
congratulate his Arrival, and promis'd to conduct 
him to the Apalat&an Mountains, which part Caroli- 
na from Virginia. 

The French conceiv'd great Hopes of this Set- 
tlement, but all vanifrYd on the Arrival of the Spa- 
niardsy who with a Squadron of Ships and Land For- 
ces, drove the French out of their Forts, kill'd Ri" 
baut^ and tfoo Men, after having given them Condi- 
tions of Life, and oblig'd Laudoner^ with a fetv of 
his Countrymen who remain'd alive, to return to 

The French King took no notice of this Act 
of Violence committed on his Subjects, becaufe 
they were Proteftants •, and indeed 'tis thought 
Coligny intended by this Settlement, to fecure a Re- 
treat for himfelf, and his Brethren of the Reform'd 
Religion, in cafe they were conquer'd in France. 
Peter Melanda commanded the Spaniards, who dif- 
lodg'd the French, and fo provok'd the Indians by 
his Cruelty and Injuftice, that they were very ready 
to ravenge themfelves when Opportunity offer'd, as 
it did not long after •, for Capt. DeGorgues, a French 
Gentleman, at his own coft, fitted out three ftout 
Ships, and with 280 Men fail'd to Carolina^ where 
he took the Fort, and put all the Spaniards within it 
to the Sword, They had built two other Forts, 
Which'" he eafily reduc'd, and ferv'd the Garrifons 
as he did that of Fort Charles. He demolifh'd 
them, and was aflifted by the Kings of Homoloa y 
and Seraiiatri. 

The French travell'd into the Dominions of the 
great King of Apalacha, near the Mountains, where 
they converted many Indians to Chriftianity. Thefe 
Indians were more civil than thofe to the North- 
ward, their Kings Dominions larger, and their 
Manners, in a great meafure, refembled the Mex% 
fam\ We 

The Hiflory of Carolina^ 329 

We do not find that Monfieur de G argues made 
any Settlement here *, or that the Spaniards attemp- 
ted to recover the Country •, which from the Year 
155-7. lay deferted by all European Nations, till the 
Reign of King Charles II. of England. In the Year 
1522. feveral Englifh Families flying from the Maf- Ibid. 
facres of the Indians in Virginia, and New-England, 
were driven on thefe Coafts, and fettled in the Pro- 
vince of Mallica, near the Head of the River of May, 
where they acted the Part of Miffionaries among the 
Mallicans and Apalachites. The King of the Country 
is faid to have been baptiz'd -, and in the Year 1^3. 
Mr. Brigftock, an Englishman, went to Apalacha, 
where he was honourably .entertain'd by his Coun- 
trymen, who were there before him ', and from his 
Relation of the Country ours is taken. 

It will not be unacceptable to the Curious, to ADefcrip* 
fee a Description of Carolina, as it was before the En- tion of 'Old 
glifh fettled there, which we find very diftinttly re- Carolina, 
lated in a Difcourfe Printed A. D. 1544. The near- 
eft River, of any Note, to Virginia, falling into the 
Sea, is the Jordan, which lies in 32 Degrees ;from 
whence, about 20 Leagues downwards to the South, is 
the Promontory of St. Helen, near Port-Royal, which 
the French chofe for the heft andfureji Place to begin Caftdl. p» 
their Plantations. Between the River Jordan and &. 33» 
Helens, are Oriftanum, Oftanum, and Cayagna ; 
Oriftanum lying 6 Leagues from St. Helens^ Oftanum 
4 Leagues from Oriftanum ; and Cayagna 8 Leagues 
from Oftanum. From St. Helens to Dos Baxos Haven 
is 5 Leagues. From thence to the Bay de Afapo, $ 
Leagues ; thence to Cafanufium 5, to Capula 5, to 
Saron 9, to S. Alcany 14, and toS. Peter 20 Leagues, 
lying in 3 1 Degrees of Latitude. The next Place is 
San Mattseo, 5 Leagues from St. Peter. 

'Twill be difficult for an Inhabitant of the prefent 
Carolina, to reconcile all thefe Names to the Modern, 
and the old Defcription to the New ; wherefore we 
ihall not pretend to it, at ieaft but occaiionally, and 
where we can be almoft fure that we are in the 

This Country, having been abandon'd by all Euro- 
pean Nations for near 100 Years, itfeem'd reafonable 
then, that any one who would be at the Expence of 


3£o The Hifiory of Carolina. 

fettling upon it,, and cultivate it, fhould pofTefs it - 7 
and the Pretence of Sebaftian GzWsdifcoveringit, 
gave the Crown of England a Title to it, which King 
Charles II. aflerted : For fome Noblemen and Gentle- 
men begging it of him, he made a Grant of it, by a 
Pattent, bearing date the 24th of March, \66$. to 
Edward Earl of Clarendon, then Lord High Chancel- 
lour of England, George Duke oi\Albemarle, William 
Lord Craven, John Lord Berkley", Anthony Lord AJh- 
ley, Sir George Cartaret, Sir William Berkley^ and Sir 
John Colliton : Who, to ufe the Words of the Grand 
Charter, being excited with a laudable and pious Zeal y 
for the Propagation of the Gofpel, beg'd a certain Country 
in the Parts of America not yet cultivated and planted, 
and only inhabited by fome barbarous People, who had 
no Knowledge of God, &c. wherefore the King granted 
them all that Territory in his Dominions in America, 
from the North End of the Jjland caWd Lucke-Ifland, 
which lies in the Southern Virginian Sea, and within 36 
Degrees ofNLatitude •> & to the Wefl as far as the South 
Seas ', andfo Southerly, as far as the River San Mattaeo, 
which borders on the Coaft of Florida, and is within 3 1 
Degrees of North Latitude, and fo Weft, in a i direct 
Line, as far as the South Seas aforefaid : With all Roy- 
al Fisheries, Mines, Power of Life and Limb, and 
every thing neceflary in an abfolute Propriety, pay- 
ing a Quit-rent of 20 Marks Yearly. 

We are not to enter into the Merits of the Caufe, 
nor inquire by. what Right King Charles became pof- 
fefs'd of this Province, and Carolina to be a part of his 
Dominions in America *, 'tis enough for us, that he 
gave the Proprietaries fuch a Charter, and that they 
proceeded towards a Settlement by virtue of it : 
which was in a few Years effefted. Whatever has 
been faid of the French and Spaniards, 'tis but juft, 
that if one Nation does not think a Country worth 
cultivating, and deferts it, another, who has a better 
Opinion of it, may enter upon it, by the Law or 
Nature and Reafon. 

The Proprietaries, after they had got their Char- 
ter, gave due Encouragement for Perfons to fettle in 
this Province, and there being exprefs Provifion made 
, in it for a Toleration, and Indulgence to all Chrifh- 
ans in the free Exercife of their Religion, great Num- 

The Hifiory of Carolina. 3$x 

bers of Proteftants, DhTenters from the Church of 
England, retir'd thither. 

This Toleration appears fo firm by this Charter, 
that we wonder any Palatine could prefume to break 
in upon it. The King granted the Proprietaries full 
and free Licenfe, Liberty and Authority, by fuch 
legal Ways and Means, as they fhall think fit, to give 
unto fuch Perfon and Perfons, inhabiting, and being 
within the (aid Province, or any Part thereof, who 
really in their Judgments, and for Confcience fake, 
cannot, or fhall not conform to the Liturgy, Form, 
and Ceremonies of the Church of England, and take 
and fubfcribe the Oaths, and Articles, made and efta- 
blihYd in that behalf, or any of them, fuch Indulgent 
ces and Difpenfations in that behalf, for, and during 
fuch Time and Times, and with fuch Limitations and 
Reftriftions, as they, &c. fhall think fit. 

Let us now fee what the Proprietaries did, purfu- 
ant to the Power the King had inverted them with, 
to grant Liberty of Confcience. We cannot have a 
better Authority than the Cafe of the Dijfenters in Ca- 
rolina, publifh'd lately by a Gentleman of this Pro- 

Thefirfi Proprietors were fofenfible that nothing could p. 27. 
people that Province, and enrich it, but an univerfal 
and abfolute Toleration, that they made the moft exprefs 
and ample Provifion for fuch a Toleration that ever was 
made in any Confiitution in the World, as may be feen in 
the 96, 1 01, 102, I0 6 - Articles of the Fundamental 
Conditutions : Which provide, as the Lords Proprie- p. 36. 
taries word it in thofe Confutations, That fine e the 
Natives of that Place, who will be concerned in our Plan- 
tations, are utterly Strangers to Chrijiianity, whofe Ido- 
latry, Ignorance, or Mifiake, give us no Right to expel 
or ufe them ill, and that thofe who remove from other 
Parts to plant there, will unavoidably be of different O- 
pinions concerning Matters of Religion, the Liberty where- 
of they will expect to have allow 'd them ', and that it will 
not be reafonable for m, on this account, to keep them 
out ; therefore, that jure Peace may be maintain 'd, a- 
midft the Diverfity of Opinions, and our Agreement and 
CompaB: with all Men may be duly and faithfully obferv'd, 
the Violation whereof, upon what Pretence fever, can- 
not be without great Offence to Almighty God 3 and great 
f Scandal 


The Hiflory of Carolina: 

Scandal to the true Religion, which weprofefs: And alpt 
that Jews, Heathens, and other Diffenters, from the 
Purity of the Chrifiian Religion, may not be fear W, and 
kept at a Dijlance from it, but by having an Opportunity 
of acquainting themfelves with the Truth and Reafona- 
blenefs of its Doftrines, and the Peace ablenefs and lnof 
fenfivemfs of its Prof effort, may by good Vfage and Per- 
fwafion, and all thofe convincing Methods ofGentlencfs 
and Meelnefs, fuitable to the Rules and Befigns of the 
Gofpel, be won over to embrace, and unfeignedly receive 
thy Truth. Therefore the faid Confutations provi- 
ded for their Liberty, but declar'd, That no Perfon 
above f event een Tears of Age, /hall have any Benefit or 
Protection pf the Law, which is not a Member of forne 
Church or Profeffion, having his Name recorded in fome 
one religious Record. 

Thus did thefe Lords Proprietaries* take care, that 
Perfons of all Profeffions in Religion mould be pro- 
tected and fecur'd in the free Exercife of them ; and 
the Reader thus prepofTefs'd with the Laws of the 
Country, on which the Government of the Colony 
is intirely founded, will be the better able to judge 
of the Principles of thofe Men, who in the Sequel of 
this Hiftory, we fhall find endeavouring to over-turn 
the moil con fiderable Articles of thefe Fundamentals! 
for great Numbers of Protefhnt DiflTentersfrom the 
Church of England, removing with their families to 
Carolina, when there were fo many Inhabitants, that 
a Form of Government was necefTary, the Proprieta- 
ries agreed on that abovemention'd, call'd, the Fun- 
damental Constitutions, confifting of 120 Articles, 
George fign'd by the Duke of Albemarle, then Palatine of the 
mhofAU Province^ the Lord Craven, the Lord AJhley, Sir 
bemarle John Colliton, the Lord Cornbury, the Lord Berkley, Sir 
Falatme George Cartaret, the ift of March, 1699. Which 
Constitutions, as is exprefTed in thQ laft Article, Jhall 
he, and remain the facrsd and unalterable Form and 
Rule of Government in Carolina for ever. 

They were drawn up by that famous Politician the 
Earl of Shaftsbury, one of the Proprietors, and the 
only one that could be fufpe&ed of having the leaft 
Inclination to favour the Diflenters. The firft Ar- 
*icte of thefe^FundamentaJs, is, that a Palatine JJjall 
Lc chofen cut of one of the Proprietaries^ who fliall con- 

The Hifiory of Carolina.' 

tinue during Life, and be fucceeded by the elde{k of 
the other Proprietaries. The Palatine has the execu- 
tive Power in moft Cafes, and the reft of the Pro- 
prietaries have their Places and Privileges. Mr. 
Archdale, in the before-mention'd Treatife, fays. 
They center' d all their Power in four of them, viz. in a 
Palatine of their own c hoofing, and three more, who were 
authorized to execute the whole Powers of the Charter. 
This is call'd the Palatine's Court -, and their Deputies 
in Carolina execute it as they are directed by their 

By the Fundamental Conftitutions, there are to 
be three Hereditary Noblemen in every County, 
one call'd a Landgrave, and 2 call'd Cafiiques. The 
Parliament confifts of the Proprietors, or their De^ 
puties, the Goyernour and Commons*, and by the 
Fundamentals mould have 25 Landgraves, and 50 
Cafiiques to make a Nobility : But the Number of 
Landgraves and Cafiiques is very fmall, and they are* 
not fummon'd to make an Upper-Houfe, on that 
Account-^ fo the Governour and the Proprietors 
Deputies arrogate that Title. The Commoners are 
chofen by the Free-holders of every County, as the 
Commons in England ; and all were at firft to fit in 
oneHoufe, and have equal Votes. This Parliament 
ihould meet once in every two Years, and oftner, if 
Occafion require. The Courts of Juftice are, befides 
thofe of the Palatine's Court, the Chief Juftice's 
Court, the HighConftables Court, the Chancellor's 
Courts the Treafurer's Court, the Chamberlain's 
Court, the High-Steward's Court : Befides which, 
there are the Great Council and the Hundred Courts. 
Mr. Archdale, on this Head, tells us, " The Char- 
" ter generally, as in other Charters, agrees on 
" Royal Privileges and Powers, but efpecially at that 
iC Time it had an over-plus Power to grant Liberty 
" of Confcience, tho at home was a hot perfecuting 
tc Time ; as alfo a Power to create a Nobility, yet 
" not to haveithe fame Titles as here in England : 
" And therefore they are there by Pattent, under 
" the Great-Seal of the Province, call'd Land- 
" graves and Cafiiques, in lieu of Earls and Lords, 
" and are by their Titles to fit with the Lords Pro- 
prietors Deputies, and together make the Upper 

" Houfe, 


The Hifiory of Carolina. 
" Houfe, the Lower Houfe being elected by the 
t( People. Thefe Landgraves are to have four Ba- 
" ronies annex'd to their Dignities, of 5000 Acres 
a each Barony :, and the Caffiques two Baronies, of 
cc 3000 each, and not to be divided by Sale of any 
<c Part. Only they have Power to let out a third 
<e Part for three Lives, to raife Portions for younger 
" Children. Every County has a Sheriff and four 
Juftices of the Peace. Every Planter pays 1 d. an 
Acre Quit-Rent to the Proprietaries, unlefs he buys 
it off. All the Inhabitants and Free-men, from 16 
to 6 o Years old, are bound to bear Arms, when com- 
manded by the Great Council, 

The Proprietaries enter'd into a Joint-Stock, and 
fitted out Ships on their own proper Charges, 
to tranfport People and Cattle thither, which Ex- 
pence amounted to 1 2000 /. befides as much or more 
disburs'd by (ingle Proprietors to advance the Colo- 
ny * ? and all their Rents and Incomes have fmce the 
Beginning been laid out in Publick Services. 

Many DifTenters of good Eftates went over, and 
many other Perfons, in hopes to mend their For- 
tunes. And if they could tell how to improve the 
Opportunities that were put into their Hands there, 
they had feldom any Reafon to repent of going thi- 

Tho the Difficulties and Dangers they met with 
at firft were a little difeouraging, all free Perfons, 
who came over, were to have 50 Acres of Land for 
themfelves, 50 more for each Man-Servant, and 50 
more for each Woman-Servant Marriageable*, and not 
Marriageable, 40 Acres. Each Servant out of his 
or her Time was to have 50 Acres, paying the Quit- 
Rent of 1 d. an Acre. 

The Proportion of Land was much greater by ths 
firft Inftruaions which the Proprietaries fent their 
Governours, but they afterwards thought fit to re- 
duce it to the prefent Allotment. Some Gentlemen 
who did not care to be liable to the yearly Quit- 
Rent of 1 d. an Acre, bought their Lands out- 

The common Rate of purchafing now, is 20 /. for 
a 100 Acres, and 10 s. a Year Quit- Rent. The 
Proprietors, in all their Leaks, never forget to ex- 


The Hiftory of Carolina; 35^ 

cept all Mines, Minerals, and Quarries ofGemms and 
precious Stones. 

Things being thus eftablifh'd, the Lords Proprie- e 
taries appointed Col. William Sayle, to be Governour £ j t will.' 
of their Province, about the Year 1670. The Firft Sayie Go- 
Plantations that came to any Perfection, were about vcmour* 
Albemarle and Port-Royal Rivers. But Ajhley and 
Cooper Rivers drew People that way, for the 
Convenience of Pafture and Tillage, for which 
Reafon that Part of the Country became moll inha- 

In 16-71. The Proprietaries fent Cap. Halfred with 
a Supply of Provifions and Stores for the Colony, 
and created James Cartaret, Sir John Teomans^ and 
JohnLock, Efq-, Landgraves. 

The Conftitutions having been found deficient in 
fome Cafes, Temporary Laws were added, and the 
Form of Government fettled thus. 

A Governour nam'd by the Palatine. 

~\ 7 Deputies of the Proprietors. 

A Council, / 7 Gentlemen, chofen by the ParU- 

con lifting S anient, 

of V 7 of the eldeft Landgraves and 

•* Cafliques. 

An Admiral. High-Steward. 

A Chamberlain. High-Conftable. 

Chancellor. Regifter of Births, Buri- 
Chief-Juftice. a Is, and Marriages. 

Secretary. Regifter of Writings. 

Surveyor. Marlhal of the Admi- 
Trealurer. ralty. 

All which were nominated by the Proprietors 
refpeftively. , The Quorum of the Council were to be 
the Governour and 6 Councillors, of whom 3 at lead 
were to be Proprietors Deputies •, and becaufe there 
were not Inhabitants to make a Parliament, accord- 
ing to the Fundamental Confiitutions, 'twas order'd 
to confift of the Governour, the Deputies of Pro- 
prietors, and twenty Members chofen by the Free- 
holders ', of whom ten were to be elected by Berk- 

n 6 

Earl Cra 
ven, Fa- 

Sir John 




The Hiftory of Carolina. 

ley's County, and ten by Colllton County , which 
number was encreas'd, as more Counties were laid 
out, and more People came to fettle in the Pro- 

The Temporary Laws were made in the Year 
1*71. At which time William, Earl of Craven, was 
■Palatine. On which Office he enter'd, after the 
Death of the Duke of Albemarle , who, as has been 
faid, was Palatine, when the Fundamental Confiitutions 
were fign'd, but dy'd foon after. In the fame Year 
Cap. Halfled was order'd to make Diicovenes up 
AJhley River,and a Model of a Town was fen t, which it^ 
will be well, if the People of Caroling are able to build 
i do Y(ears hence 7 but the Proprietaries, as appears 
by their Conftitutions and Inftruftions to their Go- 
vernours, thought 'twas almoft as eafy to build 
Towns, as to draw Schemes. 

The next Governour to Col. Sayle was Sir John 
Yeomans, Baronet , in whofe time many of the be- 
fore-mention'd Tranfa&ions happen'd, but we have 
not been able to diftinguifti the Events in his Go- 
vernment from thofe in Style's.' 
■ About the Year 1580. the Proprietaries made 
Jofeph Weft, Efq, one of the firft Planters, their 
Governour. He was a Man of Courage, Wifdom, 
Piety, and Moderation : And fuch an One was ne- 
celTary in his time , for tho many Diflenters had fled 
from the Rage of their Enemies in England, yet 
there were not wanting Men of other Principles, 
who by Fa&ions difturb'd the Peace of the Infant- 
Colony. Mr. Archdales Word will, in this Cale, 
be more acceptable to the Reader : " The moil de- 
" fperate Fortunes firft ventur'd over to break the 
" Ice, which being generally the ill Livers of the 
" pretended Churchmen, tho the Proprietors commif- 
il fionated one Col. Weft their Governour, a mode- 
" rate, juft, pious, and valiant Perfon y yet having a 
" Council of the loofe principled Men, they grew 
" very unruly, and had like to have ruin'd the Colo- 
« ny, by abufmgthe Indians, whom in Prudence they 
" ought to have oblig'd in the higheft degree, and 
<c fo brought an Indian War on the Country, like 
" that in the firft planting of Virginia, in which 
a feveral were cut off, but the Governour, by his 

J' manly 

The Hiftory of Carolina. 7 337 

<c manly Prudence at leaft" in a great meafure ex- 
K tinguifhd the Flame, which had a long time 
" threatned the Diflblution of the Colony. The 
two Factions were that of the Proprietaries and that 
of the Planters, like Court and Country Party in 
England. 'This Divifion got to fuch a Head, that 
one Mr. John Culpeper was fent Prifoner to En- 
gland, with a Charge of High-Treafon againft 
him, for raifing a Rebellion in Carolina -, for 
which he was try'd at Weftminfler-Hall, and" 
upon hearing the Matter, it appear'd only .to 
be. a diforderly Quarrel among the Planters and 
Inhabitants of the Province, io he was acquit- 

Col- Weji held a Parliament in Charles Town, 
A. D. id's 2. In which feveral Acts were pafs'd and 
ratify 'd by him, {Andrew Percivall, Efq- 7 William 
Omen, Efq:, and Maurice ' Matthews, Efq:, Deputies 
Df the Proprietaries; i 2$; An AB; for High-ways, for 
fuppr effing Drunkennefs andprophane Swearing, for Ob- 
fervation of the Lord's Day, and fpr fettling the Mi- 

'Twas in this Governour's Time, that the Weftoes, 
1 Nation of the Indians, were troubleforae to the Co- 
lony, and attempted the Subverfwn of this hopeful Set- 
dement, as the Aft of Parliament to raife Money 
for repelling them words it. There was not much 
Blood fhed, or Money fpilt j for 4 or 500 /. paid 
Che Charge of the War, and other publick Ex- 
pences. . 

The Lords Proprietaries erefted a Com million for 
Maurice Matthews, Efq", William Fuller, Efq^ Jona- 
than Fitz., Efq*, and->^ Boon, Efq", to decide all Cau- 
ses between the En'glijh and Indians. And j Mr. Wtjh 
is charged with dealing in Indians: For which, and 
Dppofing the Proprietaries Party, he wasremov'd, in 
rheYear 1583. and' Jofeph Moreton, Eiqj appoint- Jofeph 
id Governour in his ftead. Moreton, 

'Twas about this time, that the Perfecution rais'dA/?; G<h it 
:»y the Popifti Fattion, and their Adherents, in t?ig- vsrnowr " 
'and, againft the Proteftant DifTenters, was at the 
leight ; and no Part of this Kingdom fuffer'd more 
by "it than Samerfet-fmre. The Author of this Hi- 
lory iiv'd at that time with Mr. Blake, Brother to 
Z the 


The Hiftory of Carolina. 

the famous General of that' Name, being educated 
by his Son-in-law, who taught School in Bridgwater? 
and remembers, tho then very young, the Reafons 
old Mr. Blake us'd to give for leaving England : 
One of which was, That the Miferies they endur'd, 
meaning the Diitenters then, were nothing to what 
he forefaw would attend the Reign of a Popifh Suc- 
ceflbr 'j wherefore he refolv'd to remove to Carolina : 
And he had fo. great an Intereft among Perfons of 
•his Principles, I mean the DiiTenters, that many ho- 
neft fubftantial Perfons engag'd to go over with 

I muft prevent all Prejudice to what I have faid, 
by declaring, that this Book is written by one who 
Is not himfelf a Diflenter, but verily believes, the 
true Church of England is the molt Orthodox and 
the moft Pure Church in the World. And by the 
true Church of England, '\iq underftands all thofe 
who live up to the Doctrine it profefTes ; who by 
their Piety, Charity, and Moderation, are Ornaments 
of our Holy Religion, and who do not blindly efpoufe 
a Name out of Intereft, or from the ImpreiTions 
of Education -, who pity, and not hate, fuch as dif- 
fent from them } who are loyal to their Prince, fub- 
niiiiive to their Superiours, true to their Country, 
and charitable to all : Of fuch a Temper is every 
true Church-man \ and may their Number daily 
cncreafe, till we are all of One Mind and One 
Religion, as we have but one God and One Sa- 

If the Reader will pardon this Digrefiion, he fhall 
have no more *, and fo much 'twas neceflary to (ay, 
that he may not think, whatever is faid of Mr. Blah? ■ 
or his Brethren, is out of Refpeft to his Profeffion, 
but as a Chriftian : For tho I doubt not there may 
be many good Chriftians of the fame Principles, I 
fhould eiteem them more, if they would be convinced 
and conform ; that the Union fo often recommended 
by our Gracious and Glorious Queen Anne? may be 
univerfal. ' 

I fay the more of Mr. Blake, becaufe his Family is 
one of the moft confiderable in this Province ? where 
he arriv'd in the Year 1583. with feveral ether 
Families, the Followers of his Fortune. What fi- 

The Hiftory of Carolina." 
flate he hatf in England, he fold, to carry the Effe&s 
along with him-, and tho the Sum was not many 
Thoufands, if it did at all deferve the plural Number :, 
yet 'twas all that his Great Brother left him, tho for 
feveral Years he commanded the Briti/b Fleet.*, and 
in a time when our Naval Arms were victorious, 
and the Treafures of New-Spain feldom reach'd 

By Mr. Blah's Pfefence in Carolina, the Sober 
Party, we call them fo in oppofition to Mr. Arch- 
dale's III Livers, began to take Heart, and the other 
to be difcourag'd in their irregular Gourfes. The 
Gentleman 1 juft mention'd, in his Defcription of 
Carolina, writes thus : In Governour MoretonV Time , 
General Blake's Brother* with many Dijfenters, came to 
Carolina \ which Blake being a wife and prudent Perfon, 
of anheroich Temper of Spirit, ftrengthned the Hands of 
fober inclined People, and kept under thefirji loofe and ex- 
travagant Spirit, &c. The Governour, as we are * 
told, marry'd Mrs. Elizabeth Blake, his Daughter -, 
and by this Alliance, the Strength of their Party 
was fo encreas'd, that we hear little of the other 
till Mr. Colliton's Government. 

There being fome Complaints againft Mr. Mat- 
thews, and the other Commiffioners for deciding 
Caufes between the* Englijh and the Indians, they 
were difcharg'd, and the Commifiion abrogated. 
The Lords Proprietaries order'd the Indians 400 
Miles from Charles Town, to be taken into their 

The County of Berkley, between Stono and Sewee, 
was now laid out j and foon after Craven County, 
on the North of Berkley -, and Collitdn County, on 
the South : All which Counties were divided into 
Squares of 12000 Acres, for the feveral Shares of the 
Proprietaries, Landgraves, and Caffiques. 

Mr. Moreton, at his entering upon his Office, 
call'd a Parliament, which met in Form, and pafs'd 
feveral Acts ; as, For raijing 500 1. for defraying the 
Pub lick Charge of the Province * 7 for regulating the Sur~ 
veyor General's Fees *, for railing the Value of Foreign. 
Coin ', for Trial of f mall and mean Caufes wider 40 s. 
for Damage of protefied Bills of Exchange *, for afcer- 
taming Publick Officers Fees\ to fufp?nd Profecution 
t 2 for 

The Hiftory of Carolina. 

for Foreign Debts ; to Inhibit the trading with Servant? 
cr Slaves ', for laying out, and making good High-Ways ', 
for preventing the taking away Boats and Canoos ; for 
marking of all forts of Cattle ; to. prevent unlicensed 
Taverns _ and Punch- Hovfes, and afcertaining the Rates 
and Prices of Wine, and other Liquors ; to prevent 
Runaways. All which .A&s were fign'd by Jofeph 
Moretcn, Efqj Governour, ■ John Godfrey, £fqy John 
Boon, Eiq •, James Moor, Eiqv Maurice Matthews, 
Efq-, Andrew Percivall, Efq} Arthur Middleton, Efq*, 
•Counfellors and Deputies*, and Wit. Jofeph Oldys, 
Clerk to the Parliament. At this time, Robert Gibs, 
Efq-, was Treasurer of the Colony, John Moor, Efq^ 
Secretary ; John Boon, Efq^ Robert Daniel, Efq^ 
Mr. Bernard Schinkingh, Mr. Peter Hearn, and 
Cap. Florence O Sullivan, were appointed Commif- 
fioners for ftating and palling the Publick Accounts. 
Maurice Matthews, E(q^ was alfo Surveyor-Gene- 
ral. The Trade of dealing in Indians coritinu'd, and 
feveral of the Proprietors Deputies were concern'd 
m ft : _ Whether the Governour, Mr. Moreton,fa- 
.your'd it or not, we cannot undertake to determine. 
5 Tis certain, he did not long enjoy his Office : For it 
appears by the Copies of the Original Inftruaions, 
lent by the Proprietaries to his SuccefTor, that in the 
Sir Rich, following Year the Pallatine made Sir Richard Kyrle 
Kyrte Go- Governour. He was a Gentleman of Ireland ', and 
•wwjr. dying within the Year, Jofeph Weji, Efq> was again 
Hlr,, c ¥ kn Governour by the Council -, and being a Man 
Govcmou! ot &J eat Intereft > the Proprietaries thought fit to 
confirm him in his Government : But they turn'd 
out Maurice Matthews, Efq', James Moor, Efq-, and 
Arthur Middleton, Efqj from being Deputies and 
Councillors, for difobeying their Orders, and fend- 
ing away Indians. They alfo difplac'd their Secre- 
tary John Moor, Efq-, and put Rob. Oiiarry, Efq; in 
his Place. ^ . 

Thus we fee the latter has enjoy'd honourable 
Offices many Years in the American Colonies ; with 
the Intereft of which he muft, by this means, be very 
well acquainted. 

In Mr. Weft's fecond Government, the Right Ho- 
nourable the Lord Cardroffe remov'd to Carolina, 
and, with ten Scots Families, fettled at Port-Royal, 


The Hiftovy of Carolina. 341 

efteem'd the moft convenient Place in this Province 
for Commerce, as beingthebeft Port. The £ord Car- 
drotfe having been difguited with the Government 
of the Province, for fome ill Ufage he met with, re- 
turn^ to Scotland, and the Spaniards diflodg'd the 
Scots, who had feated themfelves on that fine River. 
This Lord was of thQ Houfe of ' Buchan, and in King 
Williams Reign enjoy'd the Title of Earl of Bu- 

DifTenters continuing to come, hither from all 
Parts of England, the Colony th-riv'd and. encreas'd 
in Numbers and Riches. 

t James Colliton, Efq^ of Barbadoes, Brother to Sir 
Peter Colliton, Baronet, a Proprietary, being 'honour'd 
with the Title of Landgrave, left the Ifland he liv'4 
in, and tranfported himself and Family to Carolina, 
where he feated himfelf at old Charles Town, on 
Cooper-River, built a handfome Houfe there-, and' 
being made Govern our, his Seat is to this Day j ar nes 
call'd thQ Governour's Houfe. Had this Gentleman Colliton, \ 
had as much Hononr and Capacity as his Brother Sir Bfqs 4fh . 
Peter, we fhould have had no Occafion to excufeWwwr. 
our (elves for keeping to the Truth of. Hiflory in 
his Behalf. One of his SuccefTors writes in this 
Manner of his Government : c The Party Govemour Mr. Arch* 
* .Moreton had gone a great way in fuppr effing, grew daleY A?- 
c how io ftrong among the Common People, thd,t [caption of . 
Vthey chofe Members to oppofe whatfoever the Go- Carolina - 
1 vemour requefted ; iniomuch that they would not 
'fettle the Militia Aft, tho their own Security de- 
1 pended on it, and that it would be Grounds of 
' their further Strength. The Reafon of the Dis- 
content thQ People lay under, were Difputes about 
the Tenure of their Land?, and Payment of their 
Quit-Rents, which were not fettled till Mr. Arch* 
dale's Government. 

Mr. Colliton call'd a Parliament, A. D. i6Z 7 . 
This Aflembly not liking the Proprietaries Fun- 
damental Conjiitutions *, and thinking they could fup- 
ply the Deficiencies in them, appointed a Committee 
to examine them: And thefe Gentlemen drew up 
a new Form of Government, differing in many 
Articles from the former y to which they gave the 
Title of Standing Laws, and Temporary Laws. This 
Z % Com- 

The Hiflory of Carolina. 

Committee were James Colliton, Efq*, Governoufc, 
Paul Grimball, Efqj and William Dunlop, Efq} De- 
y putiesj Bernard Schinking, T homo* Smith, John Parr y 
and Jofeph Blake, Efqs-, Commoners. But neither 
the Lords Proprietaries, nor- the People of Carolina 
accepted of them - ? and thus the Fundamental 
Constitutions keep their Ground to this Day. 

Mr. Colliton gave fuch Difcontent in his Admini- 
stration, that he was banim'd the Province ; a Fate 
few Governours of Colonies were ever fo unhappy 
as to meet with. 
Thomas \ Mv - Archdale tells us, Mr. Smith fucceeded 
' Smith, Mr. Colliton, and that he fucceeded Mr. Smith j 
EfaGo- but then the latter niuft have been twice 
•vernour. Governour : For we find feveral other Gentle- 
men,^ who had that Title and Office before 
the Year 1 69^. when Mr. Archdale fays, Governour 
Smith wrote over to the Proprietaries, to advife 
them to fend one of their Number to Carolina. For 
Coh Rob. Col. Robert Quarry was Governour about the Year 
Quarry 1^0. After him, Mr. Southwell. And in the Year 
Governour , Wm CoL mUp jjflfofo hdd this Governmenr . I n 

w wii which ' tls certain 5 he was fucceeded by the above- 
GoverZlr ment[on ' d *&$*# Smith, Efq-, Landgrave of this 

c^Phiii P Pr ?y; nce - J ■- . 

Ludwell ' We are no * doubtful of any Error in this Order 
Governour of the Governours, , except in Mr. Southwell's ', 
Thomas °ur Informations having been uncertain as to 

' Mr. Smith, fays Mr. Archdale, was a wife, fo- 
c ber, well-living Man *, who grew fo uneafy in the 
* Government, by Reafon he could notfatisfy People 
1 in their Demands, that he wrote over, Anno 1694.. 
' It was impoffible to fettle the Country, except a Pro* 
1 prietary himfelf was Jent thither, with full Power to 
f hear their Grievances. The Proprietaries took 
Governour Smith's Letter into Con fideration, and the 
Lord AJbley was pitch'd upon by all the Lords as a 
Perfon every way qualify'd for fo good a Work ; 
but he defir'd to be excus'd, on Accpunt of his par- 
ticular Affairs in England. Upon which Mr. Arch- 
dale was chofen by the Proprietaries, to be fent 
over with large and ample Powers. Which having 
receiv'dj he embark'd and fail'd to Carolina, Wher? 



nf$ G . 


I ■' i 

The Hiftory of Carolina. J4J 

fie arriv'd, and enter'd upon the Government, is John 
Auguft, 1695. he found all Matters in great Confu- Archdale 
fion, and every Faction apply'd themfelves to him, E fo'-> Go ~ 
in hopes of Relief. In order to which he{unimon'd t '" ,? ^ ; " 
an Aflembly, and made a kind Speech to them. The 
Parliament chofe Jonathan Amary Efq*, to be their 
Speaker*, and having prefented a dutiful Addrefsto 
ih^ Governour, proceeded to do Bufinefs. But the 
Divifions among, them were fo great, that had not ■ 
Mr. Archdale exercis'd a great deal of Patience, nei- 
ther his Power as Governour, nor his higher Title 
of Proprietary, could have brought that AiTembly to 
any Temper*, which he at laft effected, and the 
Difbrders of the Province were remedy'd. 

The Parliament prefented an Addrefs of Thanks to 
the Governour,to be tranfmitted to the Proprietaries, 
and all things ended well. In his time thzTamma^ 
fees, an Indian Nation, who formerly liv'd under 
the Spanifh Government, and now under the Eng- 
lifh, made an Incur fion into the Territories of ano^ 
ther Indian Nation, near Santta Maria, not far from 
St. Augufiino, took feveral Prifoners, and intended. 
to fell them for Slaves at Barbadoes or Jamaica, as 
had been ufual among them*. Mr. Archdale hearing 
of it, lent for the King of theTammafees, and order'd 
him to bring thofe Indians to Charles Town, which 
he did. They were Papifts *, and the Kings of Eng- 
land and Spain being at that time Confederates, the 
Governour gave the King of the Tammafees Orders to 
carry them to St. Auguftino, with a Letter to the 
Governour*, which may (erve to give us an Idea of 
the Power of an Indian King, who receives Orders 
from a Governour of a fmall Province, as Carolina 
was then at leaft, whatever it is now. ■ 

The Spaniard who commanded in St.Auguftino, re- 
turn'd Mr. Archdale a Letter of Thanks •, and not long 
after another Indian King was fent by the Spanifh 
Governour, with a Letter of Complaint, of wrong 
done the Spanifh Indians by thofe ally'd to the Eng- 

The Spanifh Indians were called Churchcates *, of 
whom the Apalachicoloes 9 Englifh Indians, had kill'd 
three. The Governour commanded that Nation, 
and all others depending on the Englifh, to forbeap 



344 TheHiftory of Carolina. 

mokfting thofe within the Spanifh Jurifdi&iotl ', 
which had fo good an Effect, that when Mr. Robert 
Barrow, Mr. Edward Wardell, and other Englifhmen, 
were afterward caft away to the Southward of Augu- 
ftino, the barbarous Indians offer'd them no hurt j 
and when they arriv'd at that Town, the Governour 
fupply'd them with all NecefTaries. 

Col. Bull, oi\q of the Council, and a greater Tra- 
'def with the Indians, engag'd that Nation which • 
dwelt about Cape Fear, to fubmit to the Englifh, 
who however were afraid to trufi them *, for a VefTel 
coming from New-England being mipwrack'd on that 
, Goair,- the' Paflengers, to the Number of 5?, de- 
fpair'd of thair Lives from thofe Barbarians, but re- 
fblv'd to defend them felves as well as . they could : 
Accordingly they entrench'd in their little Camp. 
The Jndians came down, and by Signs of Friendfhip 
invited them to come forth:, which they were afraid 
to do. At laft, when their Provifions were almoft 
all fpent, fome of them ventur'd out, were kindly re- 
ceiv'd, and furnifh'd by the. Indians with NecefTaries. 
The King invited them to his Town, treated them j 
and 4 or 5 of them travelling to Charles Town, 
gave the Governour notice of their Misfortunes*, 
•Which hearing, he fent a Ship to fetch the reft -, and 
they arriv'd fafely at the Capital '0$ Carolina. 

In Mr. Ar'chdale'i Time, two Indians quarrelling 
iff their Drinking, one of them prefently kill'd the 
other-, -whofe Wife being by,. immediately difmem- 
ber'd the Murderer, to revenge her Husband's 
Death,' cutting off his Privities with a Knife. The 
Governour happening to be near the Place where the 
Murder was committed, order'd the Criminal to be 
purfu'fl. He was taken in a Swamp about 1 6 Miles 
from the Town , to which he was fent under a Guard. 
The Nation to whom the flain Indian belong'd, hear- 
ing cf his Death, their King came to Mr. Archdale, 
and defirUJuftice upon the- Murderer, f. Some of 
whofe FriehdsJwouFd have bought him off as ufual 5 
hut nothing lefs, than his Death would fatisfy the 
injur'd Nation y a(rid, according to the Cuftom of his 
own Country* the Governour order'd him to be fhot 
by the Kinfrpaiiof the Deceas'd. As he was leading 
fo Execution his King carne tohim> and bid him 

; " dk 

The Hiftory of Carolina. 345 

die like a Man, fince he mufi die, adding, he had often 
forewarn" d him of Rum, the Liquor' which he w as drunk 
with when he kill'd the Man, and now he mufc Uofe 
his Life for not taking his Council. '"■■■ 

When he came to the Tree, hedefir'd not to ba 
ty'd to it, but to ftand loofe, faying, I will not jiir when 
he JJjoots me. So he was fhot in- the Head, and fell 
down dead. 

This Piece of Juftice hinder'd a War between the 
Nations to which thefe two Indians belong'd.The- 
Indians inhabiting the Country about the Paver -?em- 
lico, were almoffc all confum'tf by a Peftilential Dif- 
eafe, while thisGovernour was in Carolina ; and the' 
Coranines, a bloody and barbarous People, were moft of 
them cut off by a neighbouring Nation. 

In'his Time feveral Families reraov'd from New'- 
England, to fettle at Carolina, and -(Stated themfelves*- 
on the River • Sewee, in North Carolina.-' Thefe a're* all' 
the Events which 'happen 'd during Mi '.Archdaieh Go- 
vernment,^ atieaft' be has thought fit to communicate 
no more to the Publick y and asinconfiderableas they" 
may appear to Tome Per fons, who are us'd to turn o- 
ver the Graecian and Roman Hiftories, if they will 
give themfelves the Trouble to examine the Affairs 
of thtk two Empires, they will find them as trivial, 
in the beginning at leaft, if they can "diftinguim the r 
Hifiory from the Fable. [ 

We cannot expecl: much Bufinels in the Infancy of 
a Colony, and yet Carolina ' is. not fo young, but 
Factions have been as rampant there, as if the Peopte 
had been made wanton by many Ages of Profne-' 
rity. . . ' & F 

• Mr. Archdale, to ufe his own Phrafe, Returned for 
England, being not fent for home. And Jofeph Blake, Jofeph 
Efq:, Son of the before-mention'd Mr. Blake, being Blake 
become a Proprietary, was look'd upon as the fitteft E h\ Go ' 
Perfon to fucceed him in his Government-, in which Vsrnmr ° 
Office he behav'd himfelf to the Satisfaction of the 
Country, which he govern'd with equal Prudence and 

In his time Major Daniel brought from England 
new Conftitutions, confifting of 41 Articles, where- 
in as ample Provifion was made for Liberty of 'Con- 
science, as in the Fundamental Constitutions, Thefe 

ne f »Y 

346 The Hiftory of Carolina. 

John &jrj new Laws were call'd, the laft Fundamental Conftitu-, 
vf Bath tions, .and fign'd by JcfczEarl of Bath, Palatine •, An- 
PaJatine. thony Lord AJhley, the Lord Craven, the Lord Carta- 
ret, the Earl of Bath , Sir John Colliton, ' William 
Thornburgh Merchant, Thomas Amy, and Wil. Thorn- 
burgh ; but they were never Confirm'd in Parliament 
at Carolina. 

My. Blake, tho he washimfelf a DifTenter, finding 
there was no fettled Maintenance for the Church of 
England Minifter, procur'd an Act of AfTembly (in 
which there were a great Number of DiiTenters) for 
the fettling a Very convenient Houfe, with a Glebe, 
two Servants, and 150 /. per Annum upon the Mini- 
fter of Charles Town for ever. Twas by his Influ- 
ence that Act paft, and he gave his Affent to it ; 
he, as Governour, having a negative Voice to all 
Bills. His Lady alfo was one of the greateft Benefa- 
ctors towards the Ornaments of the Church. And 
this Friend fhip defer v'd a more grateful Return than 
they met with from thofe who fucceeded in the Go- 

Mr. Blake dying about the Year 1700. after he had 
been Governour 4 or 5 Years, the Proprietaries De- 
puties met, according to their Inftructions in fuch 
Cafes, and proceeded to the Election of a new Gover- 
nour *, which Poft is generally conferr'd on the eldeft 
Landgrave, if there's no Objection to him, and no 
Perfon fent from England with that Character. 

Jofeph Moreton Efqv bein S the eldeft Landgrave, 
was elected Governour by the Deputies : butCapt. 
Barnes Moor, one of thefe Deputies, knowing the 
Party he had among them, objected againft Mr. More- 
ton, as if he had made a Breach of the Truft repos'd 
in him by the true and abfolute Lords and Proprieta- 
ries, by accepting of a Com million from King WiHi* 
am, to be Judge of the Admiralty, when he had at 
the fame time a Commiffion from the Lords Proprie- 
taries for the fame Office. 

Tho this Objedion was anfwer'd by Mr. Moreton's 
Friends •, That it did not appear by the Charter, the 
proprietaries can impow. * any onHo tryPerfonsfor Faffs 
committed out of their L ■'minions, which is neceffary for 
fuch a Judge ; and the Proprietaries could not grant 
it -, yet (uch was Mr. Moor's Intereft, that on this 


The Hiftory of Carolina. 547 

his Obje&ion Mr. Moreton was fetafide, and his Op' Col James 
ponent Mr. Moor chofen Governour. Mr. Moreton Moor Go * 
inform 'd and complain'd to the Proprietaries, but vermur - 
was never redreft. 

From this Election I date the Rife of all the Mif- 
fortunes that have fince befallen this Colony, and 
that have given the Government of England fo niuch 

The Earl of Bath was dead, and his Son John Lord J oh n &** 
Granville, lately advanc'd to the Houfe of Peers, was Granville 
Palatine. All the World knew how zealous that p ^ ,w '* 
Gentleman had been for. promoting a Bill againftOc- 
cafional Conformifts in England, and that he fliew'd 
his Averfion to DifTenters even in the Court of Stan- 
naries in the Weft, while he was Warden. The Bit- 
ternefs of his Spirit appeared in the Speeches he made 
to the Reprefentatives of that Court:, andwasfuch, 
that he was not long employ'd by a Government, ■ 
which is founded on Principles I of Juftice .and 
Moderation •, which has in all things promoted 
Union, and which has united the Hearts of all the 
Subjects of the Britifh Empire more than all the 
Princes could do fince the Conqueft, and many Ages 
before it. 

In an ill time therefore did this Palatine counte- 
nance the Divifions in Carolina, by encouraging this 
ind the fucceeding Governour in their vain Endea- 
/ours, to eftablifh that for a Law there, which had 
)een reje&ed withfuch Marks of Abhorrence in Eng- 
land by our Jlluftrious Reprefentatives. 

Mr. Moor was eafily confirm'd in his new Dignity 
>y the Palatine } and as he is laid to have fought after 
t, to enrich himfelf, fo he madeufe of it to that end, 
le being in mean Circumftances, iftheReprefenta- 
ion of the principal Inhabitants of the Colony does 
lot deceive us. 

Let us give the Reader the proper Words, that we 
nay not be accus'd of Partiality, which we deteft in 
.11 things that hurt the Truth. But we know very 
veil, that Fa&ion will often accufe Fa& of Partiali- 
:y } and an Hiftorian may write Things true, and 
ret by writing the Truth only of one Side, and con- 
:ealing what is to its Difadvantage, it may give a 
>laufible Appearance to a bad Caufe ? wherefore 



r i 


Cafe of 


The Hiftory of Carolina.' 
we folemnly declare, that after ' a .full Enquiry .we 
feave not been able to learn any thing that could ex- 
cufe the Diforders we are about to relate, and vindi- 
cate the Adminiitration in Carolina, while the Lord 
Granville was Palatine. -"Whether, that. Lord or his 
Governours ought to be blam'd moft, let the World 
judge. . . 

Mr. Moor, fays the Author of the above-mention' d 
Repre-fentationj having thus boldly gotten the Go- 

bi ' ' '- 1 


Car.p.29, vernment, refolv'd to make the beft ufe of his Autho- 
50. rity, and finding himfe.lf too poor,- with the Counte- 

nance of his Office, to .make, any confiderable Profit 
of the Indian Trade, Jie laid the Defign of getting it 
wholly into his Power. He to that end procur'd a Bill 
to be brought into the Affembly, then fitting, for re- 
gulating the Indian Trade : Which Bill was fo drawn, 
that had it pa ft ^ he would have engrofs'd all thatbe- 
neficial Commerce. But Mr. Robert Stephens, and 
Mr. . Ncholai Trmt ( who had : not then forfaken the 
County IntereftJ and fome others, fo plainly fhew'd 
the ul.Aim of that Aft, that 'twas thrown out of the* 
Aflembly : Which Mr. Moor diflblv'd, perceiving 
they would not anfwer his Ends. 

We do not think our felves oblig'd to keep to the 
"Words of this. Representation, which are too rough 
ia t fo : me Places *, but we Iceep religioufly to the Senfe-, 
arid having refer'd the Reader in the Margintto our 
Authority,, he cannot fuppofe we endeavour to im- 

The Governour call'd a new Aflembly about the • 
latter end of the Year 1.701. At the choofing of which, 
tho the Right of Electing be in the Freeholders only, 
he fo influenced the Sheriff, that Strangers," Servants, ■ 
Jiliens ; »rfj/,Malatoes and Negroes were poll' d, and re- 

Such as at the Place of Election oppos'd thefe Pra- - 
£iipes ? s were abus'd, and fome aifaulted by Mr. Moor's 
F^ayouritel. By this . means having got leveral into 
the. Aflembly, Men of no Senfe and Credit, who 
would vote as he wou'd have them} he there kept 
them from being thrown out, on the Petition of thofe 
who'were unjuftly excluded. 

Cclllton County fent a Representation 'againft him to 
the Palatine, containing in Subilance the fame, as . 


The Hiftory of Carolina*" 549 

that we have fpoken of before •, therefore we cannot 

When the Governour was afraid any of the Mem- Ibid- p. 34^ 
bers he was fare was. in his Intereft would be turn'd 
oat, on Petitions, he prorogu'd the Aflembly : And 
when at laft they were fufFer'd to fit, the Inquiry into 
the Sheriff of Berkley County's Return was ofcftru- 
&ed, by fetting on foot an ill contriv'd Deflgrt of rai- . 
fing Forces to attack St. Auguftino, & Fort belonging 
to the Spaniards, to the Southward of Carolina. If 
any Member of the Aflembly undertook to fpeak a- 
gainft it, and to ihew how unable the Province was 
at that time to undertake fuch an Expedition, he was 
prefently look'd upon by him, and his Adherents, as 
an Enemy and Traitor to his Country •, andaccor-P. 35^ 
dingly revil'd and affronted} tho the true Defign of 
the Expedition, as the Reprefentation from Colliton 
County tells us, was no other than catching and making 
Slaves of Indians, for private. Advantage. lie would 
have had this Military Enterprize been undertaken 
before the War with Spain was proclaim'd V but the 
Aflembly carry 'd that in the Negarive. 

Before we treat of this Expedition, we muftob- 
fervewhat pafl further in the Aflembly. -Mr. John 
Afh, one of the Members, propos'd to have the lali 
Fundamental Constitutions, which Mr. Daniel brought 
over, cprifirm'di but he was oppos'd by Mr. Trott Ibid. 
and Mr. How, the Governour's Creatures. 

This Mr. Trott had himfelf been Governour of Pro- 
vidence, and behav'd himfelf fo arbitrarily, that he 
wascompiain'd of to King William fome Years before. 
Trott and How expos'd the Gonftitutions as ridicu- 
lous \ and the Country was thus left in an unsettled 

There's one Article in this Reprefentation which 
is very extraordinary : That the faid late Governour 
Moor did grant Commiffwns to Anthony Dodfworth, 
Robert Mackoone, and others, to fet upon 7 affault,QmCoim- 
kill, dejiroy, and take as many Indians a* they poffibly t 7 R$pr. 
could ; the Profit and Produce of which Indian Slaves Article 5. 
were turn'd to his private Vfe. Whereas fuch Vnder- 
takings, unjujt and barbarous in themfelves, will in all 
Probability draw upon m an Indian War, 


3 50 The Hijiory of Carolina. 

We have faid enough to give an Idea of the Condi- 
tion the People of Carolina were in under fuch a Go- 
vernment, and have taken it all from Memorials pre- 
fented by their Agents to the Lords Proprietaries. 
The next thing that c'ome&in our way is the War of 

Two thoufand Pounds were rais'd by an A£t of the 
AfTembly, to defray the Charge of this Expedition. 
The Governour preft as many Merchant Ships as 
were necefTary to tranfport the Troops he intended 
to embark j who were order'd to rendezvous at Port 

The Number of Men which were lifted for this 
Enterprize were 1200, t?oo Englifh, and 600 Indi- 
ans.- Col. Moot took the Command on himfelf, as 
General of all the Forces that fhould be rais'd within 
the Limits of his Government. 

Col. Rob. Daniely a very brave Man, commanded 
a Party who were to go up the River in Veriagds^ 
and come upon Auguliino on the Land fide, while 
the Governour fail'd thither and attack'd it by Sea. 
They both fet out in Augufi, 1 702. Col. Daniel in 
his Way took St. John\ a fmall Spanifh Settlement j 
as alto St. Mary's, another little Village, belonging 
to the Spaniards. After which he proceeded to Au- 
gujiino^ came before the Town, enter'd and took it ? 
Col. Moor not being yet arriv'd with-the Fleet- 

The Inhabitants having notice of the Approach of 
the Englifh had pack'd up their beft EfFe&s, and re- 
tir'd with them into the Caftle, which wasfurroun- 
ded by a very deep and broad Moat. 

They had laid up Provifions there for 4 Months, 
and refolv'd to defend themfelves to the laft Extremi- 
ty. However Col. Daniel found a confiderable Boo- 
ty in the Town. The next Day the Governour ar- 
riv'd, and a Council of War was immediately call'd, 
in which 'twas refolv'd to land. 

Accordingly the Governour came afhore, and his 
Troops following him, they entrench'd> polled their 
Guards in the Church, and block'd up the Caftle. 
The Englifh held the PoiTefFion of the Town a whole 
Month , but finding they could do nothing for want 
of Mortars and Bombs, they difpatch'd away a Sloop 
for Jamaica ~ but the Commander of the Sloop, in- 

The Hiftory of Carolina. 351 

ftead of going thither, came to Carolina, out of Fear 
or Treachery. Finding others offer'd to go in his 
ftead, he proceeded in the Voyage himfelf, after he 
had lain tome time at Charles-Town. 

The-Governour all this while lay before the Caftle 
of ' Auguftino, in Expectation of the Return of the 
Sloop : Which hearing nothing of, he fent Col. 
Daniel, who was the Life of the A&ion, to Jamaica, 
on the fame Errand. 

This Gentleman being hearty in the Defign, pro- 
cur'd a Supply of Bombs, and return'd towards Jfa 
gufiino. But in the mean time two Ships ap'pear'd in 
the Offing, which being taken to be very large Men 
©f War, the Governour thought fit to raife the Siege, 
and abandon his Ships, with a great Quantity of 
Stores, Ammunition, and Provifion, to the Enemy. 
Upon which the two Men of War enter'd the Port 
oi Auguftino, and took the Governour's Ships. Some 
fay he burnt them himfelf. Certain it is, they were 
loft to the Englifli, and that he return'd to Charles- 
Town over Land, 300 Miles from Auguftino. The " 
two Men of War that were thought to befo large, 
prov'd to be two fmall Frigats, one of 22, and the 
other of 1 s Guns. 

When Col. Daniel came back to Auguftino, he 
waschas'd, but got away, and Col. Moor retreated 
with no great Honour homewards. The Periagas 
lay at St. John's, whether the Governour retir'd, 
and fo to Charles Town, having loft but two Men 
in the whole Expedition. Arratommakaw, King of 
the Taniofeaves, who commanded the Indians, re- 
treated to the Periagas with the reft, and there flept 
upon his Oars, with a great deal of Bravery and. 
Unconcern. The Governour's Soldiers taking's falfe 
Alarm, and thinking the Spaniards were coming 
did not like this flow Pace of the Indian King in his 
Flight •, and to quicken him in it, bad him make 
more Hafte : But he reply'd, No ; tho your Go- 
vernour leaves you, I will not ftir till I have feen 
all my Men before me. 

The Firft Reprefentation, call'd alfo, The prefent lb. p. ™; 
State of -Affairs *:* Carolina, reflects a little too bit- ' *' 

terly on Col. Moor on this Head - n and one would 
fufpect the Truth of what it contains, if it was not 



tation of 
the Mem- 
bers of 

m ■ 


The Hiftory of Carolina. ',' 
eonnrm'd by the fecond. We are told there, They 
Cent Plunder to Jamaica by their trufiy Officers, under ( 
Colour of feeking Supplies, and fending for Bombs and 
Mortars: Which is a malicious Turn given by Col. 
Moor's Enemies to. Col. Daniel's going to Jamaica, 
who by the Difpatch he made there Ihew'd he went 
really for Mortars ; and had the Governour ftaid till 
he had return'd, the Caftle of Augujllno had perhaps 
now been in EngUfh Hands •, for the Spaniards had 
not above 200 Men aboard the ttvo Figats. This 
Expedition, as unfortunate' as it was m it ielt, was 
much more fo in the Confequence of it *, for it 
brought a Debt of <?ooo /. on the Province. The 
AfTembly had been under a Prorogation during the 
Governor's Abfence, and when he return d they 
met. The firft thing they went upon, was to raiie 
Money to pay off the Debt above-mention d, and 
then they took into Confideration the Danger ot 
the Country, as it lay expos'd to the Southward. 
But while thefe Bills were paffing, another for the 
better regulating Eleaions, pafs'd the Lower Houie 
twice, and was fent up to the Governour and Coun- 
cil, by whom 'twas rejefted without fo much as a 
Conference. Upon which feveral of the Members, 
jealous of their Privileges, and being fo order d by 
thofe that fent them, enter'd their Probation, and 
left the Houfe^ but return'd the next pay,-offermg 
to fit longer if the reft of the AfTembly would )om 
with them, in averting their Right. The whole 
AfTembly confifts of but 3° Members, and I 15 ot 
them proteliedagainft the irregular feedings ot 
the. Governour. Inftead of tempering Matters 
when they return'd to the |H?ufc, they were ,atasd 
and treated with the raoft fcandalous Rffleftiong 
unbecoming an AfTembly that represented a who k 
Province. And *s they were infulted within Doois, 
they were affaulted without •, for a Day or two af- 
ter Lieut. Col. George Dearsby drew his Sword upon 
Thomas Smith, Efq', a Landgrave, and ^ once ^Gover- 
nour of the Colony, threatning his Life, john AJh, 
Efn a Member of the AfTembly was not only abu d 
in tie Streets by a Company of Drunken Fellows, 
but fore'd aboarcl a Ship belonging tc , Ca j ^hett and 
threatned to be hang'd, or tent io Jamaica, or l* t 

The Hifiory of Carolina. 
on Tome Defart-Ifland. This Mr. Afb is the Man 
who was em ploy 'd as Agent for the People of Ca- 
rolina, to reprefent their Grievances in the firft Me- 
morial, call'd, Theprefent State of Affairs in Carolina^ 
and the Perfons who thus barbaroufly treated him, 
were George Dearsby, Nicholas Nary, Thomas Dalton, 
and others, whom, fays the Reprefentation of Colli- 
ton County, Article XL the Governour had treated 
immediately before the Riot began, and us'd fuch Ex- 
prejftons to them, as gave them, next their Drink, the 
greateft Encouragements for what they atled ; telling P. %6, 
them, The protecting Members would bring the People 
on their Heads for neglecting to pay the Country <s Debts, 
After the Riot began, of Part of which he was an Eye- 
Witnefs, having firft drunk with Jome of them, he 
withdrew himfelfout of the way. This Riot continu'd 
4 or j Days-, and Edmund Bellinger, Efq^ a Land- 
grave, and Juftice of Peace, attempting to fupprefs 
it, was call'd opprobrious Names by the Rioters, and 
Rhett can'd him for a confiderable time. The 
Rioters afTaulted Mr. Jofeph Boon, a Merchant, 
deputed by Colliton County, to prefent the above- 
mention'd Second Reprefentation to the Pala- 
tine and Lords Proprietaries, and put him in Dan- 
ger and Fear of his Life, without any Provocation. 
The fame they did by Mr. James Byres-, who with the 
reft complain'd to the Governour -, and receiving no 
Satisfaction, they ask'd him, whether he did not look 
on himfelf, as Governour, oblig'd to keep the Peace 
of the Province : The Governour reply 'd, That's a 
Queftion I am not oblig'd to anjwer. He told them, 
'twas a Juftice of Peace's Bufinefs. 

The Rioters went one Night to the Houfe of one 
John Smith, a Butcher in Charles-Town, and forcing 
open the Door, threw down a Woman big with 
Child, and otherwife mifufing her •, fhe brought forth 
a dead Child, with the Back and Skull broken, 
Thefe Inftances are enough to fhew any Man the 
Temper of this Governour and his Party ', who were 
the fame that ftickled fo much for the unhappy Bill 
we muft fpeak of in the Sequel of this Hifiory. What 
follow'd upon this Riot, is told us in a late Tract, 
which I fhall make ufe of in the Author's own 
Worts, c As this Riot was rais'd, encourag'd, and 
A a *coun- 


j ik 

g 54 The Hiftory of Carolina. 

Cafe of c countenanc'd by the faid Governour and Council % 

Dif. in « And as no Afliftance could be obtain'd to quell it, 

Car. i p. t f all Methods to enquire into, and punifh it, have 

4 been render'd ineffectual, and theCourfe of Juftice 

* intirely ftop'd. For Sir Nathaniel Johnfon was 
Sir Nath. c made Governour in the Room of the faid Moor. 
johnfon * The faid Governor Moor was prefently made At- 
Govemr. \ torney General } and Mr. Trott, another of the 

* chief Abettors of the Riot, the Chief Juftice of the 

* Common Pleas •, who in this Province is fole 

* Judge. Sir Nathaniel Johnfon was General of 
4 the' Leward Iflands, in the Reign of the late King 
4 James , but he quitted his Government upon the 
4 Revolution, and retir'd to Carolina, where he 

* liv'd privately till the Death of the late King James. 
4 Upon which he firft. took the Oaths to the Govern- 
4 ment *, and fome time after was made Governour 

* of the Province, And he has fince his being Go- 
fc vernour appointed fuch Sheriffs, as prevent all 
4 Profecutions of this Riot at their Aftizesor Quar- 

* ter Seflions (which are the only Courts of Juftice 

* in this Province) where Crimes of this Nature can 
4 be try'd:, and where the faid Mr. Trott is fole 
c Judge, by returning fuch Jurors as were known 
4 Abettors of the faid Riot : So that there is a total 

* Failure of Juftice, and nothing but Corruption in 

* the whole Frame and Adminiftration of Govern- 
4 ment. 

Collhon-Coimty Reprefentation tells us particu- 
larly, that Mr. Buliinger did what in him lay to have 
the faid Riot inquir'd into. He gave in the Record of 
it to the Bench } and fome of the Grand Jury urg'd 
to have it prefented, but to no purpofe. The firft 
Reprefentation informs us, that the Grand Jury pre- 
fented it to the Court as a great Grievance, that the 
Riot was not look'd into, and the Rioters profecu- 
ted \ yet no Juftice againft them could be obtain'd j 
the Judge giving for Anfwer, 'Twas before the Coun- 
cil, his Superiors : The prefent Governour, That 
it was an Attion done before his coming to the 
Government \ that he thought the time of Profe- 
0&&&. cution laps'd, but would take cars the like fhould be m 




The Hifiory of Carolina, 355 

This Anfwer had in the laft part of it a Face of 
Moderation *, and fuch an Air was necelTary, becaufe 
an AfTembly was about bein g ele&ed. The Confpira- lb. p. 20. 
tors, as my Author terms them, faw that a new Par- 
liament might fet all things to rights again, and there- 
fore when the time of a new Election came, which, ac- 
cording to their Confiitution, is once in two Tears; 
they refolv'd to procure a Commons Houfe of Ajfembly 
cf the fame Complexion with the former, and by more 
illegal Practices. If thofe they had us'd in the former 
Elections would not do their Bufinefs, their Defigns took 
Effect ; and fuch a Commons Houfe of Ajfembly was re- 
turned, as fully anfwer 'd their Expectations. 

The firft Reprefentation brought over by Mr. Aft), 
informs us, That at the Election for Berkley and Cra- 
ven County, the Violence in Mr. Moor'j Time, and all 
other illegal Practices, were with more Violence repeated,, 
and openly avowed by the prefent Governour, and his 

The fecond Reprefentation adds, Jews, Strangers, 
Sailors, Servants, Negroes, and almoft every Frenchman 
in Craven and Berkley Counties, came down to elect, and 
their Votes were taken, and the Perfons by them voted 
for, were returned by the Sheriffs. 

The AfTembly meeting, chofe Job How, Efq*, to 
be their Speaker, and this was that Parliament, who, 
to opprefs the Proteftant DifTenters, brought in a 
Bill contrary to the firft and laft Fundamental Con- 
ftitutions to the truelntereft of the Colony, and the 
Right of every Freeholder there. Twas entitled, 
An Aft for the more effectual Prefervation of the Go- 
vernment, by requiring all Perfons thatjball hereafter be 
chofen Members of the Commons Houfe of Ajfembly, and 
fit in the fame, to, &c. and to conform to the religious 
Worjhip in this Province, according to the^ Church of 
England, and to receive the Sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper according to the Rights and Vfage of the faid 

Every DifTenter that wasturn'd out of the Houfe, 
by virtue of this Ad, made room for the moil bigot- 
ted of the Fa&ion to get in ; for it provided, that ths 
Perfon who had the moil; Votes next to fuch Diflenter, 
fhould be admitted in his Place *, and thofe that op- 
pos'd the DifTenters being generally, according to the 
A a 2 be- 

I v 



356 The Hifiory of Carolina. 

before-mention'd Author, Men of violent and perfe- 
cting Principles, the Faction fecur'd the Power in 
their own Hands. 

There were 12 Members for this Bill, and 11 a- 
gainft it, in the Lower Houfe \ and in the Upper, 
Jofeph Moreton, Efq - , a Landgrave, and one of the 
Proprietary's Deputies, was deny'd the Liberty of 
entering his Proteft againft it. The Bill pafs'd the tfth 
of May, A. D. 1704. and was fign'd by Sir Nathani- 
el Johnfon, Col. Thomas Br ought on. Col. James Moor? 
Robert Gibbs,Efcy, Henry Noble ; Efqj Nicholas Trott, 

The Governour and Proprietaries Deputies, upon 
piffing this Aft, allarm'd all the DifTenters, who ac- 
cording to the Orthodox Minifter of Charles Town, 
Cafe cf the Reverend Mr. Marfim's Letter to the Reverend 
Difi Part ]>. Stanhope, are the foberefi, mojh numerous, and 
2 - P- 57- richeft People of this Province ; and this AfTembly was 
compos'd of many Men of very loofe and corrupt 

We have fhewn in the Beginning of the Hiftory of 
Carolina, that by the Fundamentals of the Province, 
the DifTenters -could not be juftly excluded from any 
Rights of the Members of it ; we have fhewn here 
what a fort of Convention, and by what Government 
countenanc'd, this AfTembly was ; and there's no 
need of exaggerating Matters, to make the thing 
look black ; wherefore we ihall proceed in our 
Hiftory.^ e 

It cannot be imagin'd, that a People who had been 
us'd fo ill, wou'd fit ftill, and tamely bear fuch bar- 
barous Ufage ; efpeciallyxonfidering thofe that were 
concern'd in the Riot were fome of the worft, and 
thofe that fuffer'd by it, fome of the beft Men in the 

Col. Jofeph Moreton, and Edmund Bellinger, Efq*, 
Landgraves, and Deputies of the Lords Proprietaries, 
all the other Members of Colliton County, andfeveral 
of the greateft Worth and Reputation in Berkley 
County, prevail'd with Mr. Jofeph Aft) to come for 
England, to reprefent the miferable State of the Pro- 
vince to the Proprietaries. 

The Faftion being apprehenfive of their Danger 
jn fuch a Proceeding, did their utmofl to prevent 


The Hiftory of Carolina. ] 3 5 7 

Mr Aflte Voyage •, and 'twas not without the grea- 
ter! Difficulty that he got away From Carolina to Vir- 
ginia* where his Powers and Inftruftions were con- 
vey'dtohira, as Agent for the Gentlemen and Inha- 
bitants above-nam'd. 

Coming to England, he apply'd himfelf to t\iQ 
Lord Granville, then Proprietary of the Province : 
But finding he was entirely in the Interests of the 
prevailing Party in Carolina, he defpair'd of feeing 
the Grievances he came to complain of, redrefs'd : 
He therefore drew up the firfi Reprefentation, often 
cited in this Treatife, printed a Sheet of it, and in- 
tended to go through with it •, but dy'd before he 
could finifli it j and his Papers, after his Death, were 
betray'd into his Enemies Hands. 

How this Agency was lik'd in Carolina, we may 
fuppofe ; and that the Author of, The Cafe of the 
Diffentersin Carolina, does not impofe upon us, in 
telling us, The Governour and his Agents profecuted 
and infulted fever al of the Inhabitants, and particularly 
Landgrave Smith, on the account of fome private Let- 
ters which they fent to the f aid Afh, while he was in 
Virginia and England, and which were found among 
the Papers betray'd to the Governour' s Agents. 

Mr. AJh may probably reprefent Things with too 
much Partiality, efpecially if what Mr. Archdale ^ c ' °J 
fays of him be true ) Their firfi Agent ft ertfd not a ^* 2 ^' 
Perfon fuitably qualify' d to reprefent their State here, 
not that he wanted Wit, but Temper. 

What Share the Governour had in this Bufinefs, 
appears alfo in the fame Tract. Sir Nathaniel John- F ? 23* 
fon, by a Chymical Wit, Zeal, and Art, tranfmuted 
or turn'd this Civil Difference into a religious Con? 
troverfy ; and fo fetting up a Standard for thofe cajb. 
led High Church, ventur'd at all to exclude all the 
Diflenters out of the AlTembly, as being thofe prin- 
cipally that were for a flric~l Examination into the 
Grounds and Caufesof the Mifcarriage of theAugu- 
fiino Expedition. 

The Party did not flop here *, for on the \th of No- 
vember an Act paft, and was fign'd by the Gover- 
nour, and the Deputies above-nam'd •, entitl'd, 
An AB: for ejlabliflnng Religious Worfjip in this Pro- 
iiime, awarding to the Church of England - ? and for 
A a 3 the 

The Hifiory of Carolina. 

the erefting of Churches for the Publick WorJJjip of God, 
and alfo for the Maintenance of Minifters, and the 
building convenient Houfesfor them. 

Which Aft Mr. Archdale acquaints us, notwith- 
ftanding its fplendid Glofs, favour'd of a perfecu- 
ting Spirit, and of a haughty Dominion over the 
Clergy it felfj for they fetup a High Commiflion 
Court, giving them Power to place and difplace Mi- 
nifters, and aft much in the Nature of the High 
Commiflion Court erefted by King James II. in 
"England. Thefe Commiflioners were Sir Nathaniel 
Johnfon, Thomas Broughton, Efq*, Col. James Moor, 
Nicholas 7rott, Efq", Col. Robert Gibbes, Job How, 
Efq-, Ralph Izard, Efq', Col. James Risbee, Col. George 
Logan, Lieut. Colonel William Rhett, William Smith, 
Efq*, Mr. John Stroude, Mr. Thomas Hubbard, Rich- 
ard Beresford, Efq-, Mr. Robert Seabreok, Mr. Hugh 
flicks, JohnAftby, Efq', Capt- John Godfrey, James 
Serwier, alias Smith, Efq', and Mr. Thomas 

It will not be improper to give a Character of this 
James Serurier, who has been mightily employ'd by 
the prefent Government in Carolina -, and we cannot 
do -it better, than in ufing the fame Words Mrs. 
Blake, Mother of the Proprietary Jofeph Blake, Efq j 
writes to the Lords Proprietaries. Towards the Sa- 
tisfaction of the Auguftino Debt, anAB was contrived- 
for forcing the Currency of Bills of Credit to the Value of 
6000 l. Thefe Bills were declard current in all Pay- 
ments, and the Refufer of them fueable in double the 
Valve of the Sum refits' a ', whereby the boldefi Stroke 
has been given to the Property of the Settlers in this Pro- 
vince, that ever was known in any Country not governed 
by Arbitrary Power. And the bad Consequences of this 
fori fd Currency, in relation to Trade with Strangers, are 
fo great, that they can fcarcely be exprefi. But there 
has nothing of this been weigtid by your Lordfliip's Depu- 
ties here, or by the pack'd Members of our Commons 
Houfe of Afjembly. Befdes all this, the People arc not 
fatisfyd how many Bills are truly fent abroad ; and the 
great Concern Mr. James Smith, alias Serurier (who 
cheated the Scots Company of a confiderable Sum of Mo' 
my, and with his Keeper made his Efcape from London 
hither) had in this Contrivance^ gives a Jealoufy of 


The Hiftory of Carolina. i$9 

indirect Practices. By this the Reader underftands 
what Inconveniences the Auguftino Expedition 
brought upon the Colony, and what fort of Perfons 
were Promoters of this Occasional Bill in America. 
But to fhew that this Faaiort in the A.flembly had 
nothing lefs in their View, than the real Advance-^ , - 
ment of Religion, and the Church of England \ the ^ £ 
Reverend Mr. Edward Marfan, Minifter of that^^ 
Church in Charles Town, was cenfur'd by them, for 
three PafTaaes of a Sermon preach'd there by him j 
two of which PafTages were not in the faid Sermon * 
and that which was amounted to no more, than that 
the Clergy had a Divine Right to a Maintenance. 
Theydepriv'd him of his Salary fettl'd on him by Act 
of Parliament, and of 5 o7. befides due to him by an 
Aftjof Affembly : Tho the chief Reafon was his having 
vifited Mr. Landgrave Smith* when he was in Cuftody 
of a Meflenger, being committed by the Commons 
Hou island living Friendly with the Diffenters- 

Of this Affembly the fame Reverend Divine fays, 
They made fome very odd and wquftifiable Laws* whic ȣnwrt9 
have occafiond great Feuds and Animofries here. And Df ^^ m 
in his Reprefeutation to the Lords Proprietaries 5 ho * e) p^ 
Moft of the late Members of Affembly have been con- 2# M7# 
ft ant Abfenters from the Holy Sacrament: So 'tis no 
Wonder they have inferted an abfurd Oath in a late 
Act, &c. / cannot think it will be much for the Credit p. 62. 
and Service of the Church of England here, thatfuch 
Provifxons fhouldbe made, for admitting the moft loofe 
and profligate Perfons to fit and vote in the making of our 
Laws, who will but take the Oath appointed by the late 
ABt. And of the High Cortimiffioners 'tis faid, Ele- ?- o$ ? 
<ven of the Twenty were never known to receive the Sa? 
crament of the Lord's Supper. 

And that this furious Faaion were no Friends to 
the Church of England is plain, by their Defign to 
wreft theEcclefiaftical Jurifdi&ion out of the Hands 
of the Right Reverend Father in God, Henry Lore* 
Bilhop of London. Mr. Marfan being threaten'd m 
Col. Risbee's Houfe, That at the next Seffwns of Affem-. 
bly he fljould fee the Bijhop of London'* Jurifdittion a- 
bolijjfd there. And of this Carolina Parliament he 
adds further, Our Lower Houfe of Affembly imprifon^ 9f* 
by a Vote of the Houfe, fine die, and bid Defiance to 
■ A a 4. m 



p. 60. 


Tan 1; 


T^e 7/i/?<5rK of Carolina. 

the Habeas Corpus All, tho made in Force there by an 
AB of Affembly. The Governour was very cholerick 
with the Minifies becaufe he had made Landgrave 
Smith-* Vifit, at the Houfe of the Mefenger -, and a 
Bully lajftd him caufelefly with his Whip, and tore his 
Gown from his Back. His Creatures alfo in the Af- 
fembly were the occafion of his Sufferings. 

If I am accus'd of being partial in reprefenting this 
Matter, I anlwer, that befides the Memorials pub- 
lifh'd by the Agent of Carolina, Mr. Archdale's 
Tract and others, I have diligently inquir'd into 
the Truth of the Faft, and have not been able to 
learn the leaft hint that makes againft it, or vindi- 
cates the Party that is complain'd of, and were pow- 
erfully prote&ed by the Lord Granville ; notwith- 
standing it was made out to him, that the Aflembly 
in paffing the Occafional Bill in Carolina, Swere guilty 
of the mod notorious ill Practices, and were Men of 
corrupt Principles and Manners. That Bill was 
brought into the Houfe the 4th of May, and carry'd 
fo precipitately, that it paft the <fth, four Days be- 
fore the time to which they were prorogu'd. There 
never were above 23 Members prefent, from the 
1 <> th of April to the 5th of May. There was but one 
more for it than againft it ; and of the latter many 
were Members of the Church of England. 

There's one thing very remarkable in the Act, 
which is the Stile: Be it enabled, by his Excellency 
John Lord Granville, and the reft of the true and abjo- 
lute Lords and Proprietors of Carolina, &c. A Stile 
never afTum'd by them till very lately. From whence 
we may obferve how pleas'd that Faction is every 
where with the Defpotick and Abfolute Power, info- 
much as to ufurp the Name, when they cannot ob- 
tain any thing more. The Cafe of the Di\f enter sin 
Carolina, is fo full of Irregularities in the Courfe of 
this Affair, that we muft refer the Reader to it. 
We have taken the moft material, and now are to 
fee what was done in England relating to this 

The principal Merchants in London trading to 
Carolina, drew up a Petition to the Lord Granville 
againft palling this Aft, or to order its Repeal. 
Which Petition they lodg'd with Mr. Som» 9 the A- 


The Hiftory of Carolina. 3<5i 

gent of Carolina, who follicited the Palatine feven 
Weeks before he could prevail to have a Board of 
Proprietaries call'd. 

Mr. Archdale, one of the Proprietaries, oppos'd 
the ratifying the Bill againft the DiiTenters at the 
Board, and with fuch folid Reafons, that 'tis ama- 
zing to find the Palatine make this fhort Aniwer to 
all of 'em : Sir, you are of one Opinion, and I am of a- 
nother , and our Lives may not be long enough to end the 
Controverfy : I am for this Bill, and this is the Party 
that I will head and countenance. 

What other Tone could he have talk'd in had he 
been Sultan of Carolina ? Mr. Boon pray'd he might 
be heard by Council. The Palatine reply'd, What 
Bufinefs has Council here ? It is a prudential Aft in me \ 
and I will do as I fee fit. Jjee no harm at all in this 
Bill, and am refolv'd to pafs it. He fhould have ad- 
ded, Car tel eft notre Plaifir. 

As all Methods to procure Juftice from this Board 
were ineffe&ual, in the Cafe of the DifTenters, the 
fame were they in Mr. Marfton's Cafe, and the A- 
bufeshe met with from the Party, the Lord Gran- 
ville was refolv'd to head and countenance. And 
what that Party was in England, and how they have 
feen their unreafonable Attempts baffl'd and explo- 
ded, is too well known, to need any Remembrance 

The Bill which occafion'd all the Complaints in 
Carolina, having paft thus illegally and arbitrarily, 
the DiiTenters in this Province being notorioujly known p. 12. 
to be above two thirds of the People, %&& the richeft and 
fobereft among them, according to Mr. Marftorts 
Evidence, 'twas not likely that they would 
fuffer themfelves to be infulted and perfecuted with- 
out feeking Redrefs, The very Afiembly who paft 
the Bill, about half a Year afterwards paft another to 
repeal it, when the Houfe was full •, but it was loft 
in the Upper Houfe j and the Govemour^ in great In- p. 41, 
dignation, dijfolv'd the Commons Houfe, by the Name 
of the Vnfteady Afiembly. The Society for pro- 
pagating the Gofpel in America and elfewhere, 
meeting in St. Paul's Church, taking the Aft for the 
Eftablilhing of Religious Worfhip, &c. into Conft- 
deration, refolv'd not to fend or fupportany Miflio- 



362 The Hiflory of Carolina 

varies in that Province, till the {aid Aft, or the 
Claufe relating to the Lay Commiffioners, was an- 
nul d. 

There being no Hopes of any Redrefs of the Grie- 
vances the Inhabitants of this Colony fuffer'd in 
Carolina, nor from the Lords Proprietaries in Eng- 
land* they relblv'd to bring the Matter before the 
Houfe of Lords in England, not doubting but to 
have entire Juftice done them by that auguft Aflfem- 
bly y where the Language of their Palatine was ne- 
ver heard from the Throne, at leaft in this Reign, 
or the laft \ both which are the Glory of the Britijh 

Mr. Boon was not only impower'd by the principal 
Inhabitants of Carolina to aft as their Agent, but he 
was affifted in his Agency by feveral eminent Mer- 
chants of London, who fign'd the Petition to the 
Houfe of Lords ; as Mr. Micaiah Perry, Mr. Jofeph 
Pake, Mr. Peter Renew, Mr. Chrifiopher Fowler, and 

The Effeft of which was, after a full hearing of the 
Caufe at the Lord's Bar, that m oft Honourable 
Houfe, who have done fuch great Things for the Li- 
berties of England, voted an Addrefs to the Queen, 
in behalf of the Province of Carolina : But the Rea- 
der cannot be better fatisfy'd, than to have it in their 
own Words } by which the State of the Cafe will be 
beft feen. 

The Bum^ 
hie Ad- < 
High Ho- c 
four tible c 
the Lords 
aniTettipo- l 
ral in Par- c 
lument of* c 
fembledy ' 
Die Mar- e 
tii 12, < 

c The Houfe having fully and maturely weigh 'd 
the Nature of thefe two Afts, found themfelves 
oblig'd in Duty to Your Majefty, and in Juftice to 
your Subjefts in Carolina (who by the Exprefs 
Words of the Charter of Your Royal Uncle King 
Charles II. granted to the Proprietors, are declared 
to be the Liege People of the Crown of England, 
and to have Right to all the Liberties, Franchifes, 
and Privileges of EngliJJnnen, as if they were born 
within this Kingdom 1 And who by the Words of 
the fame Charter, are to be fubjeft to no Laws, 
but fuch as are confonant to Reafon, and as near as 
may be to the Laws and Cuftoms of England) to 
come to the following Refolutionsi. 

The Hiftory of Carolina. 


< Hr/KThat it is the Opinion of this Houfe, that the 
« Aft of the AfTembly of Carolina, lately pafs'd there, 
c and fince fign'd and feal'd by John Lord Granville^ 
« Palatine, for himfelf, and for the Lord Cartarett 

* and the Lord Gvraw, and Sir 7^» Cbto, tour or 
'the Proprietors of that Province, in order to the 
'ratifying it, entitled, An Att fir the ejtablijbmg Re- 
Uigious Worfap in this Province, according to the 
4 Church of England, and for the erecting of Churches 
'for the publick Worjbip of God, and alfofor the Main- 
c tenance of Minifters, and building convenient Houjes 
l for them. So far forth as the fame relates to the 

* eftablifhing a Commiflion for the difplacing the 
' Reftors or Minifters of the Churches there, is not 
4 warranted by the Charter granted to the Proprie- 
c tors of that Colony, as being not confonant to Rea- 
«fon, repugnant to the Laws of this Realm, andde- 
c ftruftive to the Confutation of the Church of Eng- 

< Secondly, That it is the Opinion of this Houfe, 
1 That the Aft of the AfTembly of Carolina, entitled, 
c An Aft for the more effectual Vrefervation of the Go- 
c vernment of this Province, by requiring all Perfons 

* thatfljall hereafter be chofen Members of the Commons 
' Houfe of Affembly, and [it in the fame, to take the 
'Oaths, andjubfcribe the Declaration appointed by this 

< AB, and to conform to the Religious Worjbip in this 
1 Province, according to the Rites and Vfage of the f aid 

< Church, lately pafs'd there, and fign'd and feal'd by 
« John Lord Glanville, Palatine, for himfelf, and the 

* Lord Craven, and alfo for the Lord Cartarett, and 

* by Sir John Colliton, four of the Proprietors or that 
c Province, in order to the ratifying of it, is found- 
1 ed upon Faifity in Matter of Faft, is repugnant to 

* the Laws of England, contrary to the Charter 
c granted to the Proprietors of that Colony, is an 
1 Encouragement to Atheifm and Irreligion, deftru- 
' ftive to Trade, and tends to the depopulating and 
| ruining the faid Province, 



J<*4 The Hifiory of Carolina. 

May itpleafe your Majefty ; 

We your Majefty's moji dutiful Subjects, having thus 
humbly prefented our Opinion of thefe AEls, we befeech 
your Majefty to ufe the moft effectual Methods to deliver 
the faid Province from the arbitrary Oppreffions, trader 
which it now lies ', and to order the Authors thereof to 
be pyofecuted according to Law. 

To which Her Majefty was gracioufly pleas'd to 

anfwer : 

I thank the Houfe, for laying thefe Matters fo plainly 
before me-, lam very fenjible of what great Confequence 
the Plantations are to England, and will do all that is 
in my Power to relieve my Subjects. 

It appear'd to the Houfe, that fomeof the Pro- 
prietors abfolutely refus'd to join in there Afts. This 
Matter being referr'd to the Lords of the Committee 
of Trade, they examin'd into it •, and finding all the 
Fact charg'd upon the Promoters of thefe Bills, true, 
reprefented to Her Majefty, the 24th of May, x 7 o6. 
That the making fuch Laws is an Abufe of the Power 
granted to the Proprietors by their Charter, and will 
be a Forfeiture of fuch Power. They further hum- 
bly offer'd to her Majefty, That fhe would be pleas'd 
to give Directions for re-afluming the fame into her 
Majefty 's Hands by Scire Facias, in her Majefty's 
Court of Queen 's-Bench •. Which Reprefentation was 
fign'd by the Right Honourable the Lord Dartmouth, 
the Honourable Robert Cecil, Efqj Sir Philip Meadows, 
William Blathwayte, Efqj Matthew Prior, Eiqj and 
John Pollexfen^ Efq; 

On the 1 oth of June, her Majefty was pleas'd to 
approve of the faid Reprefentation •, and accordingly 
having declar'd the Laws mention'd therein to be 
NULL and VOID, did Order, That for the more 
effectual Proceeding againft the faid Charter, by way 
of Quo Warranto, Mr. Attorney, and Mr. Sollicitor 
General do inform themfelves fully concerning what 
may be moil necefTary for effecting the fame. 

t Thus 

TbeHiftory 0/ Carolina.' 
Thus did our mod Gracious Sovereign Hear the 
Cry of the Opprefs'd, right the Innocent, and do 
Juftice on the Oppreflor. For no Diftance of Coun- 
try can put any of her Subje&s out of her Prote&ion j 
nor no Difference of Opinion ( provided they are 
kept within the Bounds of Duty and Religion; pre- 
vent her favouring alike all her People, and doing 
her utmoft to make them all happy, as the infinite 
God has made her Reign to her felf, and her Em- 
pire, in adiftinguifiYd manner. 

The AfTembly which pafs'd thefe two memo- 
rable Acts were diflblv'd in the following Year, and 
a new one fummon'd to meet at Charles Town. At 
the Election, Craven and Berkley Counties were fo 
ftreightned by the Qualifying Aft, that they had not 
20 Men to reprefent them, unlefs they would choofe 
a DifTenter, or a Man not fit to fit in the AfTembly. 
Nineteen of the Party againft the Occafwnal Bill were 
chofen, and one Mr. Job How was elected by the In- 
tereft of the Goofecreek Faction, a Branch of the for- 
mer. The French, who were Free-holders, voted 
for them, being induc'd to it, by a Frenchman's 
being fet up for a Candidate. They alfo procur'd 
Mafters of Ships, particularly Cap, Cole, who lay in 
the Harbour, to vote on their Side. This Election 
was made in the Town, and the Faction gave out, 
An AfTembly was chofen, who would repeal the 
Church- Act, and not pay the Augufiino Debt, threat- 
ning if they did, the Houfe and Town fhould quick- 
ly be too hot to hold them. : 

In Colliton County, there were but 14. Men would 
•qualify themfelves : Therefore none of the DifTenters 
appear'd, and there were but 10 Votes out of 200 
that appear'd at the Election. The 1 o Electors voted 
for 14 Candidates, and the Sheriff returned 10 that 
had the Majority of Votes. 

On Jan. 2. 170*. the Members met, but not e- 
nough to make a Houfe, and choofe a Speaker. Mr. 
Stephens, one of the Members, ask'd Mr. How, in the 
Governour's Prefence, to attend \ , but he refus'd. 
Before Night the Houfe was com pleat, and waited 
on the Governour, and ask'd if he would direct them 
to choofe a Speaker ? He anfwer'd, he thought 'twas 
too late, but if they would venture they muft do it 




$66 Th* Hiflcry cf Carolina. 

with fpeed, for he was not well, and 'twould endan- 
ger his Health to fit up. So they prefently chofe Mr. 
Seabrook, and prefented him to the Governour *, who 
approv'd of the Choice. 

The next Day the Houfe met, the Speaker in the 
Chair, and the Members were call'd upon to qualify 
themfelves : Six did, and three more were ready to 
do it, and Debates arifing about Qualifying, the 
Houfe adjourn'd. 

The Houfe meeting again, a Report was, as 'tis 
laid, induftrioufly fpread, that the Members had for- 
feited 50 /. a Man for adjourning before they were 
qualify'd. Mr. How and Mr. Wiggington attended 
in their Places, and ofFer'd to qualify themfelves ; 
but Mr. Bornwell coming with a MefTage, the Houfe 
waited on the Governour j who fpoke to this Pur- 
pofe ; 


Ton are building on a wrong Foundation, and then 
the Super ftruBure will never ft and -, for you have d if- 
foh >d your j elves by adjourning, before there was a com- 
petent Number of Members to adjourn, and I cannot 
dijfolveyou if I would, you not being a Houfe. All this J 
know very well, as being my f elf many Tears a Member of 
the Houfe of Commons in England •, and therefore as 
lam Head, I would advife you to go back no more to 
the Houfe, but go every Man about his own Bufinefs : 
For if you fiould perfift in fettling and making Laws, 
befides the incurring the Penalties of the Jiff, the Laws 
would be of no Force, &c. 

The Speaker refus'd to return to the Chair, and 
the Members difpers'd. The Governour and Coun- 
cil difowning the AfTembly, Mr. Wigginton declared, 
Twas his Opinion the Houfe was diflblv'd. But their 
Diflblution was aggravated, by the Pleafure the Go- 
vernment took in making them Felo defe, their own 
. Then another AfTembly was call'd, the Choice of 
which was carry'd on with greater Violence than 
the former, "fob How, Efqj was chofen Speaker, 
and the Members for the moil Part qualify'd them- 

The Hiftory of Carolina. 

felves according to the Qualifying Aft. The Faction 
had not then heard of the Proceedings againft them 
in England^ which indeed were not come to a Con- 
clufion. They continu'd their Irregularities as if 
they were the raoft innocent Men in the Province, 
and the only true Patriots. They pafs'd an Aft for 
their Continuance two Years after the Death of the 
prefent Governour, or the Succefiion of a new one: 
The Reafon is told us in the Preamble, Whereas the 
Church of England has of late been fo happily efiablijb'd 
among them, fearing by the Succeffwn of a new Gover- 
nour, the Church may be either undermined, or wholly 
fubverted, to prevent that Calamity befalling them 7 
be it enaBed, &c. Mr. Job How, Speaker of the 
AfTembly, dying fome time after, Col. William Bhett 
was choien in his Place. But what has been fince 
done in thefe AfFairs, we know not more than in ge- 
neral, that the two A&s have been repeal'd, and 
the Party who drove things on with fuch Fury, 
have entirely loft their Credit, and that the Propri- 
etaries areoblig'd to them for the Caule now depen- 
ding •, wherein if they are caft, the Government of 
the Province will be forfeited to the Crown. They 
may thank themfelves for it, or at leaft their 
late Palatine the Lord Granville -, for fince the 
foregoing Pages were written, that Lord dy'd. 

How things may be manag'd now, is not difficult 
to be forefeen, from the good Intelligence between the 
Perfons we have juft mention'd ^ and the Fall of this 
Faction is a terrible Example to all Colonies, not 
to let any Prejudice or Paffion hurry them on to 
do things which they cannot anfwer to their Superi- 
ours in England. 

Tis not yet known who will be Palatine of this 
Province, there being fome Difputes in theSucceflion* 
J Tis fuppos'd the Lord Craven will fucceed the late 
Lord Granville, who aflign'd his Propriety to the 
Duke of Beaufort, 


The Hiftory of Carolina. 


Containing a Geographical Defcriftion of Ca- 
rolina *, as alfo an Account of the Climate , 
Soil, Product, Trade, Firjh Inhabitants, 

STPIS very well known, that the Province of Core- 
* Una has been a long time divided into two fepa- 
rate Governments, the one call'd North Carolina, and 
the other South Carolina ; but the latter being the 
more populous, goes generally under the Denomina- 
tion of Carolina, and as fuch we have treated of it 
in the foregoing Pages. The Proprietaries of North 
Carolina are the Proprietaries of South Carolina -, tho 
the Governours are different, in other things they 
are exaaiy the fame And we mail put them 
together in the Geographical Defcription^ as alfo in 
our Account of the Climate, Soil, Produft, Trade, 
firft Inhabitants, &c. 

Carolina, as has been faid, contains all the Coait 
of North America, between 31 and 36 Degrees of 
Northern Latitude. Its Breadth is not to be compu- 
ted, King Charles II. having granted the Proprietors 
all the Land Weftward in a direct Line from the a- 
bovemention d Degrees to the South Seas. Tis in 
Length three hundred Miles. Its Situation is moft 
convenient for Trade, the Coaft pleafant and fafe, 
not ftormy, or frozen in the Witter. 

As to the Climate, Mr. Archdale fays ot it, Caro- 
lina is the Northern Part of Florida, viz. from 19 
„ , £ Degrees to %6\, and is indeed the very Center of the 
?& °f, habitable Part of the Northern Hemifphere ; for taking 
tar. />. o. it tQ y e habita y le f rom t y EquinoBial to 6 4. Degrees, the 
Center of Carolina lies in about $ 2. which is about the mid- 
dle of 6 +, lying Parallel with the Land of Cmmi,andmay 
be called the temperate Zone comparatively, as not being 
pefler'd with the violent Heats of the more Southern 
Colonies, or the Extremes and violent Colds of the more 
Northern Settlements. Its Production anfwers thejitle 
of Florida, quia Re&io eft Florida. Carolina North 

The Hijlory of Carolina/ 

and South is divided into 6 Counties •, of which two 
are in North Carolina, Albemarle an,d Clarendon ; and 
four in South, Craven, Berkley, Collim, and Cartarett 

The firft is Albemarle County, to the North, bor- 
dering on Virginia. Tis water 'd by Albemarle Ri- 
ver •, and in this Part of the Country lies the Ifland 
Roanoke, where Philip Amidas and Arthur Barlow^ 
whom Sir Walter Rawleigh fent to Virginia, landed. 
This County may be faid to belong to Virginia, as 
New England,^, did, which juftifies King Charles's 
Grant. When Carolina was fir ft fettled, Albemarle 
was more planted than any of the other Counties, 
and confided of near 300 Families. But the Plan- 
tations upon AJbley River in time grew upon it fo 
much, that moft of the Planters here remov'd thi- 
ther. This River is full of Creeks on both Sides of 
it, which for Breadth deferve the Name of Rivers, 
but they do not run far into the Country. At Sandy 
Point, it divides it felf into two Branches, Noratoke 
and Notaway ', and in the North Point lives an In- 
dian Nation, call'd the Mataromogs. Next to Al- 
bemarle is Pantegoe River •, between them is Cape 
Hattoras, mention'd in the Hiftory of Virginia. 
Next to it is Neufe River. The Coranines, an Indian 
Nation, inhabit the Country about Cape Look- 

Next to Albemarle is Clarendon County *, m which 
is the famous Promontary, call'd Cape Fear, at the 
Mouth of Clarendon River, call'd alfo Cape Fear 
River. Hereabouts a Colony homBarbadoes formerly 
fettled, The Indians in this Neighbourhood are rec- 
kon 'd the mod barbarous of any in the Province. 
The next River is nam'd Waterey River, or Winyann, 
about 25 Leagues diftant from AftAey River : 'Tis ca- 
pable of receiving large Ships, but inferior to Port 
Royal, nor is yet inhabited. There's another fraall 
River between this and Clarendon River call'd Wingon 
River, and a little Settlement honour'd with the 
Name of Charles Town, but fo thinly inhabited, that 
'tis not worth taking Notice of. We come now to 
South Carolina, which is parsed from North by Zantet 
River. The adjacent Country is call'd, 

B b 


The Hiflory of Carolina. 

Cravin County *, it is pretty well inhabited by Eng- 
/////and French ', of the latter there's a Settlement on 
Zantee River, and they were very inftru mental in 
the irregular Election of the' Vnfteady jiffembly. 
The next River to Zantee is Sewee River \ where 
fome Families from New England fettled : And in 
the Year i 7 o<?. the French landing there, they were 
vigoroufly oppos'd by this little Colony *, who beat 
off the Invaders, having forc'd them to leave 
many of their Companions dead behind them. This 
County (ends 10 Members to the AfTembly. We now 

' Berkley County, palling ftill from North to South. 
The Northern Parts of this Shire are not planted, 
but the Southern are thick of Plantations, on Account 
of the two great Rivers, Cooper and AJtdey. On the 
North Coaft, there's a little River call'd Bowal 
River -, which, with a Creek, forms an Iflands, and 
off of the Coafts are feveral Ifles, nam'd the Hunt- 
ing-J/Iands, and Sillivants Ifle. Between the latter 
and Bowal River, is a Ridge of Hills \ which, from 
the Nature of the Soil, is call'd the Sand-Hills. The 
River Wando waters the North- Weft Parts of this 
County, and has feveral good Plantations upon it, 
as Col. Daniel's on the South Side, and Col. Dearsby's 
lower down on the North. It runs into Cooper River 
near the latter, and they both unite their Streams 
with AflAey River at Charles Town. The late Af- 
fembly enafted, That a Church fhould bs built on 
the South-Eaft of Wando River, and another upon 
the Neck of Land, lying on the North- Weft of 
Wando ', but we do not fee that this Aft was o- 

Charles Town, the Capital of this Province, is built 
on a Neck of Land between AfiAey and Cooper Ri- 
vers, but lying moft on Cooper River, having a Creek 
on the North Side, and another on the South. It lies in 
3 2 Deg. 40 Min. N. Lat. 2 Leagues from the Sea.This 
the only free Port in the Province, which is a great 
Difcouragement to it, and a vaft Injury to Trade: 
3 Tis fortify' d more for Beauty than Strength. It has 6 
Baftions, and a Line all round it. Towards Cooper 
River are Blake's Baftion, Granville Baftion, a Half 
Moon, and Craven Baftion. On the South Creek 


The Hiftory of Carolina. 371 

are the Pallifades, and AJhlty Baftion j on the North 
a Line •, and facing AjhUy River are Colliton Ba- 
ftion, Johnfon's Cover'd Half-Moon, with a Draw- 
bridge in the Line, and another in the Half-Moon. 
Cartarett E&fiion. is next to it. If all thefe Works 
are well made, and can be well mann'd, we fee no 
Reafon why they fhould not defend as well as beauti- 
fy the Town •, which is a Market Town, and thither 
the whole Prod aft of the Province is brought for 
Sale. Neither is its Trade inconfiderable *, for it deals 
near 1000 Miles into the Continent : However, 'tis, 
unhappy in a Bar, that admits no Ships above 200 
Tuns. Its Situation is very inviting, and the Coun- 
try about it agreeable and fruitful : The High-ways 
extremely delightful, efpecially that cali'd Broad-way, 
which for three or four Miles make a Road and 
Walk, fo pleafamly green , that, fays my Author, /Archd. 
believe no Prince in Europe, by all his Art, can male P« 9* 
fo pleafant a Sight for the whole Tear. There are fe- 
veral fair Streets in the Town, and fome very hand- 
Come Buildings ; as Mr. Landgrave Smith's Houfe on 
the Key, with a Draw-bridge and Wharf before it j 
Col. Rhett's on the Key-, alfo Mr. Boon's, Mr. 
Loggan's, Mr. Schinkings, and i o or 1 2 more, which 
deferve to be taken Notice of. As for publick Edifi- 
ces, the Church is moft remarkable : 'Tis large and 
irately enough , but the Number of the Profefforsof 
the Anglicane Worfhip encreafing daily, the Auditory 
begin to want Room, and another Church. This 
is dedicated to St. Philip \ and by the Aft, which ap- 
pointed the High Commiflion Court, 'twas enafted, 
That Charles Town, and the Neck between Cooper anct 
Afhley River, as far up as the Plantation of John Bird, 
Gent . on Cooper River, inclvfive, is, and from hence- 
forth /hall for ever be a diftmcl Parifl), by the Name of 
St. Philips in Charles Town ; and the Church and 
Caemetry then in this Town were enafted to be the 
Farifh Church and Church- Yard of St. Philips in 
Charles Town. Mr. Williams was the firft Church of 
England Minifter in Carolina : A Perfon, of whom 
fince Mr. Marfton has faid fo much, we fhall 
fay no more. One Mr. Warmel was fent over after 
him. The Reverend Mr. Samuel Marjhal was the 
firft eftablifh'd Minifter at Charles Town ; and his 
Bb 2 Succeflor 

See Mr. 


The Hiftory of Carolina. 

Succeflbr was Mr. Edward Marfion, the prefent Re- 
ctor of St. Philips i he [came over feven Years ago. 
Mr. Kendal, Minifter of Bermuda*, was invited to 
this Colony 5 and Mr. Corbin, an Acquaintance of 
Mr. Marfton% coming by chance, he got him fettl'd 
iff this Province. 

'the Society for propagating the Gofpel fent over 
Marfton's one Mr. Thomas, to convert tha Roman Cathclick 
letter to Indians ', but he did not obey hisMijJjon. On the con- 
Vr. Stan- trar y^ 'twas by his Influence on fome Men of Inte- 

2 e frS reft here ' that Mn Kmdd was dif P lac ' d: U P on 
of Ztiffeit wn * c ^ ^ e went diftratted. 

p. 58. ' ^ r - Warmell was alfo us'd fo ill by him, that he 
alfo dy'd diffracted \ and Mr. Cor bin was fore'd to 
leave the Colony, by the caufelefs Quarrels of the 
Inhabitants •, in which the DifTenters had the leaft 
Hand. 'Twas by their Procurement that the 1 50 /. 
a Year, &c. was fettled on the Orthodox Minifter 
of this Church. The Church (lands near the cover'd 
Half Moon. 

There's a Publick Library in this Town, and a 
Free-School has been long talk'dof: Whether foun- 
ded or not, we have not learn'd. The Library is 
kept by the Minifter for the time being. It owes 
its Rife to Dr. Thomas Bray •, as do moil of the Ame- 
rican Libraries, for which he zealoufly follicited 
. -(-fcntributions in England. 

Not far off, by Cartarett Bafiion, is the Presbyteri- 
an Meeting-houfe } of which Mr. Archibald Stobe 
is Minifter. Between Colliton and AJbley Baftion is 
the Anabaptift Meeting-houfe, Mr. William Screven 
Minifter. The French Church is in the Chief Street : 
Befides which there is a Quakers Meeting-houfe, in 
rhe Suburbs of it, properly fo call'd, on the other 
Side of the Draw-bridge, in the Half Moon, toward 
Afdey River. 

To the Southward is the Watch-houfe ^ and the 
moft noted Plantations in the Neighbourhood of 
Charles Town, are Ferguforfs, Underwood's, Gilbert- 
fon &nd{jarneH% 

We may fee by this Defcription that the Town is 
full of DiiTenters, and would flourifh more, were 
not the Inhabitants uneafy under the Government 
there. For one aiay imagine they who fled from 


The Hiftory of Carolina. 
England, to avoid Perfection, cannot be well pleas'd 
to meet with it in America *, nor to crofs the Atlan- 
tick, to live under Oppreliion abroad, while their 
Relations and Friends at home enjoy all the Blef- 
fings of a peaceful and gentle Adminiftration. 

Tiisre are atleaft 250 Families in this Town, mod 
of which are numerous, and many of them have 
10 or 12 Children in each', in the whole amoun- 
ting to about 3000 Souls. 

In Charles Town the Governour generally rehdes, 
the Affemblyfit, the Courts of Judicature are held, 
the Publick Offices kept, and the Bulinefs of the 
Province is tranfacled. 

The Neck of Land between Cooper and Ajhley Ri- 
vers is about 4. Miles over ; and the Banks of both of 
thefe are well planted. The chief Settlements on 
Cooper River are Mathews, Greens, Grafs, Star- 
key's, GrimboWs, Dickefon% and Rard's ; the latter 
on Turh Creek. About a Mile from thence is the 
Mouth of Goofe-Creek, which is alfo very well plan- 
ted. Here Mr. William Corbin above-mcntion'd liv'd, 
and had a Congregation of Church of England Men ; 
and one of the Churches propos'd to be built by the 
AfTembly which pafs'd the two fatal Afts we have 
fpoken of, was to be erefted. . 

Mr. Thomas, a Miffionary fent by tne Society be- 
fore-mention'd, fettled here, by Capt. How's and 
Gol. Moor's Sollicitations •, as did Mr. Stackhoufe, 
and the Reverend Dr. Lejau. 

Mr. Marfion in his Letter to the Reverend Dr, 
Stanhope, accufes Mr.Thomas of being the Occafion 
of the ill Ufage that made Mr. Kendal run diftra- 
fted. He complains he never had Univerdty Edu- 
cation, laying, That the bed Service your Society can do 
this young Man, Mr. Thomas, v>, to maintain him a jew 
Tears at one of our Vniverfities, where he may bmer 
learn the Principles and Government of the Chunk of 
England, &c. andfome other ufeful Learning, which I 
am afraid he wants.' ' 

Sir John Teamahh, and Mr. Landgrave Bellet> 
eer's Plantations are here •, as alfo Col. Gibbs s, Mr. 
%chinking% and Colliton's Company. ■Betsyeen tnis 
and Back River are Col. Moor's andCol. CWys 

B b 3 

The Hijiory of Carolina. 

Back River h\\s' into Cooper River, about 2 Miles 
above Goofecreek, and its Weftern Branch a little 
higher. Here another Church was propos'd to be 
built. The moft noted Plantations are Capt. Com- 
ming's, and Sir Nathaniel Johnforis, bordering on the 
Barony of Mr. Thomas Colliton. 

We muft now take a View of AJhley River, where 
we firft meet with Mr. Landgrave Weft's Plantation 
on one fide, and Col. Gibbs's on the other. Mr. Ba- 
den s over againft Col. Godfrey's ; Mr. Simond's op- 
pofite to Dr. Trevillian's ', and Mr. Pendarvis's to Mr. 
Weft's, Mr. Colliton's to Mr. Marjhal's, and others, 
almoft contiguous. 

This Part of the Country belongs to the Lord 
Shaftsbury. On the South-Weft of 'AJhley River is 
the great Savana. One of the Churches intended to 
be erected in this County, was to have been built on 
\Affley River. 

Lore he ft er is in this Shire, bordering on Colliton 
County. Tisafmall Town, containing about 550 
Souls. There's a Meeting- Houfe belonging to the 
Independants, the Paftor of which is Mr. John 
Lord. Next to it is Stono River, which divides 
Berkley from Colliton County. To which we muft 
now proceed, obferving only that Berkley County 
fends ten Members to the Anembly. The fame 

Colliton County \ which Stono River waters, and is 
join'd by a Cut, near Mr. Blake's Plantation, to 
Wadmoolaw River. The North-Eaft Parts of this 
Divifion of the Province is full of Indian Settlements j 
and the Stono, and other Rivers, form an Ifland, 
cali'd Booties Ifland, a little below Charles Town, 
which is well planted and inhabited. The two chief 
Rivers in this County are North Ediftaw, .and South 
Edifiow. At the Mouth of the latter is Col. Paid 
Grimboll's Plantation -, and for two or three Miles up 
the River, the Plantations are thick on both fides, as 
they continue for three or four Miles higher on the 
North-fide, and branching there, the River meets 
with the North Ediftow. 

Two Miles higher is Wilton, by fome cali'd 
New London,' 2l little Town, confifting of about 
So -Houfes. Landgrave Moreton^ Mr* Blake-, Mr. 

Boon j 

The WJlory of Carolina. m 

Boon, Landgrave Axtel, and other con fiderablePlanj 
ters, have Settlements in this Neighbourhood, which 

A Church was to have been built on the South-lide 
of the Stono, had that Projeft gone on, and the Act 
taken effeft. This County has 200 Freeholders, tfiat 
vote in Eleftion for Parliament Men. Therms an 
Orthodox Church in this Precinft, of which Mr. 
Williams is Minifter. ■ \ ... a 

Cartarett County is not yet inhabited, but is ge^ 
nerally efteem'd to be the moft fruitful and plea- 
fant Part of the Province •, this and Colltton County 
are diftinguifh'd from the other by the Name of the 
Southward. In it is the great River Cambage, which 
jo ling with the River May, forms with; the bea 
Ifiand Edelano. . \' '.'■ \ 

The Country upon the River May was inhabited 
by the Weftoet, an Indian Nation already mention d. 
There's a pleafant Lake and Valley in it ', and the 
firft Englifh that came to Carolina, thought of ettling 
hereabouts ; but the Indians advis'd them to the con- 
trary, becaufe the Harbour of Von Royal was the 
fineft ia Florida, and would have tempted the Spani- 
ards to difturb them. 

The Scots fettled here, under the Lord Cardrojs, 
but were loon forc'd to abandon their Settlements, 
as has been elfewhere hinted. Fort Royal River lies 
20 Leagues from Ajhley River, to the South, 11131 
Degrees, 45 Minutes, North Latitude. It has a bold 
Entrance, 17 Foot low Water on the Bar. The 
Harbour is large, commodious, and late tor Ship- 
ping, and runs into a fine fruitful Country, prefera- 
ble to the other Parts of Carolina. It fpends its leif, 
by various Branches, into other large Rivers. This 
Port is not 200 Miles from Auguftmo, and would be 
a great Curbto the Spaniards there, where their Set, 

Next to it is the River of May, and then San Mat- 
m\ which is the laft of any Note in theEnghfli 
Florida, a Name this Province highly deferves. 

The Air of this Country is healthy, and Soil fruit- Arch. p,l, 

ful, of a landy Mould, which near the Sea appears 

ten times more barren than it proves to be. There s 

a yaft Quantity ofVinesin many Parts on jhc Coaits, 

" j '"" B b 4 Dealing 




r. 9. 

! • I 

The Hifiory of Carolina. 

bearing abundance of Grapes, • where one would 
wonder they mould get Nourifhment. Within 
Land the Soil is more raix'd with a blackifh Mould, 
and its Foundation generally Clay, good for 

Its Products are the chief Trade of the Inhabitants, 
who fend it abroad, according as the Market offers ; 
and 'tis in demand in America or Europe. But the 
chief Commerce from hence is to Jamaica, Barba- 
dos, and the Leward Iflands. Yet their Trade to 
England is very much encreas'd ', for notwithstanding 
all the Difcoursgements the People lie under, feven- 
teen Ships came laft Year, laden from Carolina, 
with Rice, Skins, Pitch, and Tar, in the Virginia 
Fleet, befides ftragling Ships. 

Its principal Commodities are Provifions, as Beef, 
Pork, Corn, Peafe, Butter, Tallow, Hides, Tann'd 
Leather, Hogfhead and Barrel Staves, Hoops, Cot- 
ton, Silk •, befides what they fend for Etigland. 
Their Timber Trees, Fruit Trees, Plants, and Ani- 
mals, are much the fame with thofe in Virginia \ in 
which Hiftory may be feen a large Account of them : 
Bin fince Mr. Archdale has been a little parti- 
cular in his, and has added a fhort Defcription 
of the Natives, &c. we will communicate what he 
fays to the Reader. 

' Tis beau tify'd with odoriferous Woods, green all 
4 the Year •, as Pine,'Cedar, and Cyprefs. Tis natu- 
c rally fertile, and eafy to manure. Were the Inha- 
4 bitants induftrious, Riches would flow in upon 
4 them •, for I am Catisfy'd, a Perfon with 500 /. dif- 
4 creetly laid out in England, and again prudently 
4 m&mg* dm Carolina, fhall in a few Years live in as 
* much Plenty, as a Man of 3 00 /. a Year in England •, 
'and if he continues careful, not covetous, fhall in- 
4 creafe to great Riches, as many there are already 
1 WitnefTes, and many more might have been, if 
6 Luxury and Intemperance had not ended their 
4 Days. 

4 As to the Air, 'tis always ferene, and agreeable to 
£ any Conititutions, as the firit Planters experienc'd. 
4 There's feldom any raging Sicknefs, but what is 
4 brought from the Southern Colonies *, as the late 
jjj Sicknds was 3 which ragjd, A*D> x 705. and carry'd 
• J - , ^ 6 ofT 

The Hiftory of Carolina. 377 

c off abundance of People in Charles Town, and other 
4 Places. 

4 Intemperance alfo has occafion'd fome Diftempers. 
4 What may properly be faid to belong to the Country 
4 is, to have fome gentle Touches of Agues and Fe 
4 vers in July and Augufl, efpecially to new Comers. Ibid. 
4 It has a Winter-Seafon, to beget a new Spring, 
J was there, adds myAuthor, at twice, five Years, and P. 7. 
had no Sicknefs, but what 1 got by a carelefs violent 
Cold j and indeed I perceived that the Fevers and Agues 
were generally gotten by Carelefnefs in Cloathing, or In- 

4 Everything generally grows there that will grow 
c in any part of Europe, there being already many- 
4 forts of Fruits, as Apples, Pears, Apricocks, Necta- 
c rines, &c. They that once taft of them, will defpife 
4 the watry waftiy Taft of thofe in England. There's 
4 fuch Plenty of them, that they are given to the 
4 Hogs. In 4 or 5 Years they come from a Stone to 
* be bearing Trees. 

4 All forts of Grain thrive in Carolina, as Wheat, 
4 Barley, Peas, &c. And I have meafur'd fome 
4 Wheat-Ears 7 or 8 of our Inches long. It produces 
4 the belt Rice in the known World, which is a good 
4 Commodity for Returns home *, as is alfo Pitch, Tar, 
4 Buck, Doe, Bear Skins, and Furs, tho the laffc not 
4 fo good as the Northern Colonies. 

4 It has already fuch Plenty of Provifions, that it in 
4 a great meafure furnifhes Barbadoes, Jamaica, &c. 
4 There are vaft Numbers of wild Ducks, Geefe, Teal \ 
4 and the Sea and Rivers abound in Fifh. That which 
4 makes Provifions fo cheap, is the Shortnefs of the 
4 Winter : For having no need to mow for Winter 
4 Fodder, they can apply their Hands in raifing other 
4 Commodities. 

4 The Rivers are found to be more navigable than 
4 w r as at firft believ'd \ and 'twas then prudently con- 
4 triv'd, not to fettle on the molt navigable *, but on 
4 Afldey arid Cooper River, thofe Entrances are not fo 
4 bold as the others •, fo that Enemies and Pirates have 
4 . been difhearten'd in their Defigns to difturb that 
4 Settlement. 

4 The new Settlers have now great Advantages 
6 over the firft Plantsrs 3 fines they can be fop- 
"'" p¥4 

The Hifiory of Carolina. 

e ply'd with Stocks of Cattle and Corn at reafonable 

6 Rates. 

I {hall conclude this Account of Carolina, with an 

Extract of a Letter from thence, from a Perfon of 

Credit •, in whofe Words I communicate it to the 

Publick : He {peaks of the Southward. 
c The many Lakes we have up and down breed a 
Multitude of Geefe, and other Water-Fowl. All 
along Port Royal River, and in all this part of Ca- 
rolina, the Air is fo temperate, and the Seafons of 
the Year fo register, that there's no Excefs of Heat 
or Cold, nor any troublefome Variety of Wea- 
ther : For tho there is every Year a kind of Win- 
ter, yet it is both fhorter and milder than at Afh- 
ley or Cooler River •, and paffes over infenfibly, as 
if there was no Winter at all. This fweet Tem- 
perature of Air, caufes the Banks of this River to 
be cover'd with various Kinds of lovely Trees *, 
which being perpetually green, prefent a thoufand 
Landskips to the Eye, fo fine, and fo diverfify'd, 
that the Sight is entirely charm'd with them. The 
Ground is very low in moft Places near the River *, 
but rifes gradually, at a diftance, with little Hills, 
adjoining to fruitful Plains, all cover'd with 
Flowers, without fo much as a Tree to interrupt 
the Profpeft. Beyond thefe are beautiful Vales, 
cloath'd with green Herbs, and a continual Ver- 
dure, caus'd by the refreftring Rivulets that run 
through them. There are a great many Thickets, 
which produce abundance of Simples. The Indi- 
ans make ufe of them for the Cure of their Dif- 
eafes. There are alfo Sarfaparilla, Caffia Trees, 
Gumms, and Rofin, very good for Wounds and 
Bruifes*, and fuch a prodigious Quantity ot Ho- 
ney, which the Bees make every where, that the 
Store of it is not to be exhaufted. Of this they 
make excellent Spirits, and Mead as good as Ma- 
laga Sack. The Bees fwarm five or fix times. 
There's a kind of Tree, from which there runs 
an Oil of extraordinary Virtue, for Curing 
Wounds. And another Tree, which yields a 
Balm, thought to be fcarce inferiour to that ot 
Mecca. r 

Silk is come to a great Improvement here, lome 

The Hiftory of Carolina. 379 

Families making 40 or 50 Pound a Year, and then- 
Plantation Work not neglected, their little Negro 
Children being ferviceable in feeding the Silk- Worms. 
And we muft do Sir Nathaniel Johnfon the Juftice, 
to own he has been the principal Promoter of this 
Improvement, as alfo of Vineyards. He makes 
yearly 3 or 400 /. in Silk only. 

But 'tis objected, Since the Climate is (6 proper, 
fmce Grapes are fo plentiful, and the Wine they 
make fo good, why is there not more of it ? Why do 
we not fee fome of it ? 

To which Ianfwer, That the Inhabitants either 
think they can turn their Hands to a more profitable 
Culture, or impofe upon us in their Reports *, for I 
would not think them fo weak, as to neglect ma- 
king good Wine, and enough of it, if they could, 
and thought it worth their while. 

They manufa&ure their Silk with Wool, and 
make Druggets. The French Proteftants have fet 
up a Linnen Manufacture j and good Romalls are 
made here. 

A French Dancing-Mafter fettling in Craven Coun- 
ty, taught the Indians Country-D^r^s, to play on 
the Flute and Hautboit, and got a goodEftate-, for 
it feems the Barbarians encourag'd him with the 
fame Extravagance, as we do the Dancers, Singers, 
and Fidlers, his Countrymen. 

Tho we have faid enough of the Virginian Indians,, 
who are much the fame with the Carolinian •, yet 
fince we find Mr. Archdale fpeaks of them in parti- 
cular, let the Reader fee what he has faid of 'em. 

c Providence was vifible in thinning the Indians, 
4 to make Room for the Englifti. There were two 

* potent Nations, the Wefloes and Sarannas y who 
f broke out into an ufual Civil War before the Eng- 
' lifh arriv'd •, and from many Thoufands reduc'd 

* themfelves to a fmall Number. The moll cruel 
c of them, the Weftoes, were driven out of the Pro- 
e vince ; and the Sarannas continu'd good Friends, 

* and ufeful Neighbours to the Englifh. It pleas'd 
c God alfo to fend unufual Sickneffes among them } 

fc as the Small-Pox, &c. The Pemlico Indians in P. 2, 3. 
€ North Carolina^ were lately fwept away by a Pefti- 
f lence *, and the Carmine^ by War. The Natives 



P. 7. 


The Hiftory of Carolina. 

are fomewhat tawny, occafion'd chiefly by oiling 

their Skins, and by the naked Rays of the Sun. They 

are generally (freight body'd-, comely in Per Ion, 

quick of Apprehenfion, and great Hunters •, by which 

they are not only very ferviceable, by killing Deer, 

to procure Skins for Trade with us j but thofe that 

live in Country-Plantations procure of them the 

whole Deer's Flefh,and they will bring it many Miles 

for the Value of about 6 d. and a wild Turkey of 

40 Pound, for the Value of 2 d. 

They have learn'd one of their worft Vices of the 

Englifh, which is, Drinking •, and that occafions 

Quarrels among them, one of which we have menti- 

on'd in the time of Mr. Archdale's Government. As 

to what he would excite us, to their Converfion to 

Chriftianity, 'tis a Project which, like a great many 

other very good ones, we rather wifh than hope to 

fee effefted. 

Mr. Thomas was fen t to inftruft the Tammofees in 
the Chriftian Religion, and had an Allowance of 50 /. 
a Year from thebefore-mention'd Society ,befides other 
Allowances: But finding it an improper Seafon, his 
Million is refpited •, the Reafon is, thofe Indians re- 
volted to the Englifh from the Spaniards *, and not be- 
ing willing to embrace Chriftianity, 'tis fear'd they 
would return to their old Confederates, if any means 
were made ufe of to that purpofe. 

This Country is in a very flouriOiing Condition } 
the Families are very large, in fome are 10 or 1 2 Chil- 
dren ^ and the Number of Souls in all is computed to 
be 1 2 000. The Children are fet to Work at 8 Years old. 
The ordinary Women take care of Cows, Hogs, and 
other fmall Cattle, make Butter and Cheefe, fpin 
Cotton and Flax, help to fow and reap Corn, wind 
Silk from the Worms, gather Fruit, and look after 
the Houfe. 'Tis pity this People mould not be eafy 
in thsir Government •, for all their Induftry, all 
the Advantages of the Climate, Soil, and Situation 
for Trade, will be ufelefs to them, if they live under 
Oppreffion y and Tenfyivania will have no occafion 
to complain, that fhe tempts away her Inhabitants % 
being a new Beauty, a fairer, and confequently a 
powerful Rival. 


The Hiftory of Carolina. 

We fliall conclude this Hiftory and Account of 
Carolina, with a Lift of the prefent Proprietaries, 
and chief Officers of this Colony. 




William Lord Craven, 
Henry Duke of Beaufort, 
The Honourable Maurice 

AJlAey, Efq-, Brother to 

the Earl of Shaftsbury, 
John Lord Cartarett, 
Sir John Colliton, Baronet, 
Jofeph Blake, Efq', 
John Archdale, Efqj 
Nicholas Trott, Efq ; 

Sir Nath. Johnfon, Governour, Sallary 200 /. a Year. 

Col. James Moor, 1 - 

Col. Thomas Br ought on, 
Col. Rob. Gibbs, 
Mr. Nich. Trott* 



Mr. Hen. Noble, 



Speaker of the AfTembly, William Rhett, E(% 

The Secretary, Ward, Efq-, His Salary to/. 

a Year. 
The Chief Juft ice, Mr. Trott, 60 I. 
The Judge of the Admiralty-Court, Col. James 

Moor, 40 /. 

Surveyor G-neral, How, Efq-, 40 /. 

Attorney General, Col. James Moor, 60 I. 

Receiver General, the fame, 50 /. 

Naval Officer, Mr. Trott, 40 /. 

Colleftor of the Cuftoms, Col. Thomas Broughton. 

Agent for the Colony in England, Mr. Jofeph Boone. 




O F 



An Account of its Difcovery and Settle- 
ment, the Progrefs of it, and the pre- 
fent State ; of the Indians, Trade, and 
every thing elfe relating to it. 

J f-yS WAS in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
H that all the Englijl) Dominions on the 
Continent of America were difcover'd, 
Jk except Hudfons Streights •, which being 
the moft Northerly, fhould have been treated of 
firft, and put at the Head of the other Settlements j 
but the French have a large Dominion between the 
Englijh at Hudfons Bay, and thofe at New England : 
And befides there being no Towns nor Plantations 
in this Country, but two or three poor Forts to de- 
fend the Factories, we thought we were at Liberty 
to place it where we pleas'd, and were loath to let 
our Hiftory open with the Defcription of fo miferable 
aWildernefs, and fo wretched a Colony. For as 
rich as the Trade to thefe Parts have been or may 
be, the way of Living is fuch, that we cannot reckon 
any Man happy, whole Lot is call upon this Bay. 


The Hifiory of HudfonVBay. 

In the Year 157^. Cap. Martin Frobijber made his 
firft Voyage for the Difcovery of a PafTage to China 
and Cathay by the North- Weft } and on the 1 2th of 
June he difcover'd Tierra de Labrador, in 55 Degrees 
8 Minutes, and enter'd a Streight, which is call'd 
by his Name. On the ift of Oblober he return'd to 
England. In the following Year, he went a fecond 
time on the fame Difcovery, came to the fame 
Streight, and us'd all pofilble Means to bring the 
Natives to Trade, or give him fbme Account of 
themfelves j but they were fo wild, that they only 
ftudy'd to deftroy the Englijb. Cap. Frobijber flay 'd 
here till Winter drew on, and then he return'd to 
England. He made the fame Voyage the following 
Year, and with the like Succefs. 

Six Years afterwards, A. D. 1585. John David 
fail'd from Dartmouth on the fame Adventure, came 
into the Latitude of 54 Degrees 1 5 Minutes, and pro- 
ceeded to 66 Degrees 40 Minutes. In the Year enfu- 
ing, he ran to 66 Degrees 20 Minutes, and coafted 
Southward again to 55 Degrees. Sailing thence in $4 
Degrees, he found an open Sea tending Weft ward, 
which he hop'd might be the PafTage fo long fought 
for i but the Weather proving tempeftuous, he re- 
turn'd to England. InOBober, the next Year, he did 
the fame. 

After which there were no more Adventures this 
way, till the Year 1507. when Cap. Henry Hudfon 
difcover'd as far as 80 Degrees 23 Minutes : At the 
Mention of which, the Reader will almoft freeze 
as the Writer does;, for that Country is fo pro- 
digioufly cold, that Nature is never impregnated 
by the Sun ^ or rather, her barren Womb produces 
nothing for the Subfiftance of Man. In 1*08. he 
let out again ^ and, having added little to his for- 
mer Difcoveries, return'd. Two Years after which, 
A.D. isio. he again undertook a Voyage to find 
out the North- Weft PafTage, proceeded 100 Leagues 
farther than any Man had done before him, till he 
could not go forward for Ice and Shoal Water \ and 
finding himfelf imbay'd, he refolv'd to winter there. 
In the Spring, A. D. 1 61 1. purfuing a further Difco- 
very, he and leven moreof his Company were feiz'd, 
the reft of his Men put into an open Boat, and com- 


The Hifiory of Hudforfr Bay. 

mitted to the Mercy of the Waves and Savages. By 
one or the other of which heperifh'd, dearly purcha- 
fing the Honour of having this large Streight and Bay 
caird after his Name. 

We know 'tis pretended, that a Vane made the 
Difcovery of this Streight, and that he cali'd it Chrt- 
plana, from the King of Denmark , Chrifliern the 
IVth. then reigning. But Cap. Hudfon was the Man 
who difcover'd it to the Englifl), and who indeed hrit 
fail'd fo near the Bottom of the Bay, as he did with- 
in a Degree or two. 

The lame Year that he dy'd, Six Thomas Baton, 
at the Inflation of Prince Henry, purfu'd the- lame 
Difcovery. He pafs'd Hudfon\ Streights, and leaving 
Hudforis-Bay to the South, fettled above 200 Leagues 
to the South- Weft, and difcover'd a great Continent, 
by him cali'd New-Wales., He winter d at the Place 
afterwards cali'd Port Nelfon, carefully fearchd all 
the Bay, from him cali'd Buttons-Bay, and return d 
to Digg's Ifland. , „. _ c .,, 

In %ie. Mr. Baffin enter'd Sir Thomas Smiths 
Bay, in 7 3 Degrees, and return'd defpainngto hnd 
any Paffage that way. , 

Thus we fee all the Adventures made to the North 
Weil, were in Hopes of paffingtoOwwj but that 
is a Difcovery as latent as the Philofophers Stone, the 
petual Motion, or the Longitude. 

In i5? 1. Cap. James fail'd to the North-Weir, 
and rovino up and down in thofe Seas, arrivd at 
Charlton flanj, where he winter'd in 52 Degrees 
much beyond Hudfon, Button, and Baffin. Cap. Fox 
went out this Year on the fame Account, but pro. 
ceeded no further than Port Nelfon. , £ 

The Civil Wars in England put Difcovenes out ot 
Mens Head .the Bold had other Work cut out 
■fo the" Tan'd we hear of no more fuch Adventures 
till the Year 1667. when Zachariah Gdlam,m the 
Nonfuch Ketch, pafs'd thro Hudfon's Streights and 
then into Baffin s Bay to 75 Degrees ', and thence 
Southward into 51 Degrees ; where in a R^er, after- 
wards cali'd Prince Rupert's River, he had a friendly 
Correfpondcnce with the Natives, built a Fort, nam d 
it Charles Brt 7 and return'd with Succefc. 


The Hiflory of HudfonV'Bay. 

The Occafion oiGillam's going was this : Monfieur 
Radifon and Monfieur Goofelier, two French-men, 
meeting with fomeSavagesintheLakeof^^/Tzpwwij, 
in Canada, they learnt of them that they might go 
by Land to the Bottom of the Bay, where the Englijb 
had not yet been. Upon which they defir'd them to 
conduct them thither,and the Savages accordingly did 
it. The two Frenchmen return'd to the upper Lake 
the fame way they came, and thence to Quebec > the 
Capital of Canada ; where they oflfer'd the principal 
Merchants to carry Ships to Hudfon's-Bay, but their 
Project was rejected. Thence they went to France, 
in hopes of a more favourable Hearing at Court ; but 
after prefenting feveral Memorials, and fpending a 
great deal of Time and Money, they were anfwer'd 
as they had been at Quebec, and their Project look'd 
upon as Chimerical. The King of England's Ambaf^ 
fador at Paris, hearing what Proposals they had 
made, imagin'd he mould do his Couutry good Ser- 
vice, in engaging them to ferve the Englifi, who had 
already Pretences to the Bay : So he perfwaded them 
to go for London *, where they met with a favourable 
Reception from fome Men of Quality, Merchants, 
and others, who employ'd Giilam before-mention'd, 
a New- England Captain, in the Voyage •, and Radifon 
and Goofelier accompanying, they arriv'd at the Bot- 
tom of the Bay, and fucceeded as we have hinted al- 

When Giilam return'd, the Adventurers concern'd 
in fitting him out, apply'd themfelves toKingCW/« 
the lid. for a Pattent •, who granted one to them and 
their Succeflors, for the Bay call'd Hudfon's-Bay, and 
the Streights call'd Hudfon's-Str eights* The Pattent 
bears Date the 2d. of May, in the 2 2d. Year of that 
. King's Reign, A- D. 1670. 

The firft Proprietors or Company, call'd the Hud- 
fon's-Bay Company, were, 


Prince Rupert. 
Si* James Hayes. 
Mr. William Young. 
Mr. Gerard Weymans, 

Mr. Richard Cradock. 
Mr. John Lett on. 
Chriftopher Wrenn, Efqj 
Mr. Nicholas Hayward. 





The Hifiory o/Hadfon'* Bay. 

The Bay lies from *4 Degrees North Latitude to 
5 t Degrees, and is to Degrees, or 600 Miles in 
Length. . „ 

Before we proceed any further in the Hiltory, 
it will not be improper to give an Account of the 
Country, "Climate, Produft, Trade, and Inhabi- 


The Mouth of the Streights, which is in about tfi 
Decrees North Latitude, is 6 Leagues over. At the 
Mouth is an Ifland, call'd Resolution. Charles 
Ifiand, Salisbury Ifland, and Nottingham, are m the 
Streights, and Mansfield Ifland in the Mouth of the 

^Hudfons Streights, which lead to the Bay, are a- 
bcur 1 20 Leagues in Length ; the Land on both Sides 
inhabited by Savages, of whom we have little or no 
Knowledge. The South Coaft is known by the Name 
of the Tierra Lobar odor, the North by as many 
"Names as Men of feveral Nations have been there, 
and pretended to the Difcovery of it. On the Weft 
Side of the Bay, the Englijh made a Settlement, 
Lilt a Fort at Port Neljbn, and all that Country goes 
by the Name of New South Wales. The Bay here is 
call'd Button's \ and Hudfon's-Bay, which is broad- 
eft in this Place, may be near 130 Leagues 

On the other Shoar, or the Coaft of Labor odor 
lie feveral Iflands, call'd the Sleepers Ifles, and the 
Baker's Dozen. The Bottom of the Bay, by which 
we underftand all that Part of it from Cape Hen- 
rietta Maria, in New South Wales, to Redonda, below 
Prince Rupert's River, is about 80 Leagues long, and 
much of one Breadth all the way, being between 
40 and 50 Leagues over. 

Here are feveral Iflands, to which the tint Ad- 
venturers gave the Names of fom.e Great Men in 
England, or fome that employ 'd them *, as Lord 
Weftons Ifland, Sir Thomas Roe's Ifland, Charlton 
Ifland, and others. The two oppofite Shores are 
call'd the Eafi Main and Wejl Main. The former 
is Labarador, and the latter New South Wales. The 
Continent at the Bottom of the Bay is by Xht French 
pretended to be Part of New-France •, and indeed to 
crofs the Country from St. Margaret's River, which 


The Hiftorj of Hudfon'; Bay. 3 87 

runs into the River of Canada, to Rupert's River, at 
the Bottom of Hudforfs-Bay, is not above 150 

At Rupert's River, the Englijh built their firft 
Fort, which they call Charles Fort. They never had 
any Towns or Plantations here, and probably never 
will. They live within their Forts in little Houfes, 
or Hutts, wherein the Builders confider nothing 
but to defend them from the Cold and Rains, tho 
they are not fo much difturb'd by the latter as by 
the former. 

There's an Ifland about 5 or 6 Leagues from the 
Weft Main, caJPd the Little Rocky lfle, it being a 
meer Heap of Rocks and Stones, with fome fmall 
Brufh-Wood growing upon it. Tis fuppos'd 
to overflow with great North- Weft Winds, 
which make a High-Tide all over the Bay. In this 
Me is plenty of Gulls and Sea Swallows. About 
3 Miles from the South South-Eaft Part of the Ifland, 
lies a dangerous Reaf of Sand, which is dry at Low- 

Charlton Ifland is a light white Sand, cover'd over 
With a white Mofs, full of Trees, Juniper and Spruce, 
tho not very large. This Ifle affords a beautiful Pro- 
fpecl: to fuch as make it in the Spring, after a long 
Voyage of 3 or 4 Months, in the moil: dangerous Seas 
in the World, occalion'd by the vaft Mountains of 
Ice, which drive in the Bay and Streights •, againft 
which, if Ships happen to ftrike, they are dafh'd in 
Pieces as certainly as if they ran againft Rocks : For 
indeed they are Rocks congeal'd, or rather petrify'd 
by the Violence of the continual Frofts. 

To fee one Day the Shoar on the Weft Main bare, 
the Mountains cover'd with Snow, and Nature look- 
ing like a Carcafs frozen to Death \ and the next to 
behold Charlton Ifland fpread with Trees, and the 
Branches making as it were a green Tuft of the whole, 
is a Surprize, that muft give the greater!: Plea- 
fure after the Fatigues of an intollerable Winter 
Voyage. '**- 

The Air even at the Bottom of the Bay, tho by ~" 
the Latitude 'tis nearer the Sun than London, being 
but in % 1 Degrees, is exceffive cold for 9 Months, the 
other three Months very hot, but on a North- Weil 
Wind. C c 2 The jj 


3 8S the Hiftory of HudfonV Bay. 

The Soil on the Eaji Main, as well as the Weft, 
bears no manner of Grain. Some Fruits, Goofe- 
berries, Strawberries, and Dew Otter-berries, grow 
about Prince Rupert's River. 

The Commodities for Trade here, are Guns, 
Powder, Shot, Cloth, Hatchets, Kettles, Tobacco, 
&c. which the EngliJI) exchange with the Indians 
forFurrs, Beavers, Martin, Fox, Moofe, and other 
Peltry , and the Curious, who have any Tafte of 
Commerce, will not think it a Digreffion to infert 
a Standard of Trade, which the Hudfori%-Bay Com- 
pany fix'd about 2 j Years ago-, and by which may 
•be feen what Advantage they made of thisTraffick. 
This Paper being put into my Hands, among o- 
thers relating to the Affairs of the Company, is as 

The STANDARD how the Company s Goods 
muft be barter'd in the Southern Part of the Bay, 

Guns. One with the other i o good Skins ; that is, 

Winter Be aver ; 1 2 Skins for the biggeji 
fort, 1 o for the mean, and S for the 

Powder. A Beaver for half a Pound. 

Shot. A Beaverfor four Pounds. 

Hatchets. A Beaver for a great and little Hatchet. 

Knives. A Be aver for 6 great Knives, or 8 Jack 


Beads. A Beaver for halj a Pound of Beads, 

Lac'd Coats. Six Beavers for one good La&d Coat. 

plain Coats. Five Beaver Skins for one Red Plain Coat. 

Coats. For Women, Lac'd, 2 Tards, 6 Beavers. 

Coats. For Women, Plain, 5 Beavers, 

Tobacco. A Beaver for one Pound. 

Powder- 1 A Beaver for a large Powder-Horn and 

Horns. 5 • two f mall ones. 

Ke ctles. A Beaver for one Pound of Kettle. 

JLooking-Glafies and Combs. Two Skins. 

' Tis plain by this Standard the Company got pro- 
digioufly, and had they traded much, their Au ft ions 
ffl ig ht hav^ been now 3 00 per Cent, as they were once ; 
buf their Returns were (mall, and their Charges 

great : 

The Hiftory of Hudfon'/ Bay. 
great : Ten thoufand Beavers in all their Factories was 
one of the beft Years of Trade they ever had, befide* 
other Peltry. 

As to the Indians, their Manners, Cuftoms, Lan- 
guage, Government, and Religion, they are the fame 
with the Canadans ; and La Hontan has defcrib'd them 
very naturally, excepting that he has rais'd Nature, 
and made her too polite in this barbarous Clime, 
where Barbarity her felf is in the Height of her Em- 

The Indians about Rupert's River, and other Places 
in the Bay, are more fimple than the Canadans, who 
have had longer Commerce with the Europeans. 
They are generally peaceable, and not given to 
quarrel either with themfelves or others, except the 
Nod-ways, a wild barbarous -People on the Borders 
of Hudjons Streights •, who fometimes in flight Par- 
ties make Incurfions on the other Indians, and, ha- 
ying knock'd 8 or i o on the Head, return in Tri- 

The Indians of certain Diftrichs, which are 
bounded by fuch and fuch Rivers, have each an 
Ohmah, as they call him, or Captain over them, who 
is an Old Man, confider'd only for his Prudence and 
Experience. He has no Authority but what they 
think fit to give him upon certain Occafions. He is 
their Speech-maker to the Engli/f?; as alfo in 
their own grave Debates, when they meet every 
Spring and Fall, to fettle the Difpofition of their 
Quarters for Hunting, Fowling, and Fifhing. Eve- 
ry Family have their Boundaries adjufted, which 
they feldom quit, unlefs they have not Succefs there 
in their Hunting, and then they join in with fome 
Family who have fucceeded. 

Their Notions of Religion are but very flender. 
They fay, there are two Manetoes or Spirits, the one 
fends all the Good things they have, and the other 
all the bad. Their Worfhip confifts in Songs and 
Dances at their Feafts, in Honour of the Manetoes 
that have favour'd them : But if they are fick 
or famifh'd, they hang fome little Bawble, which 
they fet a Value upon, on the Top of a Pole, 
- near their Tent, to pacify the Spirit offended, as 
they conceive. 

C c 3 Let 







390 Tk Hiftory <?f Hudfon'i Bay. 

Let the Learned fay all the fine Things that Wit, 
Eloquence, and Art, can infpire them with, of the 
Simplicity of pure Nature, the Beauty and Inno- 
tence •, thefe Wretches are an Inftance, that this In- 
nocence is downright Stupidity, and this pretended 
Beauty a Deformity, which puts Man, the Lord of 
the Creation, on an equal Foot with the Beafts of the 

The Hiftory of Hudfon's Bay will not afford us 

much Matter. The Settlements are too inconfide- 

rable, to deferve much Pains to be taken about 

them. What we know of them is as follows. 

Charles In the Year 16-70. the Company fent over Charles 

Baily,Effi Baily r Efq-, Governour : With whom went Mr. 

'tSovewour Radijon^ the Frenchman before- mention'd, and 10 

or 20 Men, who were to ftay on the Place *, hisjite- 

fidence being at Rupert River, w r here a mean Fort has 

been built. 

Mx.Baily appointed Mr. Thomas Gorjl to be his Secre- 
tary, and order'd him to keep a Journal of their Pro- 
ceedings there, which is now in my Cullody^ but the 
Events it contains are too trivial to be remember'd : 
what are nioft curious I ihall report *, and the Rea- 
der muft excufe me, if they are of no more Impor- 
tance : They ferve to give him an Idea of an 
Infant Colony, in one of the rudeft Parts of the 

The chief Indian near the Fort had the Name of 
Prince given him. Two other Indians were call'd 
fete r and the Chanpellour •, who with their Wives 
and Families came to the Governour, to beg Subfi- 
ilance, declaring they could kill nothing, and were 
almoft ftarv'd. For if thefe Barbarians could meet 
With no Game, they had no Meat. 

Thus we fee in what a miferable Condition thefe 
Engliih there were like to' be, if Supplies did not 
come regularly from England. Mr. Baily having fed 
the Prince, theChancellour, his Cocamijjj, or Wife, 
and the reft of them, fent them up the Falls a Mining, 
and foliow'd them in his fanoo, to hunt up in the 
Country, but could meet with no Game, ex~ 
eept 2 Moofe, "and no People to trade with. 
thefe Moofe are but indifferent Meat •, howe- 
-i \. scr the Air is fharp, to make it relilh as well 
' ' "'" ' '•- • ; • • • ^ 

The Hifiory of HudfonVBay. 

as Venifon, and 'twas accordingly very Well- 
come Days afterwards the Indians return'd. The 
Prince brought a young Deer : The Chancellour 
and his Wife fome FifVand Moofe. Jhejeateft 
Part of the Autumn Fowl here, are Geefe, of w hich 
there's then Plenty, and they begin to come about 
the Beginning of September, a Jure fign that the \ eo- 
ple muft take their Leave of Summer, and piepare 
for a long Winter of near forty Weeks. 

The Englifh had now worfe Hu«s than afterwards, 
and no Covering for them but Moofe Skins. There 
was at this time a Faftory at Port Nelfon, where 
Captain Goofelier arriv'd in Augvfti i$7* .W 
fearch'd the River for Indians, but met with toft 
He faw feveral Wigwams, where they had lately been 
and fuppos'd them to be gone up the Country. He 
fawalfo the Relias of Sir Thomas Batons Ship and 
o™ of his Company, Mr. Cole, brought home a 
ptece of Shot, a piece of her Bulk-head, andafmall 
£!ece of Cable, which had lain there about *, 

YC This Captain was order'd to fearch for Severn 
Riverfbut could not find it, tho 'twas in the old 

^JS^^tfe of 0^ : r^O^^ 
way to the Southward i a terrible S,ght to the poor 
Europeans in the Bay ; for by *at they know he 
hard Weather is approaching, and begin to provide 
Wood for Winter before the Snow tails. 

Now Mr. Baity and his little Colony ell to patch 
ing up their Cabbins, and prepare for the Enemy , 
anl fiey had nothing to fear but the Seafon He 
fat Sloop to Taint Comfort, between Rpr ^J 
and CharlL Mand, to kill Seals, , tc -make Oil for 
their Lamps, they havang no Candles, and the 

N KS of omer the Ice begins to con- 
g ea A lt the Sho"-s , but often warm Wether « 

yer was frozen over. About 





$92 The Hiftory of HudfonV Bay. 

About the middle of the Month Partridges come, 
of which they kill'd 5, as white as Snow. The Eng- 
lifh that were there, diverted themfelves, while the 
Weather permitted, with killing Partridges*, but 
truly there feems not to have been much Plenty of 
them, for four Men, in a Weeks time, kill'd but 
3 6. They Fowl'd for them about Peter's River, and 
Frenchmam River , the one above, and the other 
below Ruperts. But in December and January the 
Frefts were fo fevere, they could not ftay out. The 
Governour's Boys Feet and Face were fpoil'd by the 
Froft, in catching cf Partridges. 

The Snows in the Woods, when at the deepeft, 
are 7 or 8 Foot *, fometimes they do not exceed 4. 
Foot, as in the Year 1673. and then leaft Moofe is 
to be had- The '25 th of January, 3 Indians brought 
Beaver to the Fort, and a little frefh Meat. They 
reported, that as they paft Moofe River, about 10 
Days Journey from Rupert's, they faw fome dead 
Bodies of Indians, which they fuppos'd to be Onacha- 
noes, moft of that Nation being deftroy'd by the 
J^odroayes, who were then about Moofe River ; and, 
as they threaten'd, intended to vifit the Englifh in the 
Spring -, they were accordingly as good as their 
Words. The 1 ft of February there was fuch a Change of 
Weather, that it rather thaw'd than froze. The En- 
glim with living on Salt-Meats, were all down with 
til® Scurvy in this Month : For tho they Continu'd to 
catch Partridges, there were fo few caught-, they 
went but a very little way among them. 

Several Indians came in March, and built their Wig- 
wams at the Eaft End of the Fort, intending to ftay 
there all Winter, that they might be ready for Trade 
in the Spring. The Nation that took up their Quar- 
ters near the Fort were the Cufcididahs ; and the King 
( tent Mr. Baily word, he would come to him fpeedily; 
The Governour on the 23d of March, accompany'd 
by John 'Abraham, andothen, traveird on the Ice to 
Point Comfort, where were fome Indian Tents, to 
bay what frefh dry'd Meat he could ; the Store at the 
Fort being almoft fpent. ' '"'■ 

'■■ About the 20th of March it began to thaw, and 
the Nodwayes Mill threatning the Englifh with War, 
the Governour prepar'd every thing neceflary in the 
. "•* '" ' - Fort 

The Hiflory of Hudforf* Bay. 393 

Fort for his Defence. On the 25th of March, g 
Men, asAmbaffadors, came from King Cufcudtdah, 
to notify his Approach, and that he would beat the 
ForthextDayj which he made good, and was trou- 
bled that the Governour was ablent. He brought a 
Retinue with him, but little Beaver, the Indians 
having fent their beft to Canada. 

The Englifli at the Tort flood on their Guard, and 
Mr.Cole commanded them in the Governour s Ab- 
fence : for whom the King fent 2 Indians. And the 
31ft of March, the Governour return'd, with a 
(mail Supply of Moofe Flefh. On the x^di April, 
the Geefe, the Promife of the Spring, begin to 
return again, and prodigious Quantities were 

All this while the Indian King ftay'd at the Wig- 
wams, near the Fort •, and the reafon of it was, 
They were apprehenfive of being attack'd by fome 
Indians, whom the French Jefuits had animated a- 
gainft the Englifh, and all that dealt with them. 
The French us'd many Artifices to hinder the Na- 
tives trading with the Englifli', they gave them 
great Rates for their Goods, and oblig'd Mr. Baily 
to lower the Prices of his, to oblige the Indians, who 
dwelt about Moofe River, with whom they drove 
the greateft Trade. 

The French, to ruin their Commerce with the 
Natives, came and made a Settlement, not above 8 
Days Journey up that River, from the Place where 
the Englifh traded. 'Twas therefore debated, whe- 
ther the Company's Agents mould not remove from 
Rupert's to Moofe River,, to prevent their Traffick 
being intercepted by the French. 

On the 3d of ^p™'/, i<?7+- a Council of the princi- 
pal Perfons in the Fort was held, where Mr. Baily, 
the Governour, Capt. Goofelier, and Capt. Cole, 
were prefent, and gave their feveral Opinions. The 
Governour inclin'd to rerribve. Capt. Cole wasa- 
gainft it, a? dangerous ; and Capt. Goofelier for going 
thither in their Bark to trade, when the Indians be- 
longinp to King Cvfcudidah were gone a hunting, 
and there was no fear of die Fort's being fur- 

Thi : : 





The Hifiory of Hudfoa'jf Bay. 

The Indians went to building their Wigwams near 
the Fort, and rais'd their Waufcohelgein } or Fort, fo 
near the Englifh, that the Palifadoes join'd. One 
of.-thofe Barbarians being jealous of his Wife, and ■ 
finding her in the Fort, pulPd out a Hatchet, which 
he had hidden under his Coat, and gave her a defpe- 
rate Wound in the Head •, but fhedid not die of it. 
The Indian fearing the Governour wou'd punifh 
him for linking in the Fort, fled to the Woods. 
Upon which Mr. Bally order'd that no Indian, but 
King Cvfcudidah, and his chief Courtiers, fhould be 
admitted into the Fort, and a Watch was fet upon 
the Gate. 

As the Ice grew rotten and melted, the Indians 
who ventur'd on the Rivers fell frequently in •, but 
they all fwam like Ducks, and feldom or never were 
any of them drown'd- The great Thaw began a- 
bout the 2othof jipril, and then all the Englifh ha- 
ving fpent their Beer, and Winter-Liquor, return'd 
to drinking of Water. 

Geefe and Swans were now to be had, and that 
fupply'd in fome meafure their Want of Provifion. 
The Governour having been cheated by the Indians 
at Point Comfort^ in his Moofe Flefa went thither, 
and oblig'd them to make Satisfaction. 

On the 20th of May, 12 Indians, Subjects to King 
Cufcudidah, came in feven Canoos, and the King 
meeting them, conducted them to the Fort, where 
they told him, there would be few or no Vpland In- 
dians come to trade that Seafon, the French having 
perfwaded them to come to Canada : However Mr. 
Baily order'd the Sloop to be got ready, and refolv'd 
to go up the River. 

Upon the Arrival of this new Company, among 
whom was the King s Brother, a Feaft was made j 
the Manner of which was this ', They all fat down to- 

§ ether, and one Man, a Kinfman of the King's, 
roke the Meat and Fat in fmall Pieces, according to 
the Number oi Men there. After a fhort Speech 
made by the King, the Subftance of which was, for 
them to take Courage againft their Enemies, and ci- 
ther Stories. The Company fhouted, and then the 
Man who broke, diftributed the Meat about to 
them, they crying, Oh! Ho! as much as to fay, / 


The Htfory o/Hudfon'j Bay. 395 

thank you. Tis (incredible, to tell the Abundance 
of fat Beaver, Moofe Flefh and Fat they eat to- 
gether with the Broath, and Fat as black as Ink. 
which they drink. Then every Man had a fmall 
Piece of Tobacco diftributed to him, and they aU 
fell to Smoaking. Some afterwards dancd, ioriie 
fang, and a Man beat a Drum, which was a Skn 
put over a Kettle, and lac'd a-thwart. They conti- 
nue this commonly all Night, and when they go 
home, carry; what Meat is left to their Sqwaws, it 
being very rare for them to admit the Women to 

their Feafts. ?'u „, . ,tt- 

On the 22d of May, the Indians at their Wig- 
warns, near the Fort, had a Powwow, or rfort oV Lon- 
iurina; which is thus, There's a fmall Tower built, 
m&Wytb Sticks, about 8 Foot high, the Top being 
open l but the reft cover'd very clofe with Skins, 
tfiat none may fee into it. In the Night, the Man 
that Powwows goes into the Tower *, the reft (it nigh 
it, and in their Places ask him feveral Q^^ ons * 
which in a manner they know already ; as, When 
any Strangers will be here? The Powwower gueites 
at the time, and anfwers accordingly. The Maneto, 
or their God, told them, the Nodways ^would come 
down upon them e'relong, and advisdthem to be 
upon their Guard, as alfo againft the Mifrgoojes, or 

They Powwow often, and upon feveral Occafions. 
If it happens not as they expefted itwould, then the 
Maneto is Muchocauwan, or very bad •, and it it talis 
out to their Defires, then Maneto is Moruchfice, or 
good. When they kill a Moofe, their Maneto is 
White and Good. When they kill none, then he is 
Black and Naught. They Powwow very much when 
they celebrate any Marriages. Every Man has com- 
monly two Wives, whom they keep in great Subje- 
aion, and make 'em do all Slavery •, as draw Sledds^ 
cut Wood, make Fires, and drefs Moofe Hides. The 
Men only hunt, and kill the Game : The Women 
fetch the Beaft that is kill'd, and take Care to pre- 
ferve the Flefh, a r. ,.« 

' The next Day the Governour, and fome Engli.h 
and Indians arm'd, went down to the Bottom or the 
Bay, to Frenchmen* River, tofeekfor the Nodways? 
$mt could meet wifh npne. M 

• to 


$96 The Hiftory of HudfonV Bay. 

At the latter end of May the Geefe go to the North- 
ward, to breed. On the 27th, about 50 Men, Wo- 
men and Children, came in 22 Canoos, to trade, 
but brought little or no Beaver with them. They 
were of the Nation call'd Pijhhapocanoes, near a-kin 
to the Eskeimoes, and both alike a poor beggarly 
People : By which we may perceive the French ran 
away with the beft of the Trade. 

The Governour having got every thing ready for 
a Voyage to Moofe River, fent Capt. Goofelier, Capt. 
Cole, Mr. Gorfi, my Author, and other Englifh In- 
dians, to trade there. They got about 250 Skins j 
and the Captain of the Tabittee Indians inform'd 
them, the French Jefuits had not brib'd the Indians, 
not to deal with the Englifh, but to live in Friendfhip 
with the Indian Nations in League with the French. 
He blam'd the Englifh for trading with fuch pitiful 
Nations, as the Cvfcudidahs and Pijbhapocanoes, advifmg 
them to fettle at Moofe Sebee, and the Vpland Indians 
would come down and trade with them. The Rea- 
fon they got no more Peltry now, was, becaufe the 
Indians thought Goofelier was too hard for them, and 
few would come down to deal with him . 

My Author, in this Voyage, paft by Robinfon 
Ifland, Willow Ifland, and faw feveral White Whales. 
The Musketoes are extreamly troublefbme in May 
and June, efpecially after Rains. The Nodways 
cpniing down within a Quarter of a Mile of the Fort, 
the Alarm was given the Englifh and Indians :, but the 
Enemy were afraid to come farther -, and Mr. Baily 
with 2 Party of both, purfu'd them in their Retreat, 
but could not come near enough to do any Execution. 

This Fright being over, Mr. Baily fail'd hitafelf 
for Moofe Sebee, and brought home 1500 Skins } 
the ShechittawamSj 50 Leagues from that Rive*, 
having come to trade with him. By the 24th of 
June al! th<s Indians had left their Wigwams near 
the Fort, and were gone abroad to hunt and trade, 
fome with the Englifh, and fome by themfelves. 

The Governour undertook a Voyage to difcover 
Shechhtawam River ', and thence intended to coaft a- 
long to Port Nelfon, where as yet was no Fort. In 
the mean time Mr. Gorfi, who was left Deputy at 
tke Fort, fent a Yaul, and four Men well arm'd, 


J ( 

The Hiftory of Hudfojft Bay. 397 

up the Nodrvays River, which, as high as they could 
go for the Falls, was 5 Miles broad, full of fmali 
Inlands and Rocks •, in which Geefe breed. 

By the Beginning of Augufi, the Englifh that re- 
main'd at the Fort had almofl fpent all their Provifi- 
ons, their Powder and Shot, and began to be in 
mortal dread of ftarvi'ng. They kill'd Ducks, Teal, 
and Plover, and fomeofthem were always out, for 
their Lives depended upon it. 

After abot't 2 Months Voyage, Mr. ^i/yreturn'd, 
and gave this Account of his Voyage in the Sloop. 
On the 1 * th of July he fail'd from Moofe River, 
and arriv'd at Schettawam River on the 18 th, where 
no Englishman had been before. He ftay'd there 
till the 2ift,\but could meet with little or no 

Tis a fine River, and a good Channel, - to the 
N. W. in 52 Deg. N. L. He treated with the King, 
and his Son made them a Promife to come with a 
Ship and t rade with them the next Year. In return, 
they afiur'd him, they would provide Store of Bea- 
ver, and bring the Upland Indians down. 

The 21ft he fet fail towards Cape Henrietta Maria, 
and faw a great Ifland, flretching N. N. W. and S.S. 
E. diftant about 14 Leagues from the Mouth of 
Shechittawam River. The Ifland being two Days Jour- 
ney in Circumference, Indian Padling, which they 
account to be 30 Leagues^ 'twas nam'd Finer s 
Ifland. ; ;■■■'■_ 

The 23d, upon a Point, as he and his Crew were 
failing along Shore, they fpy'da great Smoak :, they 
flood in for it, and found 7 diftrefs'd Indians there. 
, This Point lay in 52 Deg. 40 Min. The Governour 
took them in, and gave them PafTage to a fmall Ri- 
ver, call'd Equon, 100 Leagues to the Southward of 
it j where they faw the Bodies of fome Indians dead 
on the Ground. There had been a great Mortality 
among them, and feveral were ftarv'd to Death for 
want of Food :, this Country being fuch a miferable 
Wildernefs, that it affords not fufficient Suftenance 
for the wretched Inhabitants. 

On the 27th of July, the Sloop ran upon Ice, and 
had like to have founder'd. Their Pilot was a Wa- 
Jhalwi or New Severn Indian, and 'twas reported, 





3 98 The Hiftory of Hud fori'* Bay. 

that he had two Rows of Teeth :, bat he hated fo 
much to fee the Compafs, that he was very trouble- 
fome to the Crew ', fo the Governour order'd him to 
be put alhore. 

The Indians on New Severn River are as poor as 
the Eiskemoes •, and indeed all the Northward Indians 
are more beggarly and brutal than the Southward. 
The Governour underftanding by fome Wafhahoe 
Indians, there was no Beaver to be had, and that 
the Sea beyond the Cape was full of Ice, refolv'd to 
return, neither he nor his Company having eaten any 
thing in two Days, but a few fodden Peafe and Oat- 

In their Return they were forc'd a-fhore upon 
Charlton Ifland, where they lay 2 or 3 Days in Di- 
flrefs, and at laft got off, with the lofs of feveral 
Neceffaries. After he had return'd to the Fort, on 
the 30th of Augvfi^ a Canoo arriv'd at Rupert's Ri- 
ver, with a Miffionary Jefuit, a Frenchman, born 
of Englifh Parents, attended by one of Cvfcudidab's 
Family, a young Indian. The Frier brought a Let- 
ter to Mr. Baily from the Governour of Quebec^ 
dated the sth ofOttober, 1673. For the Prieftfhould 
have been at Rupert's River feveral Months before, 
but that he was ftop'd by the Indians. The Gover- 
nour of Quebec defir'd Mr. Baily to treat the Jefuit 
civilly, on account of the great Amity between the 
two Crowns \ and Mr. Bally refolv'd to keep the Je- 
fuit till Ships came from England. 

He brought a Letter alfo for Capt. Goofelier, which 
gave Jealoufy to the Englifh of his correfponding 
with the French} his Son-in-law liv'd at Quebec, 
and had accompany 'd the Prieft part of his^Way, 
with 3 other Frenchmen, who being afraid to ven- 
ture far among ftrange Indians, return'd. 

The Tabittee Indians being within the Hudfon'sBay 
Company's Pattent, 'twas an Encroachment for the 
French to trade with them :, the Jefuit confefs'd they 
did it. Mr. ^//ycloath'd him, the Indians having 
rob'd him •, and entertain'd him with great Kind- 
nefs. The Prieft refolving to return to Europe in an 
Englifh Ship, did not like another Journey of 40a 
Miles Length, thro'" many barbarous Nations, over 
Land, and a Country almoft impafTable. 


TbeBftory of HudfonVBay. 

The Englifti were frequently allarnVd with Reports 
oflncurtos from thtNodwys and Moofe R^n ; 
d ans, whofe Quarrel with to, was their felling 
e^ The Governour, to prevent being far- 
•Driz'd order'd all their Merchandize to be put a- 
Eoard a Bark that was left with them and I went to 
61h and fowl at Peter's River-, but got little Fowl, 
and their Fiihing-Tackle began to want Supplies 
'Twas now the nth of September and fo long had 
thefe poor Men liv'd in this Defart holding a preca- 
rious Being by their Guns and Fifmng Tackle. 
Their Patifnce was at laft fpent, and the Governour 
declar'd, if he did not hear from England m 3 Days 
time, he would return home aboard the betore- 
tnention'd Bark. c . 

On the 1 7th they were all to depart for Pomt 
Comfort, to ftay there till the 2 2d, and then make 
the beft of their Way for England For later 
than the lit of September, no Ships had ever arriv d : 
All the Flower and Bread they had left, did not 
make above 300 Pound They had but 2 Barrels of 
eood Peafe, and 3° Geefe in Pickle, to virtual their 
Bark with for their Voyage •, and having but a very 
little Powder in the Store-houfe, they defpair d ot 
killing much more Game. 

In this deplorable Condition were they when the 
Tefuit, Capt. Goofelier, and another Papift, walking 
downwards to the Sea-fide, at their Devotion, heard 
7 great Guns fire diftinftly. They came home in a 
Tranfport of Joy, told their Companions the News, 
and aflur'd them 'twas true. Upon which they hr d 
3 great Guns from the Fort, to return the Salute, 
tho they could ill fpare the Powder upon fuch an. 
Uncertainty. . , 

Next Day an Indian came, and gave them notice, 
that he had heard great Guns laft Night at Attifm- 
vem, or Point Comfort. Their Sloop was then at the 
Point, and they expefted every Minute to have 
the News confirm'd. ,',■'%*. -w, 

One may imagine with what Impatience they 
waited. The Day was well nigh fpent, and no Sloop 
come, which threw them all into Defpair. In 
the Evening the Sloop appear'd in the River, but 
having no Enfign out, they concluded they were :aU 




400 The Hijiory of Hadfon'j Bay. 

loft Men^ and in this Extremity of Sorrow, they 

were foon reviv'd by the Sight of 5 Englifhmen, 

whom they had not feen before, and from whom 

they underftood, the Prince Rupert, Capt. Gillam 

Commander, was arriv'd, with the new Gover- 

nour, William Lyddal, Efq} 

Wil. Lyd- The next Day the old Governour, and Mr. Gorfl, 

dal Efq; fail'd for Point Comfort, where the Shaft sbury, Capt. 

Governour Shepherd Commander, arriv'd alfo from England* 

And the new Governour's Commiffion and Inftru- 

fifcigns being read, all Hands fet to work, to refit and 

load the Ships home as foon aspoffible. 

On the 1 8 th of September Mr. Lyddal landed, and 
took PofTeffion of the Fort, the Colours flying, and 
Guns firing, to falute him. Mr. Baily deliver'd him 
the Pattent, and after that he was no more call'd Go- 
vernour. Mr. Lyddal finding the Seafon would be fo 
far fpent, before the Ships could be unloaden and loa- 
den again, that it would be impracticable to return \ 
after feveral Councils, 'twas refolv'd, they mould 
Winter at Rupert's River*, and Capt. Gillam, and 
Capt. Shepherd's Ships Crews were employ'd to cut 
Timber, to build Houfes for them, asalfoaBrew- 
houfe and Bake-houfe in the Fort. 

The Provifions they brought, fell very fhortof 
the Complement of Men that were to be fed by them. 
They had 30 Men to feed in the Fort, and in the 
Houfes*, and but 10 Months Bread for them, at 
5 Pound of Flower a Head weekly, which was not e- 
nough to laft them all the Winter at Land, and 
vidua! their Ships too. Mr.GorJl, who was their 
Store-keeper,, foon brought them to fhort Allowance, 
to husband their Store , but the Men murmur'd j 
and Mr. Lyddal order'd they fhould have full Al- 
lowance, laving, If we ftdrve, we'll jiarve altoge- 

By this means they were redue'd to great 
Streights, and fore'd to pinch harder than they 
needed have done, had they b^Qn good Husbands of 
their Bread at firft. 

Such was the State of this Infant Settlement, and 
' it has not mended much fince:, for Want and Cold 
have every Yesi endanger'd the Lives of all that have 
been there. 


The Hiftorj 0/ Hudfoirt Bay. 

Before we proceed in our Hiftory, we fhall com- 
municate to the Reader a fmall Dictionary of the 
Language of the Indians at the Bottom of the Bay, 
which is like the reft diftinguilh'd by feveral Dialects, 
but this is the Cufcudidah's. 


Arakana, Bread. 
Aftam, Come hither. 
Aflinne, Shot. 
Apit, a Fire-Steel. 
Arremitogify, to fpeak. 
A Notch, prefently. 
Chickahigon, a Hatchet. 
Eskon, a Chiffel. 
Mamtowghigin, a Red- 
Metus, Stockings. 
Mokeman, Knives, 

Mekifo, Beads. 
Mouftodawbijb, a Flint. 
No mun-nifs e to ta, I do 

not underftand you. 
Owma. this. 

Pijbjhifi, a little thing. 

Pajiofigon, a Gun. 

Pifiofigon a hijh\ a Piftol. 

Pihickeman , a Tack- 

Petta a Jhum. e. give me 
a Piece. 

Pe quijh a con Gau Mowon 9 
I eat fome Pudding. 

Spog. m, a Pipe. 

Sterna, i, Tobacco. 

Soth. im. m. Red-Lead. 

Shekahoon, a Comb. 

Taney, Where. 

Tinefmec. ifo, what do yoa 
call this ? 


Tapoy, that true. 

What do you' 

Tho,with this, I muft leave my Journal ; from other 
good Memoirs, I fhall continue the Hiftory to the 

Mr. Baity, who had very well difcharg'd his Truft, 
returning to England, inform'd the Company fully 
of their Affairs •, and now as they advanc'd in Repu- 
tation, fo they were irtduftrious to encreafe their 
Trade and Settlements. They appointed a Trader 
to act under the Governour and Chiefs of the Fa- 
ctories, at other Rivers, according as they were fet- 

Port Nelfon was the next Settlement which they 
made, and thither, they fent John Bridger, Efqj with 
the Character of Governour for the Hudfon's-Bay 
Company of the Weft Main, from Cape Henrietta 
Maria, which was included in the Governour of the 
JBafi Mains Pattent. 

Dd Mr. 



Efq\ Go- 

Efq; Co 

The Hifiorj of Huron's Bay. 

Mr. Lyddal was fucceeded by John Nixon, Efq^ 
in whofc time the Company thought of removing 
their chief Factory from Ruperts River to Chickevoan 
River, as the Place moft reforted to by the In- 

Charlton Tflafid was now frequented by the Ships 
bound to Hudfons-Bay, and made the Place of Ren- 
dezvous for all the Factors to Ibring their Mer- 
chandife to, and load it there aboard the Compa- 
ny's Ship. 

In iht Year 1582. Mr. Bridger embark'd for Port 
Nelfon, where a Factory was to be eftablifh'd, and 
a Fort built , but before he arriv'd, Cap. Benjamin 

vernour of Giliam, Matter of a New-England Ship, ami- Son of 

Fort Nel- Cap. Giliam, Commander of the Prince Rupert, then 

&n. in the Company's Service, fettled at that Factory •, 

but had not been there above 14 Days, before Mr. 

Radiffon and Cap. Goofelier, who had deferted the 

A Fnglifl), arriv'd from Canada. 

The Company having difmifs'd them their Ser- 
. vice, thefe two. French- men in Revenge procur'd fome 
Merchants of 'Canada to undertake a Settlement there. 
Giliam was not ftrong enough to repel them, but 
he remain'dat Port Neljon, where 10 Days after 
Radiffon and Goofelic/s Arrival, came Mr. Bridger, 
The French no fooner perceiv'd he was come, but 
they, fent aboard his Ship immediately, and com- 
manded him to be gone, for that Mr. Raddifon and 
Cap. Goofelier had taken PofTeffion of the Place for 
. -, the French King their Mafter. 

Mr. Bridger, being warranted fo to do by the 
Company's Commiflion, unloaded fome of his Goods, 
and with all Hands went to Work, in order to make 
a Settlement. 

Raddifon continu'd at Port Nelfon * 7 and Mv.Bridger 
and he became very intimate : "Which Intimacy lafted 
from 0&cber 1 i6§2. to^the February following, when 
Raddifon ieiz'd Bridger and Giliam, with all their 
People and EfTecls. 

Having kept them lome Months in a fort of 
Imprifonment, about Augvfi the French put feveral 
of the Company's and Gillam's People aboard a rotten 
Bark, and they were taken up by an Evglifl) Ship near 
Cape Hem kttaMaria. Bridger and Giliam they carry d 


The Hipry of Kudfotff Bay. 4^1 

with them to Canada, where Radeon and Goofelier 
ran fotne of their Cargo afhoar, intending to defraud 
their* Employers. . , .^';v 

After which they made their Efcape, and got into 
Frn^. The Company having Notice of it, wn to^*/<» 
M, and he to the Company, promifing, it they 
would forgive the Injury he had done them, and 
employ him again, at fuch a Sallary, ^ won d un- 
dertake to deliver the French, whom he had left there 
till he came again, to them, and feize all the turrs 
they had traded for, which would make tnem Satis- 
faction for the Wrongs he had done them. Accord- - 
ingly they forgave him, .employ'd him again, and 
he took Port Nelfon from his Country-men. But 
before his Arrival Cap. John Abraham had been there j ohn &. 
with Supplies, of •, and finding Mr. Bridger braham, 
was cone, he ftay'd himfelf, and was contmudGo- j?fo a+ 
vernour bv the Company, in i<f 8+. r l ern °Z Y 

rthepVeCedingYear, Mr. Nix** Governourof^* Nel, 
Rupert River, was recall'd, and Hep Sergeant £ • 
E<& made Governour. By whofe Inftruftions we f J 
find the chief Faftory was remov'd from Ruperts to £/ & Go _ 
Moofe-Sebee, or Chicle-wan River, which has ever ince vgrMMr ^ 
been call'd ^fc«y River •, where a Fort was built, a Albanv ; 
Fa&ory fettled, and the Governour made it the 1 ace ^ ve r p 
of his Refidence. Tis at the Bottom of the Bay, below 
Rupert's, River. He Was order 'd to come every Spring, 
as Toon as the Trade was over, to Cmrlton Ifland, „ 
and bring what Goods he had with him, to wait, 
for the Arrival of the Company's Ships : From 
thence he was to vifit the other Fa&ones, and fee 
that their Merchandife was fent in due time to Charl- 
ton Ifland, to attend the Ships Arrival. _ . . 

The Governour of Canada having given the Hud- ^ 
fon's-Bay Company to underftand the French were 
very much offended at their Difcoveries m thefe 
Parts, Mr. Sergeant was order'd to be carerul that he 
was not furpriz'd by them. 

There is an Ifland in the Bottom of the Bay, call d 
Hay's Ifland, where a Faftory had been iettied 
This Ifle and Rupert's River were near the French, Al- 
bany being more to the Southward ', and of the te 
Factories the Company were moftapprehen five that 
their Enemies would endeavour to difpoflels them. 

Da 2 >Yf 


The Hi (lory of Hudfon'i Bay. 

We perceive by thefe Inftructions, that their Ser- 
vants in the Bay had been very unfaithful to them, 
and Interlopers invaded their Privileges. They ap- 
pointed Mr= Hugh Verner to be chief at Rupert's River, 
and Mr. George Geyer and Mr. Thomas Savage to be 
chief Managers at the Jfinglaft River, which had been 
lately difcover'd •, and there were great Expectations 
of a mighty Advantage to the Company by that 
Difcovery, but it came to nothing, tho there Was 
a Factory fettled there, in' order to promote 

The Company intended to plant a Colony at 
Charlton I (land, and order 'd Mr. Sergeant to- build a 
Fort there, and always keep fome Men upon it. 
Warehoufes were alfo built to receive the Furs that 
were brought thither from the Factories, and Con- 
veniences were made for the Reception of fuch as 
were oblig'd to winter there. The Company al- 
ways enjoyn'd their Governours to endeavour t© 
fave the great Charge they were at in fending con- 
ftant Supplies of Provisions, by planting Corn and 
other Grain there. But alas! Tho the I Climate by 
its Diftance from the Sun, mould be as warm as ours j 
yet for Reafons, which the Naturalifts will eafily give 
us, 'tis fo cold and frofty, that it- kills almoft all forts 
of Roots in the Ground which are fown there } and 
thofe Plantations, fo often recommended by the Com- 
pany, were chimerical and impracticable. 

Orders were alfo given to difmifs Cap. Gillam their 
Service, for his Sons Offences •, and Cap. Sandford 
had the fame Ufage, on Account of his Relation to 
the Gillamh •, for there's nothing fo terrible to a Mo- 
nopolizer, as an Interloper. Cap. William Bond^ who 
had been under Mr. Baily^ wa: Tent for home ^ and 
other Regulations made in the Management of Af- 
fairs : But all could not hinder the Ruin of them all 
by thQ Enemy. 

The Company, by their Governours and Agents, 
made fuch Compacts with the 2i ptains or Kings of 
the Rivers and Ferritorics where they had Settle- 
ments, for the Freedom of Trade there, exclusive of 
all others, that the Indians \could not pretend they 
had encroached upon them. Thele Compacts were 
reniier'd as firm as the Indians could make them, by 
' " . ■ ftch 

The Hipry of HudfonV Bay. 4 °.S 

fuch Ceremonies as were moft facred and obligatory 
among them. 

Now were the Company in PoiTeffion of five Set- 
tlements, viz- Albany River, Hayes IfUnd, Rvpert 
River, Port Net/on, and New Severn. Their i rade 
at each of them was confidence. From Albany Ri- 
ver they had generally 35°° Beavers a Year •, and by 
Mr. Sergeant's, great's Care and Fidelity, their Com- 
merce encreas'd fo much, that the French Tjegan to 
be afraid all the Vpland Indians might be arawn 
down to the Bay. They knew they could do any 
thine with King James IL who then reign'd in 
England, and that no AffromSvould make that Prince 
break within the XlVth. Wherefore they reiolv'd 
to drive the Englijb out of all their Places in the Bot- 
tom of the Bay. Firft, they took Hayes Ifland, and then 
the Fort on Rupert's River. 1 he French Company at 
Canada orocur'd a'Detatchment of Soldiers to be fent 
# under the Chevalier de Troyes -, who came overhand 
from Quebec, and in a time of profound Peace com- 
mittedthefe Afts of Koftility. 

Tis worth obferving that xheFrench have fo good an 
Opinion of their American Colon ies,as to take not only 
all lawful, but even unlawful Means to preferve and 
enlarge them, as contemptible as they are in them- 
felves^ whereas the Englifh, who, next the Span! ards, 
have the richeft Plantations in that Part of theWorld, 
have been as negligent of them as if they were not 
worth keeping. 

The 8th of July j usis the Chevalier de Troyes 
came before the Fort at A ' \ River-, where the 
Governour, Mr. Sergeant, th ided. Two In- 
dians hud inform 'd him of their having furpnzd the 
Forts at Hayes Ifland, and Rupert River, and had 
brought .with them the great Guns from tho.e 


Two Hours after, the Englijh heard them difcharge 
their Guns, and faw fome of them at ? Diftance. 

Upon which part of the Company's Servants de- 
clarVLthey would not ventifre their Lives unlefs tney 
might be aiTur'd of Pay, and fent John Parfons and 
John Garret, two of their Number, in all their 
Names, to the Governors, to tell him their Re< 


The Hiftory of HudfonV Bay. 

folutions. Mr. Sergeant^ by Promifes, and giving 
them Cloaths, and other NeceflTaries, prevail'd with 
them to return to their Charge. But in a Day 
or two they mutiny 'd again, and Elias Turner the 
Gunner, pofTefs'd the People with an Apprehenfion, 
that it was impoftible to hold out the Place •, de- 
claring, that for his Part he would throw himfelf on 
the French. Accordingly he went to the Governour, 
and defird Leave fo to do j'but being threatned to 
be fhot to Death, in cafe he attempted it, he was 
at laft perfwaded to return to his Poft. 

The EngliJJ) fhot at the French as long as they 
appear'd in the Brujlies, and fore'd them to 
retire under the Banks, where the Guns from the 
Fort could not hit them. The French- fhot only at 
the Englijb with fmall Shot, as any of them ap- 
pear'd upon the Flankers. When they had retir'd 
under the Banks, they kt to work to entrench them- 
felves, and caft up a great Bank of Earth, which 
cover'd them fo, that the Englijb could do no Execu- 
tion upon them. 

The Governour all this while imagin'd, the Ene- 
my was only raifing a Bank to fecure themfelves 
from the Shot of the Fort : But afterwards he per- 
ceiv'd they were preparing a Battery, and then he 
commanded the Guns of the Fort to fire upon, 
them incefTantly, which however did them no 

Frederic Johnfon, who officiated as Gunner, on 
Turner's refuting to aft, advis'd Mr. Sergeant not to 
ihoot away the Remainder of the great Shot in the 
Fort, there being not above a Round more •, and he 
foppos'd the French muft have brought their Guns 
by Water •, if fo, he hop'd to fink their Boats *, 
which would have done more Service, than firing 
upon their Entrenchments. But the Frenchha.d found 
a Way to bring their great Guns thro' the Woods, 
and had planted them on their Battery before the 
Englijb faw them. 

The Governour fent out Francis Cave and John 
Michcm, to fee if they could obferve the Pofture of 
their Enemies -, and the Spies brought Word, 
that they had fmihYd their Battery, and mounted 
their Guns, which they faw themload. This 

The Wfiory of HudfonVBay. 

This fo diiheartned the People, that aflembling 
themfelves together, they agreed to depute the moll 
confiderable among them to go to the Governour, 
and in all their Names prefs him to make the beft 
Terms he could, and furrender the Fort. Accord- 
ingly Edward Coles, Philip Scov ell, Hugh Mitchel, 
William Arrington, William Holder, John Stephens, 
and others, came to Mr. Sergeant, and declar'd, they 
would ftand by him no longer ; alledging, 'twas lit 
vain to think they fhould be able to hold out. They 
added, If any of them mould loofe a Leg or an 
Arm, or be kill'd, they had Reafon to doubt, whe- 
ther the Company would take' Care of them,' their 
Wives, or Children, inftancing the Cafe of one Cole- 
hum j wherefore they demanded of him to capitu- 

In the mean time the French fir'd upon the Flan- 
hers-, and the Englifi, whatever the Governour com- 
manded them to the contrary, abandon'd their Pofts. 
He refus'd to beat a Parley, and threatned thofe that 
would not do their Duty. 

The Enemy's Shot had made a Breach in the 
Flankers ; and damag'd the Houfes in the Fort. Up- 
on which, and thQ repeated Defires of the Men, who 
faid, The Year would be fo far fpent, that they could 
not hope to get home, but rnuji be jiarv'd if the Fa&ory 
jhould be taken, the Governour confented to a Parley ; 
Mr. Bridger affuring him the Enemy were Mining 
them, and they fhould certainly be blown up : Cap. 
Outlaw alfo agreed to capitulate, and the white Flag 
was hung out. After which a Treaty was concluded, 
-and is as follows. 






408 The Hifiory of HudfonV Bay. 

ARTICLES agreed upon be- 
tween the Chevalier de Troyes, 
Commander in Chief of the De- 
tatchment of the Nortb-Wefi, for the 
French Company at Canada \ and 
Henry Sergeant^ Efq; Governour 
for the Englijh Company of Hud- 
fons-Bay, July 16. 1686. 

Imprimis. JT is agreed -upon to deliver up the Fort, 
* together with all the Goods belonging to 
the [aid Company, which are to be [cheduVd for the 
mutual cleat ing of us the fore-nan? d, and Satisfaction 
of all Parties. 

II. That all the Company'* Servants at Albany River 
Jball enjoy all Wearing Apparel belonging to them' 


III. That the afore] aid Henry Sergeant, Efy Go- 
vernour, Jhall enjoy and poffefs all that belongs to him- 

felfj and that his Minifier, his three Men Servants 
and Maid Servant, Jball conjiamly be permitted to re- 
main with him, and attend him. 

IV. That the Chevalier de Troyes jball convey all 
the Company'* Servants to Ciiarlton I/Land, there to 
expecl KngKih Ships for their Transportation ; and if 
Enghih Ships Jhauld not arvve, then the aforefaid 
Chevalier de Troyes is to ajjijl them with what I r e[- 
fils ike Country affords, fir their Conveyance into Ens- 

V. That the [aid Chevalier de Troyes Jball de- 
liver to the [aid Henry -Sergeant, Efc Govemour, 
or to ha Store-houje-Keeper, [uch Provifions as Jball 


" v 

The Ht/loy efHuMon's Bay. - 4°9 

he thouiht fitting and neceffary to carry them for Eng- 
\t^ if no Ship, come from thence, and ,nthe mean 
SZ'gletheJ fitch penance m M be fuffaemfor 

VI That all the Store-houfesfijallbelocVdup,andthe 
Keys deliver % to the faid Chevalier dcTroyn sUeu- 
YeZnT'Zt nothing may be in the fold Store-houfes em- 
17™ led, till the Account be taken, according to the Brjt 

Taftlv That the Govermur and all the Company's 
Servants at Albany River,Jhall come out of the Poland 
Tt^rifut^efddC^vdier deTroyesj allMen, 
theGo^eZurald his Son excepted, being Without 
Arms, which is to be forthwith. 

According the Fort was furrender'd, but tteFrench 
mtie no Smile to break fo much of the Articles a 9 
Sefcould gefany thing by ; for they plunder* Mr. 
wS all his Goods, and fent him and his Fa- 
mTfytway in a very ordinary Bark, ill fupply d 
with Sons: Such is the Honour of that Na« 

ti0 The Company, notwithftanding it appears ; very 
olain by the above-mention'd Account which was 
Wn to before Samuel Keck, |fe a Mafter m Cte- 
cerv that the Governour did all he could to defend 
th? For , us'd him at his Return to England as 
barbaroufly almoft as the French had done : ;, but 
his Maiefty was pleas'd to take him into his Ser- 
vkef which was the beft Juftification of his Con- 

dU At this time, Thomas Vhips, Efq", was Gover- 
nour of Port Nelfon, which was not then taken Thomas 
TO f French; and'the Company expected Fort ^. 
Many would have been reftor'd to them in King v ^ nm of 
w/stimc, but all their SolUcitations were in vam, Pm Nd , 
S the Settlements they had Port Nelfon ex-f n. 
cepted, were abandoned to the French. King 
Warn, in his Declaration of War uainft the« 
King, takes this particular Notice ofde Troves t i invar 

ries there, as t^ French had done in other Places. I 

£» e 

41 o The Hiftory of HudfonV Bay. 

But that the French King fbould invade our Cha- 
ribbee-Ifknds, and poffefs himfelf of our Territories 
of the Province of New- York, and Hudfon'j-Bay, 
in a hoftile manner, feizSng our Forts, burning our 
Subjetls Ships, and enriching his People with the Spoil 
of tneir Goods and Merchandises, detaining fome of 
our Subjetls under the Hardjhip of Imprifonment , cau- 
fing others to be inhumanly ki/l'd, and driving the refl 
to Sea in a fmall Veffel, are Anions not becoming even 
an Emmy , and yet he wasfo far from declaring himfelf 
Jo, that at that very time he was negotiating here in 
England by his Minifhrs a Treaty of Neutrality and 
good Correfpondence in America. Such was King 
William's Judgment of his Fraud and Violence, 
which his Predeceflbr, with an unparallel'd Compla- 
cency, excus'd. 

The War breaking out, as has been faid, between 

the two Nations, the Hudfons-Bay Company follici- 

ted for Soldiers to be fent thither to recover their 

Settlements-, and in the Year i6 9? . they retook all 

L- the Forts and Faaories, which the French had 

taken from them in time of Peace. 

John In which Expedition they met with no more 

Knight, Difficulties than the Chevalier de Troyes had met 

E IV> Gc ' with. Cap. Orinnir/gton was the Perfon employ'd 

vemour offer this Service ; and John Knight, Ei'a, was appoint- 

FortM- e£ j Governour of Fort Albany : Bur his Government 

P an y» was of no long Continuance ; for in a little time the 

French fent fuch a Power againft the Englijh, that 

they again drove them from all their Settlements 

in the Bottom of the Bay. 

The French Company made Monfieur de la 
fores Governour of Fort Albany, and garrifon'd 
all the Forts they had taken :, which made it ne- 
ceilary for the Government to lend a ftronger 
Power than the Company could raife to recover 

The King of England, to proteft their Trade, 
aflign'd them two Men of War for their Ser- 
yice, in the Year 1595". as the Bonaventure y Cap, 
Allen Commander, and the Seaford. 

Cap. Allen r coming into the River Hayes, fent 

to fummon all the Forts to furrender \ and the 

French Governour finding he could not defend 

... them 



The Hiftorj of Hudfotf* Bay. 4" 

them againft the Englijh, capitulated, and on the 
id of Augufl, 1696. furrender'd Albany Fort, upon 
certain Articles % the Chief of which were, That 
all thofe in the Fort, as well French as Indians, and 
ene EngUftiman, the Governour s Servant, fhould 
have their Lives and Liberties, and that no Harm 
cr Violence fhould be done to their Perfons, or any 
thing that belong d to them ; That they Jbould march 
mt with their Arms, Brums beating, Colours flying, 
Match lighted at both ends, Ball in Mouth, and 
carry with them the two Guns they brought from 
France ; That they fliould all embark with their Cloaths 
and Goods, without being vifited or pillag'd in any 
thing ; and if they met with any French V"ffels, 
there Jhould • be a Truce between the Englifh and 
them ; and the faid French feffels Jhould be per- 
mitted to take aboard the Terfons that came out of 
the faid Fort, with all that belonged to them, Thefe 
Conditions were a little too honourable to grant, 
but not to be comply 'd with. 

Cap. Allen took the Governour, and fome of 
his Men, aboard his own Ship ', fome he put a- 
board the Seaford, and the reft aboard a Merchant- 
Man, call'd the Bering. 

In his Return, he fought the Mary Rofe Frigat, 
then a French Privateer of 50 Guns, and was kilfd 
in the Engagement, which gave the Frenchman an 
Opportunity to bear away. 

As to the other two Forts, they follow'd the Fate 
of Albany, and Mr. Knight was reftor'd to his Go- 
vernment. At which time, John Geyer, Efq-, was j h n 
Governour of Port Nelfon. Mr. Knight had ferv'd Geyer, 
Mr. Sergeant while he was Governour of Fort Albany, Efy Go- 
and was well acquainted with the Trade. vtrnour of 

In the Year 1^7. the Hampfhire Frigat, and-P^ Nel- 
Owners Love Fire-fhip, two of the King's Ships, fon ' 
were loft in this Bay, and all the Men drown'd. 
Indeed the Ice renders it fo dangerous, that the 
Commerce feems not to be worth the Risk that 
is run for it. Whether thofe two Ships ran a- 
gainft thofe frozen Mountains that float in that 
Sea, or founder'd, is not known -, but 'tis cer- 
tain, they were loft, and that all the Men pe- 







The Hiftory of Hudfon'i Bay. 
The Trade to this Bay has decreas'd, ever fince 
the ufe of Beavers has fatten off in England. Peltry 
is not now the Commodity it was, and this Com- 
pany of Confequence does not make the Figure they 

di 1n It ££?W& they loft Port Neljon to tte 
French ; and have either given up, or deferted all 
their Settlements, except Fort Albany \ where Mr. 
Knight manag'd their Affairs, till the Year i 7 »#. 
when he was fucceeded by 

John Fullerton, Efq', the prefent Governour at 
Albany River. 

the End of the ¥ir$ Volume.